Timeline of the Jurchens

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Jin dynasty (1115-1234) Jurchen Jin Circuits.png
Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
Mongol Conquest of Jin (1211-1234) Conquest of Jin.png
Mongol Conquest of Jin (1211–1234)
Ethnic map of northeast Asia prior to Manchu unification (early 17th century) Major Mongol and Jurchen rulers.png
Ethnic map of northeast Asia prior to Manchu unification (early 17th century)

This is a timeline of the Jurchens.

Contents

8th century

YearDateEvent
748 Jurchens are mentioned for the first time bearing tribute to the Tang court [1]

10th century

YearDateEvent
900 Hanpu of the Wanyan clan is recorded to have lived around this time [2]
907 27 FebruaryKhitan chieftain Abaoji, also known as Emperor Taizu of Liao, becomes khagan of the Khitans [3]
925 A Jurchen embassy bears tribute to the Later Tang court [1]
960 FebruaryZhao Kuangyin declares himself Emperor Taizu of Song, replacing Later Zhou [4]
961 Jurchens bear tribute to the Song dynasty [1]
973 Jurchens raid Liao dynasty [5]
976 Jurchens raid Liao dynasty [5]
986 Jurchens prevent Goryeo from expanding into the Yalu River basin [6]
991 Khitans attempt to prevent the Jurchens from contacting the Song dynasty by erecting palisades to block the land route [2]
994-996 Goryeo builds forts in Jurchen territory south of the Yalu River [7]

11th century

YearDateEvent
1010 Second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War : Jurchens ally with Goryeo in a conflict against the Khitans and emerge victorious [2]
1038 10 NovemberLi Yuanhao declares himself Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia [8]
1051 Goryeo repels a Jurchen attack and beheads 20 people [9]
1056 Goryeo repels a Jurchen attack and wipes out 20 villages that made up their base [9]
1074 Wugunai of the Wanyan clan unites the Jurchens of eastern and northern Manchuria and is succeeded by his son, Wanyan Helibo [10]
1080 Munjong of Goryeo leads a force of 30,000 into Jurchen territory and conquers ten villages [11]
1092 Wanyan Helibo is succeeded by his brother Wanyan Polashu
1094 Wanyan Polashu is succeeded by his brother Wanyan Yingge

12th century

1100s

YearDateEvent
1103 Wanyan Yingge is succeeded by his nephew Wanyan Wuyashu [10]
1104 Wanyan clan enters Goryeo territory in pursuit of enemy tribes and defeat Lim Gan, taking Chongju castle [12] [11]
1107 Goryeo invasion led by Yun Gwan into Jurchen territory succeeds and builds Nine Fortresses in the area [13] [14] [15]
1108 Goryeo returns the Nine Fortresses region to the Wanyan clan, possibly in exchange for Poju (Uiju); Yun Gwan is removed from office [14] [16]

1110s

YearDateEvent
1113 Wanyan Wuyashu is succeeded by his brother Wanyan Aguda [17]
1114 Wanyan Aguda attacks the Liao dynasty [18]
1115 spring Wanyan Aguda declares himself emperor of the Jin dynasty, named after the Ashi River, the "Golden River" [17]
1116 Gao Yongchang rebels against the Liao dynasty and asks the Jurchens for help and ends up getting annexed by the Jin dynasty [19]
1117 Emperor Taizu of Jin defeats the Khitan army of the Liao dynasty [19]
1118 Emperor Taizu of Jin captures the Liao dynasty's Eastern Capital [20]

1120s

YearDateEvent
1120 Emperor Taizu of Jin captures the Liao dynasty's Supreme Capital [21]
1121 Emperor Taizu of Jin captures the Liao dynasty's Central Capital [22]
1122 Jin dynasty conquers the Western Capital and Southern Capital [22]
1123 Yelü Dashi is captured by the Jin dynasty and leads an attack on Emperor Tianzuo of Liao, who escapes; afterwards Yelü Dashi escapes from the Jurchens and rejoins the emperor [23]
Zhang Jue rebels in Ping Prefecture and defects to the Song dynasty but the Jin dynasty immediately retaliates and crushes his army; Zhang Jue is executed by the Song as reconciliation towards the Jin [24]
19 September Emperor Taizu of Jin dies and is succeeded by his brother Wuqimai, who becomes Emperor Taizong of Jin [25]
1124 Emperor Tianzuo of Liao attacks the Jin dynasty despite warnings from Yelü Dashi [23]
Jin dynasty vassalizes the Western Xia [25]
1125 26 March Emperor Tianzuo of Liao is captured by the Jin dynasty; so ends the Liao dynasty [23]
November Jin dynasty invades the Song dynasty and occupies Shanxi and Hebei [24]
1126 31 January Jin army lays siege to Kaifeng [26] - earliest recorded use of thunderclap bombs [27]
5 March Jin army retreats from Kaifeng after the Song dynasty promises to pay an annual indemnity [26]
summer Jin dynasty vassalizes Goryeo [28]
June Jin dynasty defeats two Song armies [26]
December Jin army returns with fire arrows and gunpowder bombs and lays siege to Kaifeng [26] [29]
1127 9 January Jingkang incident : Kaifeng falls to the Jin dynasty and emperors Qinzong and Huizong are captured; territory north of the Huai River is annexed by the Jin [28] - earliest recorded use of "molten metal bombs", suspected to contain gunpowder [29]
1129 Former Song official Liu Yu is enthroned as emperor of the Jin puppet state of Qi [30]
Yelü Dashi annexes two Jin tribes [31]

1130s

YearDateEvent
1132 Siege of De'an : Jin dynasty fails to capture De'an - earliest recorded use of the fire lance [32] [33] [34]
1134 Yelü Dashi launches an invasion of the Jin dynasty, which ends in failure [35]
1135 9 February Emperor Taizong of Jin dies and Hela, a grandson of Emperor Taizu of Jin, succeeds him as Emperor Xizong of Jin [36]
Jin puppet state Qi captures Xiangyang [36]
Yue Fei of the Song dynasty retaliates and recaptures much of the lost territory [36]
1137 The Jin puppet state of Qi is dissolved and Liu Yu is sent off to live out his life under supervised retirement [36]
Khitans raid Jin dynasty [37]

1140s

YearDateEvent
1140 Yue Fei launches a successful attack against the Jin and makes considerable territorial gains, but is forced to withdraw by Emperor Gaozong of Song [38]
1142 October Song and Jin agree to the Treaty of Shaoxing which stipulates that the Song must pay Jin an annual indemnity; the Huai River is settled as the boundary between the two states [39] [38]
1146 Khabul Khan of the Khamag Mongols rebels against the Jin dynasty [40]

1150s

YearDateEvent
1150 9 January Emperor Xizong of Jin is murdered by his cousin, Wanyan Liang, who ascends the Jin throne as "Prince of Hailing" [41]
1152 The Prince of Hailing relocates to the Central Capital [42]
1153 The Jin dynasty starts issuing paper money called jiaochao ('exchange notes') [43]
1157 The Prince of Hailing orders the destruction of palace structures in the Supreme Capital [42]

1160s

YearDateEvent
1161 Khitans rebel against the Jin dynasty [44]
27 OctoberThe Prince of Hailing's cousin Wulu is proclaimed Emperor Shizong of Jin in a coup [45]
16 November Battle of Tangdao : A Song fleet sinks a Jin fleet off the shore of Shandong peninsula - earliest recorded use of fire arrows in naval combat [46]
26–27 November Battle of Caishi : Song treadmill boats sink a Jin fleet on the Yangtze - earliest recorded use of thunderclap bombs in ship combat [46]
15 DecemberThe Prince of Hailing is murdered by a group of officers [45]
1163 The Khitan rebellion is defeated by the Jin dynasty [44]
1165 Song and Jin conclude a peace treaty [47]

1170s

YearDateEvent
1175 Naimans and Kankalis submit to the Jin dynasty [48]

1180s

YearDateEvent
1189 20 January Emperor Shizong of Jin dies and his grandson Madage succeeds him as Emperor Zhangzong of Jin [49]

1190s

YearDateEvent
1190 The Tatars declare independence from the Jin dynasty [50]
1192 Jin dynasty starts constructing fortifications in the northwest to prevent depredations by the Mongols [51]
1196 Jin and Mongol troops carry out a punitive expedition against the Tatars [50]
1194 The Yellow River changes course and causes mass devastation to surrounding regions [49]

13th century

1200s

YearDateEvent
1204 Song forces start showing military aggression along the Jin border [52]
1206 springKokochu, also known as Teb Tengri, chief shaman of the Mongols, bestows upon Temüjin the title of Genghis Khan, "Oceanic Ruler" of the Mongol Empire, at the kurultai of Burkhan Khaldun, sacred mountain of the Mongols [53]
20 June Song dynasty declares war on Jin dynasty [52]
DecemberThe governor-general of Sichuan, Wu Xi, defects to the Jin dynasty [54]
1207 29 March Song loyalists kill Wu Xi [54]
Song forces slaughter a Jin camp, killing 2000 men and 800 horses - earliest recorded use of thunderclap bombs in open combat [55]
April Song and Jin enter a stalemate [54]
1208 2 November Song and Jin agree to a peace renewing the Song's tributary relationship with the Jin [56]
29 December Emperor Zhangzong of Jin dies and his uncle, Wanyan Yongji, takes the Jin throne and becomes "Prince Shao of Wei" [57]

1210s

YearDateEvent
1210 Genghis Khan breaks off tributary relations with the Jin dynasty [50]
1211 October Battle of Yehuling : Genghis Khan invades the Jin dynasty and defeats their army before retreating [58]
1212 autumn Mongols attack the Jin dynasty [58]
Yelü Liuge along with his Khitan followers in northern and central Manchuria defect to the Mongols [59]
1213 spring Mongols break through the Juyong Pass and plunder Hebei, Shandong, and Shanxi [58]
11 September Prince Shao of Wei is murdered by the general Hushahu, who installs the previous ruler's nephew Wudubu as Emperor Xuanzong of Jin [58]
1214 winter Mongols blockade the Central Capital but retreat after peace negotiations [58]
Emperor Xuanzong of Jin relocates to the Southern Capital [60]
Yang Anguo rebels against the Jin dynasty in Shandong and is crushed [61]
Jin troops attack Yelü Liuge but fails [59]
1215 spring Jurchen general Wannu declares independence and the state of Dazhen at the Supreme Capital [59]
31 May Battle of Zhongdu : Mongols return and capture the Central Capital [60]
"Red Coat" rebels rise up in Shandong [61]
1217 Jin dynasty invades Song dynasty but is repelled [62]
Western Xia invades Jin dynasty but is repelled [62]

1220s

YearDateEvent
1221 Jin troops take Qi Prefecture - earliest recorded use of iron casing bombs [63]
1224 14 January Emperor Xuanzong of Jin dies and his son Ningjiasu succeeds him as Emperor Aizong of Jin [64]
Song and Jin cease hostilities [64]
1225 Jin and Western Xia cease hostilities [64]
1227 September Emperor Mozhu of Western Xia surrenders to the Mongol Empire and is promptly executed; so ends the Western Xia [65]

1230s

YearDateEvent
1230 Ögedei Khan of the Mongol Empire renews the invasion of the Jin dynasty [66]
1231 Jin troops destroy a Mongol warship - earliest recorded use of thunder crash bombs [67]
1232 8 April Mongol siege of Kaifeng : Mongol general Subutai lays siege to Kaifeng - earliest recorded use of reusable fire lances [67]
1233 Emperor Aizong of Jin flees Kaifeng [68]
29 May Mongol siege of Kaifeng : Kaifeng surrenders to the Mongols [68]
Mongols annex the state of Dazhen and take Wannu prisoner [62]
1234 9 February Siege of Caizhou : Emperor Aizong of Jin abdicates to a distant relative, Hudun, who becomes Emperor Mo of Jin, and commits suicide; Emperor Mo of Jin is killed by the Mongols; so ends the Jin dynasty [68]

1280s

YearDateEvent
1287 Hand cannons are employed by the troops of Yuan Jurchen commander Li Ting in putting down a rebellion by Mongol prince Nayan. [69]

15th century

1400s

YearDateEvent
1403December Akhachu of the Jianzhou Jurchens accepts the Ming proposition to establish a guard in his region [70]
1404 Mentemu of the Left Jianzhou Jurchens pays tribute to Joseon [71]
1405 Mentemu of the Left Jianzhou Jurchens pays tribute to the Ming dynasty [71]

1410s

YearDateEvent
1411 Ming dynasty sends Yishiha into Manchuria to create the Nurgan Regional Military Commission [72]
1413 Yongning Temple Stele : Ming dynasty sends Yishiha to the Nurgan Regional Military Commission to create postal stations and spread Buddhism [73]
1417A Ming Prefectural Buddhist Registry is founded in Jianzhou [73]

1420s

YearDateEvent
1426 Ming dynasty sends Yishiha to the Wild Jurchens to construct shipyards and warehouses [73]

1430s

YearDateEvent
1432 Ming dynasty sends Yishiha to present seals to Ming-allied Jurchens and to repair the Yongning Temple [73]
1433 Mentemu of the Left Jianzhou Guard dies [74]
1434 Joseon defeats Li Manzhu of Jianzhou Jurchens [74]
1437 Joseon defeats Li Manzhu of Jianzhou Jurchens [74]

1440s

YearDateEvent
1442 Fanca becomes leader of the Right Jianzhou Guard while Dongshan becomes leader of the Left Jianzhou Guard [75]

1460s

YearDateEvent
1466The Ming execute Dongshan [76]
1467A Ming-Joseon expedition defeats the Jianzhou Jurchens and kill Li Manzhu [76]

1470s

YearDateEvent
1470The governor of Liaodong, Chen Yue, attacks the Jurchens and demands bribes from Jurchen embassies [76]

1480s

YearDateEvent
1480 Ming dynasty ceases hostile relations with the Jurchens [76]

16th century

1520s

YearDateEvent
1522 Ming dynasty reimposes trade restrictions on the Jurchens [77]

1540s

YearDateEvent
1548The Hulun Confederation is formed under Wang Tai, chieftain of the Hada tribe [78]

1570s

YearDateEvent
1570 Wang Gao of the Jianzhou Guard raids Ming settlements [77]
1574 Li Chengliang kills Wang Gao with the help of Giocangga and Taksi [77]

1580s

YearDateEvent
1582 Li Chengliang defeats Atai, son of Wang Gao, and burns his fort to the ground, also inadvertently killing Giocangga, whose son Taksi is killed by Ming forces in the confusion [77]
1583 Nurhaci becomes leader of the "Jianzhou Left Guard" from Li Chengliang [79]
1587 Nurhaci founds Fe Ala [80]
1589 Nurhaci obtains the title of assistant commissioner-in-chief from the Ming dynasty [81]

1590s

YearDateEvent
1592 Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) : Nurhaci offers to fight the Japanese but is refused; Ming reacts with alarm to the size and quality of Nurhaci's troops [82]
1593 Battle of Gure : Nurhaci defeats the Hulun Confederation and Khorchin Mongols [83]
1595 Nurhaci obtains the title of dragon-tiger general from the Ming dynasty [84]

17th century

1600s

YearDateEvent
1600 Nurhaci creates the Banner Army [85]
1601 Nurhaci subjugates the Hada [86]
1603 Nurhaci and Ming generals agree to delineate the boundary between their territories [87]
Nurhaci moves his capital to Hetu Ala due to water problems at Fe Ala [88]
1605 Gwanghaegun of Joseon sends an expedition north of the Tumen River to destroy the Jurchen Holjaon community [86]
1607 Nurhaci subjugates the Hoifa [86]

1610s

YearDateEvent
1611 Nurhaci subjugates the Wild Jurchens [89]
1613 Nurhaci incorporates the Ula into his confederation [90]
1615 Nurhaci increases the number of banners from four to eight [90]
Nurhaci sends his last tributary emissary to Beijing [91]
1616 Nurhaci establishes the Later Jin dynasty and rules as Khan [92]
16187 May Nurhaci announces the Seven Grievances which effectively declares war against the Ming dynasty
9 May Battle of Fushun : Later Jin seizes Fushun [93]
summer Battle of Qinghe : Later Jin takes Qinghe [94]
161918 April Battle of Sarhū : Ming forces are annihilated by Later Jin [95]
26 July Battle of Kaiyuan : Later Jin takes Kaiyuan [96]
3 September Battle of Tieling : Later Jin takes Tieling [96]
September Battle of Xicheng : Later Jin annexes the Yehe Jurchens [97]
Chahar-Jurchen War : Ligdan Khan attacks Guangning, a horse trading town under the protection of Nurhaci, but is defeated [98]

1620s

YearDateEvent
16214 May Battle of Shen-Liao : Later Jin seizes Shenyang [99]
December Battle of Fort Zhenjiang : Ming raids into Later Jin are repulsed [100]
162211 March Battle of Guangning : Later Jin seizes Guangning [100]
1625 Chahar-Jurchen War : Ligdan Khan's attack is turned back by a combined Khorchin Jurchen force [101]
162610 February Battle of Ningyuan : A Later Jin attack on Ningyuan is repulsed and Nurhaci is wounded [102]
30 September Nurhaci succumbs to his wounds and dies [103]
1627January - March Later Jin invasion of Joseon : Hong Taiji is elected khan and subjugates Joseon [104]
spring Battle of Ning-Jin : Later Jin forces under Hong Taiji attack Jinzhou but are repelled [105]
1629winter Jisi Incident : Later Jin forces break through the Great Wall and loot the region around Beijing [106]

1630s

YearDateEvent
1630summer Jisi Incident : Later Jin forces retreat [106]
163121 November Battle of Dalinghe : Later Jin seizes Dalinghe [107]
1633April Wuqiao Mutiny : Shandong rebels defect to Later Jin [108]
summer Siege of Lüshun : Later Jin seizes Lüshun [109]
1634 Chahar-Jurchen War : Ligdan Khan of the Chahar Mongols is overthrown and displaced by Hong Taiji, who takes the Imperial Seal of the Mongols [110]
1635 Hong Taiji unites all Jurchen tribes under the name of Manchu; so ends the Jurchens [104]

See also

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Bibliography