1080

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1080 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1080
MLXXX
Ab urbe condita 1833
Armenian calendar 529
ԹՎ ՇԻԹ
Assyrian calendar 5830
Balinese saka calendar 1001–1002
Bengali calendar 487
Berber calendar 2030
English Regnal year 14  Will. 1   15  Will. 1
Buddhist calendar 1624
Burmese calendar 442
Byzantine calendar 6588–6589
Chinese calendar 己未(Earth  Goat)
3776 or 3716
     to 
庚申年 (Metal  Monkey)
3777 or 3717
Coptic calendar 796–797
Discordian calendar 2246
Ethiopian calendar 1072–1073
Hebrew calendar 4840–4841
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1136–1137
 - Shaka Samvat 1001–1002
 - Kali Yuga 4180–4181
Holocene calendar 11080
Igbo calendar 80–81
Iranian calendar 458–459
Islamic calendar 472–473
Japanese calendar Jōryaku 4
(承暦4年)
Javanese calendar 984–985
Julian calendar 1080
MLXXX
Korean calendar 3413
Minguo calendar 832 before ROC
民前832年
Nanakshahi calendar −388
Seleucid era 1391/1392 AG
Thai solar calendar 1622–1623
Tibetan calendar 阴土羊年
(female Earth-Goat)
1206 or 825 or 53
     to 
阳金猴年
(male Iron-Monkey)
1207 or 826 or 54
Rudolf of Rheinfelden loses his arm in combat during the Battle on the Elster. Rudolf von Schwaben.jpg
Rudolf of Rheinfelden loses his arm in combat during the Battle on the Elster.

Year 1080 ( MLXXX ) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeric system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

A leap year starting on Wednesday is any year with 366 days that begins on Wednesday, 1 January, and ends on Thursday, 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are ED, such as the years 1908, 1936, 1964, 1992, 2020, 2048, 2076, and 2116 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2004 and 2032 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Monday, Wednesday or Thursday has two Friday the 13ths. This leap year contains two Friday the 13ths in March and November. Common years starting on Thursday share this characteristic, but also have another in February.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

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Byzantine Empire

Nikephoros Melissenos, Latinized as Nicephorus Melissenus, was a Byzantine general and aristocrat. Of distinguished lineage, he served as a governor and general in the Balkans and Asia Minor in the 1060s. In the turbulent period after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, when several generals tried to seize the throne for themselves, Melissenos remained loyal to Michael VII Doukas and was exiled by his successor Nikephoros III Botaneiates. In 1080–1081, with Turkish aid, he seized control of what remained of Byzantine Asia Minor and proclaimed himself emperor against Botaneiates. After the revolt of his brother-in-law Alexios I Komnenos, however, which succeeded in taking Constantinople, he submitted to him, accepting the rank of Caesar and the governance of Thessalonica. He remained loyal to Alexios thereafter, participating in most Byzantine campaigns of the period 1081–1095 in the Balkans at the emperor's side. He died on 17 November 1104.

Anatolia Asian part of Turkey

Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Europe

January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 338 days remaining until the end of the year.

The Battle of Flarcheim was fought between German king Henry IV and the German anti-king Rudolf of Swabia on January 27, 1080 near Flarchheim.

Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Henry IV became King of the Germans in 1056. From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was also referred to as the King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor. He was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century. His reign was marked by the Investiture Controversy with the Papacy, and he was excommunicated five times by three different popes. Civil wars over his throne took place in both Italy and Germany. He died of illness, soon after defeating his son's army near Visé, in Lorraine, France.

England

May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 231 days remaining until the end of the year.

William Walcher was the bishop of Durham from 1071, a Lotharingian, the first non-Englishman to hold that see and an appointee of William the Conqueror following the Harrying of the North. He was murdered in 1080, which led William to send an army into Northumbria to harry the region again.

Diocese of Durham Church of England diocese

The Diocese of Durham is a Church of England diocese, based in Durham, and covering the historic County Durham. It was created in AD 635 as the Diocese of Lindisfarne. The cathedral is Durham Cathedral and the bishop is the Bishop of Durham who used to live at Auckland Castle, Bishop Auckland, and still has his office there. The diocese's administrative centre, the Diocesan Office, is located at Cuthbert House, Stonebridge just outside Durham City. This was opened in 2015.

Armenia

Ruben I, Prince of Armenia Prince of Armenia

Ruben I,, also Roupen I or Rupen I, was the first lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains”. He declared the independence of Cilicia from the Byzantine Empire, thus formally founding the beginning of Armenian rule there. The Roupenian dynasty ruled Cilician Armenia until 1219.

Cilicia ancient region of Anatolia

In antiquity, Cilicia was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire. Extending inland from the southeastern coast of modern Turkey, Cilicia is due north and northeast of the island of Cyprus and corresponds to the modern region of Çukurova in Turkey.

Africa

Almoravid dynasty Medieval Berber dynasty in Spain and northern Africa

The Almoravid dynasty was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb and Al-Andalus. Founded by Abdallah ibn Yasin, the Almoravid capital was Marrakesh, a city the ruling house founded in 1062. The dynasty originated among the Lamtuna and the Gudala, nomadic Berber tribes of the Sahara, traversing the territory between the Draa, the Niger, and the Senegal rivers.

Yusuf ibn Tashfin King of Almoravid

Yusuf ibn Tashfin also, Tashafin, Teshufin; or Yusuf was leader of the Berber Moroccan Almoravid empire. He co-founded the city of Marrakesh and led the Muslim forces in the Battle of Zallaqa/Sagrajas. Ibn Tashfin came to al-Andalus from Africa to help the Muslims fight against Alfonso VI, eventually achieving victory and promoting an Islamic system in the region. He was married to Zainab al-Nafzawiyya, whom he reportedly trusted politically.

Tangier City in Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima, Morocco

Tangier is a major city in northwestern Morocco. It is on the Maghreb coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Mediterranean Sea meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel. The town is the capital of the Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima region, as well as the Tangier-Assilah prefecture of Morocco.

China

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1078 Year

Year 1078 (MLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

The 1080s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1080, and ended on December 31, 1089.

1058 Year

Year 1058 (MLVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

961 Year

Year 961 (CMLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1015 Year

Year in topic Year 1015 (MXV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1018 Year

Year 1018 (MXVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

1050 Year

Year 1050 (ML) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

1025 Year

Year 1025 (MXXV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

1081 Year

Year 1081 (MLXXXI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

965 Year

Year 965 (CMLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

960 Year

Year 960 (CMLX) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Rudolf of Rheinfelden German anti-king

Rudolf of Rheinfelden was Duke of Swabia from 1057 to 1079. Initially a follower of his brother-in-law, the Salian emperor Henry IV, his election as German anti-king in 1077 marked the outbreak of the Great Saxon Revolt and the first phase of open conflict in the Investiture Controversy between Emperor and Papacy. After a series of armed conflicts, Rudolf succumbed to his injuries after his forces defeated Henry's in the Battle on the Elster.

Hermann of Salm German anti-king

Herman(n) of Salm, also known as Herman(n) of Luxembourg, the progenitor of the House of Salm, was Count of Salm and elected German anti-king from 1081 until his death.

Berthold II, Duke of Swabia Duke of Swabia

Berthold II, also known as Berchtold II, was the Duke of Swabia from 1092 to 1098. After he conceded the Duchy of Swabia to the Staufer in 1098, the title of "Duke of Zähringen" was created for him, in use from c. 1100 and continued by his successors until 1218.

Great Saxon Revolt

The Great Saxon Revolt was a civil war between 1077 and 1088 early in the history of the Holy Roman Empire led by a group of opportunistic German princes who elected as their figurehead the duke of Swabia and anti-king Rudolf of Rheinfeld, a two-way brother-in-law of the young Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. It followed the Saxon Rebellion of 1073–75.

Adelaide of Rheinfelden, was Queen Consort of Hungary by marriage to King Ladislaus I of Hungary.

References

  1. Brian Todd Carey (2012). Road to Manzikert: Byzantine and Islamic Warfare (527–1071), p. 158. ISBN   978-1-84884-215-1.
  2. 1 2 John France. Victory in the East (Book extract). Godfrey was almost certainly present in support of Henry IV at the battle of Elster in 1080 (sic 1085... an error or typo), when the forces of the anti-king Rudolf triumphed on the field only to see their victory nullified because Rudolf was killed.
  3. Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, pp. 113–114. ISBN   0-304-35730-8.
  4. Picard C. (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident au Moyen Age. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  5. Herbert Edward John Cowdrey (1998). Pope Gregory VII, 1073–1085, pp. 201–202 (Oxford University Press).