Twitch (Ministry album)

Last updated
Twitch
Ministry twitch.jpeg
Studio album by
ReleasedMarch 12, 1986
Recorded1985
Studio
Genre EBM
Electro-industrial
Industrial dance
Label Sire
Producer
Ministry chronology
With Sympathy
(1983)
Twitch
(1986)
Twelve Inch Singles (1981–1984)
(1987)
Singles from Twitch
  1. "Over the Shoulder"
    Released: November 1985
Professional ratings
Review scores
SourceRating
AllMusic Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svgStar empty.svg [1]
Encyclopedia of Popular Music Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svgStar empty.svg [2]
MusicHound RockStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svgStar empty.svg [3]
Musician positive [4]
Robert Christgau B- [5]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide Star full.svgStar full.svgStar half.svgStar empty.svgStar empty.svg [6]
Spin Alternative Record Guide 6 / 10 [7]

Twitch [nb 1] is the second studio album by American rock band Ministry, released on March 12, 1986 by Sire Records. Recorded mostly in London and West Berlin during 1985, it was produced by the band's frontman Al Jourgensen and On-U Sound Records owner Adrian Sherwood. It stepped away from the synthpop-oriented form of their debut studio album With Sympathy (1983) and moved toward a darker, more aggressive sound, heavily influenced by industrial dance groups Cabaret Voltaire and Front 242.

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew heavily on the genres of blues, rhythm and blues, and from country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass, drums, and one or more singers. Usually, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political.

Ministry (band) American industrial metal band

Ministry is an American rock band founded in 1981 by Al Jourgensen in Chicago, Illinois. Originally a synth-pop outfit, Ministry's sound changed as they became one of the pioneers of industrial metal in the late 1980s. The band's lineup has frequently changed throughout its history, with the exception of Jourgensen who is the band's main producer, singer, songwriter, and instrumentalist. Notable musicians who have contributed to the band's studio or live activities include Paul Barker, Martin Atkins, Bill Rieflin, Chris Connelly, Nivek Ogre, Mike Scaccia, Rey Washam, Paul Raven, Tommy Victor, Roy Mayorga, John Bechdel, Jason Christopher, Tony Campos, Burton C. Bell and DJ Swamp.

Sire Records is an American record label that is owned by Warner Music Group and distributed by Warner Bros. Records.

Contents

Preceded by "Over the Shoulder", with an accompanying video directed by Peter Christopherson, the album was supported by a concert tour of North America, which was the first to feature Paul Barker and Bill Rieflin in the line-up, playing bass guitar and drums, respectively. The album was released to mixed reviews.

Peter Christopherson English musician

Peter Martin Christopherson was a musician, video director, commercial artist, designer and photographer, and former member of British design agency Hipgnosis.

Paul Gordon Barker, also referred to as Hermes Pan, is the former bass guitarist, producer and engineer of the industrial metal band Ministry from 1986 to 2003. Prior to Ministry, Barker provided bass for the Seattle post-punk ensemble The Blackouts alongside future Ministry drummer Bill Rieflin and his brother, one-time Ministry touring keyboardist/saxophonist Roland Barker, from 1979 until 1985.

William Frederick "Bill" Rieflin is an American musician.

Background and production

Shortly after touring in support of Ministry's debut album, With Sympathy , Al Jourgensen parted ways with Arista Records, and returned with the band to Wax Trax! Records as of mid-1984. [8] In that year's Autumn, Ministry embarked on the tour of the East Coast with Belgian industrial dance band Front 242 as a supporting act; [9] :645 [10] according to various accounts, Jourgensen began working on new music either during that tour or the same time With Sympathy was recorded. [11] [12] [8] In his 2013 autobiography, Ministry: The Lost Gospels..., Jourgensen said that, during an aforementioned tour, Seymour Stein had attended several gigs trying to offer the band a new deal with his record label Sire Records, a Warner Bros. Records subsidiary. As various accounts state, Jourgensen declined an offer, recalling his experience with Arista, but eventually volunteered, setting conditions that Sire would give Jourgensen complete creative control over his work, and would give resources to buy a Fairlight CMI synthesizer, and also to support the Wax Trax! imprint; as Jourgensen put it in 2013, "it was kind of a personal sacrifice to keep that company rolling and allow them to keep signing bands." [13] By Summer 1985, Ministry released several non-albums singles on Wax Trax!: “All Day”, “(Every Day Is) Halloween”, and “The Nature of Love”, [14] [15] before getting signed to Sire. [16] By this point, Jourgensen remained the only official member of Ministry. [17] [18]

<i>With Sympathy</i> 1983 studio album by Ministry

With Sympathy is the debut studio album by American rock band Ministry, released on February 10, 1983 by Arista Records. The group was formed in 1981 by lead singer and multi-instrumentalist Al Jourgensen, with drummer Stephen George being the most notable member of its initial lineup.

Al Jourgensen musician

Allen David Jourgensen is a Cuban-American singer-songwriter, musician and music producer. Closely related with the independent record label Wax Trax! Records, Jourgensen has an active musical career that spans four decades, and is best known as the frontman of the industrial rock band Ministry, which he founded in 1981 and of which he remains the only constant member. He was also primary musician of several Ministry-related projects, such as Revolting Cocks, Lard, Buck Satan and the 666 Shooters. He has also produced and/or recorded with numerous other artists, including The Reverend Horton Heat, Prong, Skinny Puppy, Front Line Assembly, The Blackouts, Alan Vega, Iggy Pop, Adrian Sherwood, Jello Biafra and others. Jourgensen is regarded as being one of the most prominent figures of industrial music,</ref> influencing numerous other groups and musicians, both in alternative and industrial-associated acts.

Arista Records, Inc. is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment and previously handled by Bertelsmann Music Group. The label was founded in 1974 by Clive Davis, who formerly worked for Columbia Records. Until its demise in 2011, it was a major distributor and promoter of albums throughout the United States and the United Kingdom. Today, the label's reissues and catalogue releases are handled by RCA Records and Legacy Recordings.

Stein subsequently employed On-U Sound Records owner Adrian Sherwood as the record's principal producer, regarding his work with Depeche Mode on their 1984 singles "People Are People" and "Master and Servant". [19] [20] Jourgensen, Sherwood, and Keith LeBlanc began work in Chicago in Spring 1985, before relocating in London-based Southern Studios; [17] [9] the later sessions were held in West Berlin at Hansa Tonstudio. [19] [21] :20 [22] [23] Recalling sessions in The Lost Gospels..., Jourgensen mostly regarded Sherwood for production advice, though he expressed dislike about his experience in London, citing cultural differences and conflicts with Sherwood's friends; also he admitted that can't "feel like this one's really mine because it's so Adrian Sherwood-influenced." [24] [23]

On-U Sound Records is an English record label known for releasing its own unique flavour of dub music since the 1980s. The label was founded by Adrian Sherwood in 1979/1980 and is home to acts such as Tackhead, Dub Syndicate, African Head Charge, The London Underground, Little Annie, Creation Rebel, Mark Stewart, Gary Clail, New Age Steppers, Audio Active, Asian Dub Foundation, and the dub collective Singers & Players.

Adrian Maxwell Sherwood is an English record producer specializing in the genre of dub music. Sherwood has created a distinctive production style based on the application of dub effects and dub mixing techniques to other forms of electronic dance music and popular music outside of the genre. Sherwood has worked extensively with a variety of reggae artists as well as the musicians Keith LeBlanc, Doug Wimbish and Skip McDonald. Sherwood has remixed tracks by Coldcut, Depeche Mode, The Woodentops, Primal Scream, Pop Will Eat Itself, Sinéad O'Connor, and Skinny Puppy. Within his role as a record producer, he has worked with a variety of record labels, however his most well-known label is On-U Sound Records, which he founded in 1979. Sherwood has been a member of the band Tackhead. As someone who considers himself tone deaf, the producer focuses on making sounds and noises rather than melody.

Depeche Mode English band

Depeche Mode are an English electronic band formed in Basildon, Essex, in 1980. The group currently consists of a trio of Dave Gahan, Martin Gore, and Andy Fletcher (keyboards).


Style and composition

Musically, Twitch is more abrasive and beat-driven than preceding Ministry releases, stepping away from the pop-oriented sound of With Sympathy, and incorporating elements from the growing industrial scene of the mid-1980s instead. [25] [4] [26] [27] Various authors wrote that the album's overall sound is at times reminiscent of Ministry's contemporary acts in Europe, Cabaret Voltaire and Front 242. [nb 2] It is described as an electronica, [32] industrial, [33] and EBM/industrial dance record [34] which also contains material ascribed to the two latter genres, [31] [35] as well as dance-pop, [36] dub, [37] eurodisco, [38] [39] noise rock [40] and synthpop. [31] Jourgensen's English-accented singing, while carried over from With Sympathy, was approached with distortion effects. [39] [30] [41] Twitch was also the first Ministry record featuring use of sampling, which became one of Ministry's trademarks over the years. [1] [31] The production also features the use of white noise and distortion. [39]

Cabaret Voltaire (band) British music group

Cabaret Voltaire are an English music group formed in Sheffield in 1973 and initially composed of Stephen Mallinder, Richard H. Kirk, and Chris Watson. The group was named after the Cabaret Voltaire, the Zürich nightclub that served as a centre for the early Dada movement.

Front 242 band

Front 242 is a Belgian electronic music group that came into prominence during the 1980s. Pioneering the style they called electronic body music, they were a profound influence on the electronic and industrial music genres.

Electronica encompasses a broad group of electronic-based styles such as techno, house, ambient, jungle and other electronic music styles intended not just for dancing.

The opening track, "Just Like You", is cited by Jourgensen as his “first real political Ministry song”. [22] “We Believe” is described as a "sequencer hammerlock" [40] and has been compared to the music of Nine Inch Nails. [42] "All Day Remix" is a re-worked version of "All Day", originally the A-side from Wax Trax!'s 1985 single which included “Halloween”; drummer Stephen George and bassist Brad Hallen, who quit the band after 1984, were still credited for their contribution to the original track. [43] [44] "The Angel" features backing vocals from Jourgensen's then-wife Patty; though uncredited, their daughter Adrienne appears as a toddler in this track's intro. [45]

Nine Inch Nails American industrial rock band

Nine Inch Nails, commonly abbreviated as NIN, is an American industrial rock band formed in Cleveland, Ohio in 1988. The band consists of producer and multi-instrumentalist Trent Reznor, as well as English musician Atticus Ross. Over the course of their three-decade existence, the band has signed with several major labels, the current being Capitol Records, under the name The Null Corporation.

Stephen 'Stevo' George is a former drummer and one of the founding members of the American industrial rock band Ministry. George performed on the band's earliest recordings, including their early singles for the Wax Trax! record label, and their debut album, With Sympathy, released in 1983. He was the drummer for the short-lived pop band Colortone. Since then, George has become a successful producer and mixer, working with many pop artists who have sold gold and platinum records.

Promotion

"Over the Shoulder" single and video

The sole single from Twitch, "Over the Shoulder", was released in late November 1985, and marked Ministry's debut on Sire. [46] [47] The song is cited as an early example of electro-industrial, [48] [49] and contains multiple layers of looped synthesizer parts along with distinctive heavy drum machine pattern along with Jourgensen's weak vocal appoarch, referred to by Billboard editors as "Scritti Politti heard over the telephone." [46] [47] [50] [35] [ improper synthesis? ] In the same magazine's "Dance Trax" column, writer Brian Chin described it as “a Bee Gees satire.” [51] In the later review for the March 1986 issue of Spin Magazine , columnist John Leland praised Sherwood's work with Ministry's "typically banal ideas." [52]

The music video for "Over the Shoulder" was directed by Peter Christopherson. [nb 3] [55] [56] [57] According to Jourgensen, the director hired two kids to steal a car, then filmed it. When the band asked to film in a store, the owner refused. The director allegedly paid the same kids to break into the store and trash it, and the band asked once again. The owner, needing money to pay for cleanup, agreed. Jourgensen said, "Everything that happened on that video was criminal." [54]

In 2000, the video of "Over the Shoulder" was featured on compilation album Tapes of Wrath ; [48] [58] the song was to be featured on a 2001 compilation album Greatest Fits , but was left off due to medium limitations. [59]

Tour

Following the release of Twitch the band commenced a four-month tour through the US and Canada with a new four-piece line-up; Jourgensen approached former members of the Blackouts—Roland Barker, his brother Paul Barker and Bill Rieflin—to join the band. Both Barkers performed keyboards and bass, respectively; Rieflin joined on drums. [60] [61] Dave “Rave” Ogilvie, then producer of Canadian electro-industrial band Skinny Puppy, joined them as a sound engineer, while Frank Nardiello—future Thrill Kill Kult singer Groovie Mann—was a lighting technician. [62] [63]

Release

Twitch was released on March 12, 1986 by Sire and Warner Bros. Records. Shortly after, it entered Billboard 200 on April 4 for three weeks, peaking at No. 194. A new issue of the album was released on March 13, 1990, featuring tracks from the "Over the Shoulder" single. [64] As of February 2007, the album sold 138,755 copies in the United States. [65]

Twitched, an unauthorized 2003 release by Radioactive Records, is an allegedly alternate version of Twitch, featuring the track listing that the band is said to have intended it to have before the intervention of the record company. It includes previously unreleased alternative versions of tracks from the album. [42]

Track listing

All tracks written by Al Jourgensen.

Twitch– vinyl edition
No.TitleProductionLength
1."Just Like You" Adrian Sherwood 5:03
2."We Believe"Sherwood5:56
3."All Day Remix"
  • Jourgensen
  • Sherwood
6:03
4."The Angel"Sherwood6:06
5."Over the Shoulder"Sherwood5:13
6."My Possession"Sherwood5:05
7."Where You at Now? / Crash & Burn / Twitch (Version II)"
  • Jourgensen
  • Sherwood
12:15
Twitch– CD edition (additional tracks)
No.TitleProductionLength
8."Over the Shoulder" (12" Version)Sherwood6:46
9."Isle of Man" (Version II)Sherwood4:30

Personnel

Credits adapted from the liner notes of Twitch. [66]

Ministry

Additional personnel

Chart positions

Chart (1986)Peak
position
The Billboard 200 [67] 194

Footnotes

  1. The album was named as the reference to an amphetamine called “Wiz”, which was prevalent in Europe; Jourgensen was using it during sessions of Twitch in London, and so he did later during sessions of Revolting Cocks album Big Sexy Land in Brussels (Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 59).
  2. Various authors, writing on Ministry and Twitch in particular, considered the album's sound to be influenced by that of Cabaret Voltaire [28] [25] [29] [30] [31] and Front 242. [1]
  3. In various interviews, Jourgensen believes the director to be either Christopherson [53] or Storm Thorgerson. [54]

Related Research Articles

<i>The Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Taste</i> 1989 studio album by Ministry

The Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Taste is the fourth studio album by American industrial metal band Ministry, released on November 14, 1989 by Sire Records. The music took a more hardcore, aggressively guitar-driven direction, with Jourgensen inspired by Stormtroopers of Death and Rigor Mortis to add thrash metal guitars to the album and subsequent Ministry releases. As with most of Ministry's work, the album's lyrics deal mainly with political corruption, cultural violence, environmental degradation, nuclear war, drug addiction, and insanity.

<i>Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs</i> 1992 studio album by Ministry

ΚΕΦΑΛΗΞΘ is the fifth studio album by American industrial metal band Ministry, released on July 14, 1992 by Sire Records. It was produced by the band's official members, frontman Al Jourgensen and bassist Paul Barker, and was recorded from March 1991 to May 1992 in Chicago and Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. The album's title, initially intended to be The Tapes of Wrath, ended up being derived from Alister Crowley's The Book of Lies.

<i>The Land of Rape and Honey</i> 1988 studio album by Ministry

The Land of Rape and Honey is the third studio album by American industrial metal band Ministry, released on October 11, 1988 by Sire Records. The album marked a departure from the band's previous two synthpop and EBM records, expanding on several elements introduced in their preceding album Twitch. The less-commercial, industrial-laced collection of tracks incorporates elements of heavy metal such as fast electric guitar riffs, although only the album's first three songs use guitars extensively.

Revolting Cocks band

Revolting Cocks, also known as RevCo, are an American–Belgian industrial rock band and, sometimes, supergroup that began as a musical side-project for Richard 23 of Front 242, Luc van Acker, and Al Jourgensen of Ministry.

<i>Houses of the Molé</i> 2004 studio album by Ministry

Houses of the Molé is the ninth studio album by American industrial metal band Ministry, released on June 21, 2004 by Sanctuary Records. It is noteworthy for being the first Ministry album not to feature bassist and longtime collaborator Paul Barker since Twitch (1986). It was also the first album to feature Mike Scaccia on guitar since 1996's Filth Pig.

Luc van Acker is a Belgian singer, songwriter, and music producer. He began writing and releasing solo material in 1982, and worked with a few other bands and with Anna Domino over the next few years. Then in 1985, he met Richard 23 of Front 242 at the DNA Club in Brussels, Belgium, and thereby became a founding member of Revolting Cocks with Ministry's Al Jourgensen.

<i>Early Trax</i> 2004 compilation album by Ministry

Early Trax is a compilation album by an American rock band Ministry, released on October 12, 2004 by Rykodisc.

Jesus Built My Hotrod 1991 single by Ministry

"Jesus Built My Hotrod" is a song by American industrial metal band Ministry, released as the first single from their fifth studio album, Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs. It was written by the band's frontman Al Jourgensen, bassist Paul Barker, drummer Bill Rieflin, session keyboardist Michael Balch, and the Butthole Surfers lead singer Gibby Haynes, and was co-produced by Jourgensen and Barker. An industrial metal track, it features elements of rockabilly and psychobilly, and is influenced by the Trashmen 1963 hit "Surfin' Bird", and Flannery O'Connor's novel Wise Blood; the song's instrumentation is defined by its polyrhythmic structure.

<i>Big Sexy Land</i> 1986 studio album by Revolting Cocks

Big Sexy Land is the debut studio album by industrial rock band Revolting Cocks, released through Wax Trax! Records in 1986. At that time the Revolting Cocks were Luc Van Acker, Richard 23 and Alain Jourgensen. This would be the only album made by the group's original incarnation.

Stigmata (song) Ministry song

"Stigmata" is a song by American industrial metal band Ministry. Written by Al Jourgensen, it is the opening track and the only single released from their third studio album, 1988’s The Land of Rape and Honey. The song features distorted vocals, guitars and compressed drum machine loops. The song was an underground hit. The music video—which was said to get a regular airing on MTV—features gritty black and white machinery, gears, symbols, the band playing live, Paul Barker on a motorcycle, strobe-like montages of eyes, and what appear to be neo-Nazi skinheads. The song was said to be Ministry's "finest moment until 1992".

Ministry discography

As of 2018, the discography of Ministry—an American rock band founded and fronted by Al Jourgensen—consists of fourteen studio albums, eight live albums, fourteen compilation and remix albums, thirty singles, five video albums and twenty music videos.

(Every Day Is) Halloween 1984 single by Ministry

"All Day" and "(Every Day Is) Halloween" are songs by American band Ministry, both written and produced by Al Jourgensen. These were originally released by Wax Trax! Records in 1984 as Ministry's “comeback” single following their departure from Arista Records, with "All Day" on the A-side and "(Every Day Is) Halloween" on the B-side, respectively. In 1987, these were included on Ministry's compilation Twelve Inch Singles (1981–1984). The remixed version of "All Day", titled “All Day Remix”, was featured on Ministry's 1986 album Twitch. “(Every Day Is) Halloween” has been featured in the 1998 Rhino Records compilation Just Can't Get Enough: New Wave Halloween.

"Thieves" is a song by American industrial metal band Ministry. It was released as the opening track from the band's fourth studio album, The Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Taste (1989), as well as the B-side from its single, "Burning Inside". The song's lyrics deal mainly with political corruption. The song includes dialogue samples from R. Lee Ermey's drill instructor character in Full Metal Jacket. Ministry's version was featured in the 1992 science fiction film Freejack, also in the 2009 video game Brütal Legend.

Cold Life 1981 song performed by Ministry

"I’m Falling" and "Cold Life" are songs by American rock band Ministry. Written by Al Jourgensen, these were first released in 1981 by Wax Trax! Records, as the band's debut single. Initially featuring "I'm Falling" as the A-side, the single found success via its B-side, "Cold Life", which was chosen as the A-side on release in the UK. In 1985, during Ministry's short-lived return on Wax Trax!, the single was reissued with "Cold Life" as the A-side.

"Over the Shoulder" is a song by American rock band Ministry, from their second studio album, Twitch (1986). Written by frontman Al Jourgensen, produced by Adrian Sherwood, and released in November 1985 as a 12-inch single, it was the band’s first recording after signing with Sire Records; the accompanying music video was directed by Peter Christopherson.

References

  1. 1 2 3
    • Esher, Alan. "Twitch - Ministry". AllMusic . All Media Network . Retrieved February 24, 2018.
      • Print version: "Ministry". All Music Guide: The Definitive Guide To Popular Music. Edited by Vladimir Bogdanov, Chris Woodstra, Stephen Thomas Erlewine. San Francisco: All Media Guide / Backbeat Books. 2001. p. 264. ISBN   0879306270 via the Internet Archive.CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. Larkin, Colin, ed. (1998). "Ministry". Encyclopedia of Popular Music . 5 (3rd ed.). Muse UK Ltd. pp. 1155–1156. ISBN   1561592374 via the Internet Archive.
  3. Christensen, Thor (1999). "Ministry". In Graff, Gary; Durchholz, Daniel (eds.). MusicHound Rock: The Essential Album Guide (loan required). Detroit: Visible Ink Press. p. 762. ISBN   978-1-57859-061-2 via the Internet Archive.
  4. 1 2 Considine, J. D. (June 1986). "Ministry: Twitch (Sire)". Short Rock Takes. Musician . No. 7 (92). p. 90. ISSN   0733-5253.
  5. "CG: Ministry". robertchristgau.com. Christgau, Robert. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  6. McLeod, Kembrew (November 2004). "Ministry". In Brackett, Nathan (ed.). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 544. ISBN   0-7432-0169-8 via Google Books.
  7. Weisbard, Eric; Marks, Craig, eds. (1995). Spin Alternative Record Guide. New York: Vintage Books. pp. 250–251. ISBN   0-679-75574-8.
  8. 1 2 Zaleski, Annie (May 10, 2018). "35 Year Ago: Ministry Release Disavowed Debut, 'With Sympathy'". Ultimate Classic Rock. Townsquare Media . Retrieved May 17, 2018.
  9. 1 2 Fontenoy, Richard (1999). "Ministry". In Buckley, Jonathan; Duane, Orla; Ellingham, Mark; Spicer, Al (eds.). Rock: The Rough Guide (2nd ed.). London, New York: Rough Guides. pp. 645–646. ISBN   1-85828-457-0 via the Internet Archive.
  10. Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 58, 75.
  11. "Interview With John Soroka". Prongs.org. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
  12. Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 52.
  13. Masuo 1996 , p. 71; Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013 , p. 58.
  14. Greene 1993 , p. 28; Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013 , pp. 56–58; Reed 2013 , p. 236.
  15. Rod Smith (March 27, 2014). "Wax Trax: An Introduction". Red Bull Music Academy Daily. Red Bull Music Academy . Retrieved December 10, 2017.
  16. Popson, Tom (July 26, 1985). "The Wax Trax Method Of Making Records". Chicago Tribune . Archived from the original on March 11, 2018. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  17. 1 2 Wolanski, Coreen (March 1, 2003). "Ministry - Nothing Exceeds Like Excess". Exclaim! . Retrieved December 4, 2017.
  18. Huey, Steve. "Ministry". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  19. 1 2 "Adrian Sherwood / On-U Sound". Test Pressing. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  20. Greene 1993, p. 28.
  21. Moore, Paul (1992). "Keith LeBlanc" (interview; scans). Technology Works. No. 13. pp. 16–25. Retrieved May 11, 2018 via Imgur.
  22. 1 2 Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. XXIX.
  23. 1 2 Acharya, Kiran. "Revolting Lots: Al Jourgensen's Favourite Ministry Albums". The Quietus. p. 13. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  24. Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 64–66.
  25. 1 2 Finley, Kathleen (April 4, 1986). "Twitching techno-pop solo". The Villanovan . 61 (19). Retrieved October 16, 2018 via the Internet Archive.
  26. Masuo 1996, p. 71.
  27. Brooks, Jeffrey S. (2017). "Chapter 5: The Evolution of a Revolution". In Terri N. Watson, Jeffrey S. Brooks, Floyd D. Beachum (eds.). Educational Leadership and Music: Lessons for Tomorrow’s School Leaders. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. p. 48. ISBN   9781681238579 via Google Books.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  28. "TWITCH — Ministry — Sire 25309..." Album Releases. Cash Box . Vol. 49 no. 39. March 15, 1986. p. 12. ISSN   0008-7289 . Retrieved May 14, 2018 via the Internet Archive.
  29. Dubin, J. D. (April 7, 1986). "Success On The Dancefloor". The Varsity . 106 (51). p. 18. Retrieved October 16, 2018 via the Internet Archive.
  30. 1 2 Knowles, Christopher (2010). The Secret History of Rock 'n' Roll. Berkeley, California: Viva Editions (Simon and Schuster). p. 236. ISBN   978-1-57344-405-7 via Google Books. But Ministry's second album, Twtich (1986) saw singer/leader Alain Jourgensen dropping the synth-pop and hijacking the songbook of industrial dance pioneers Cabaret Voltaire, complete with pounding drum machines, sampled noises, and half-whispered, English-accented vocals.
  31. 1 2 3 4 Stanton, Mike (July 26, 2016). "Fourculture Classics #6 – Twitch". Fourculture Magazine. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  32. Angle, Brad (December 1, 2007). "Ministry: Track Record". Revolver Magazine . Retrieved April 27, 2018. While Ministry wouldn't perfect their trademark wall-of-guitar-and-sample style until later albums, Twitch’s hard-edged yet danceable electronica was a turning point for the band.
  33. Prown, Pete; Newquist, Harvey P. (1997). "Ministry / Chapter 33: Industrial and Grindcore". Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists. Foreword by Joe Satriani; edited by Jon Eiche. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 250–251. ISBN   0-7935-4042-9 via Google Books. He released a strictly industrial album in 1986, Twitch...
  34. Kretsch, Ron (June 10, 2013). "Early Ministry KICKED ASS". Dangerous Minds. Retrieved May 16, 2018. The consensus narrative of his main band Ministry’s career trajectory holds that after an early anglophile period that’s as big of a let’s-pretend-it-didn’t-happen embarrassment to most their fans as Pablo Honey is to Radiohead snobs, the band really got started with the industrial dance masterpiece Twitch.
  35. 1 2 Chillingworth, Alec (August 18, 2016). "Every Ministry album, ranked from worst to best". TeamRock. Future Publishing . Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  36. Robbins, Darren (March 12, 2006). "Ministry: With Sympathy vs. Twitch". Pop Dose. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  37. Eddy, Chuck (April 2010). "Industrial Metal". Spin. Vol. 26 no. 3. p. 91. Retrieved July 4, 2018. Anglophile synth-pop poseurs bucking for Spandau Ballet’s MTV minutes on their earliest records, Al Jourgenson’s Chicago outfit shape-shifted twice during the 1980s. First, letting Adrian Sherwood soak them in dense dub on 1986’s Twitch, then deciding they could sound meaner than Big Black — which they couldn’t, but nice try!
  38. "Ministry, 'Twitch'; Producer: Adrian Sherwood; Sire 25309". Album & Single Reviews. Billboard. Vol. 98 no. 12. March 22, 1986. p. 78. Retrieved May 16, 2018 via Google Books.
  39. 1 2 3 Sheffield, Rob (December 1992). "Ministry". Artist of the Year: Runners-Up. Spin. Vol. 8 no. 9. p. 60. Retrieved May 16, 2018 via Google Books.
  40. 1 2 Chin, Brian (April 19, 1986). "Dance Trax". Billboard. Vol. 98 no. 16. p. 41. Retrieved May 16, 2018 via Google Books.
  41. Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 64.
  42. 1 2 Greg Prato. "Twitched - Ministry". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  43. Reed 2013, p. 237.
  44. Kretsch, Ron (March 25, 2015). "'The Game is Over' Previously unreleased Ministry song from 1983". Dangerous Minds. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
  45. "Session with Patty Jourgensen". Prongs.org. 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
  46. 1 2 "Ministry: Over The Shoulder". Album & Singles Reviews. Billboard . Vol. 97 no. 47. November 23, 1985. p. 67. ISSN   0006-2510 . Retrieved February 28, 2018 via Google Books.
  47. 1 2 "12' Reviews". Dance. Cash Box. Vol. 49 no. 24. November 23, 1985. p. 20. ISSN   0008-7289 . Retrieved July 4, 2018 via the Internet Archive.
  48. 1 2 Gomes, Whitney Z. "Tapes of Wrath". AllMusic . All Media Network . Retrieved November 29, 2017.
  49. Rollman, Hans (August 6, 2015). "Ministry: Trax! Box". PopMatters . Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  50. Carey, Jean (July 6, 2006). "Stainless Steel Providers". Miami New Times . Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  51. Brian Chin (December 14, 1985). "Dance Trax". News. Billboard. Vol. 97 no. 50. p. 51. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  52. John Leland (March 1986). "Ministry: 'Over the Shoulder' with b/w 'Isle of Man' and 'Twitch' (Sire)". Singles. Spin Magazine . Vol. 1 no. 11. p. 37. Retrieved March 21, 2018 via Google Books.
  53. Jourgensen, Al (January 2005). "Interview de Al Jourgensen (Ministry), pour la sortie de House Of The Molé Paris, fin mai 2004.". Metalorgie (Interview) (in French). Interviewed by Mikki Fajito. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  54. 1 2 Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 65.
  55. "End credits". Tapes of Wrath (DVD). Warner Music Video. 2000.
  56. Liggeri, Domenico (2013). Musica per i nostri occhi: Storie e segreti dei videoclip (electronic book) (in Italian). Giunti. ISBN   9788858761106 via Google Books. Nell’86 i Ministry per Over the shoulder lo lasciano delirare con i concetti allo stesso modo in cui loro lo fanno con i suoni, consentendogli di descrivere minuzio come due giovannissimi ladri rubano un’istigazione a delinquere, facendo poi compiere al cantante un furto con effrazione in un supermercato , quindi tendando la metafora tra una macchina distrutta dalla sfasciacarozze e l’apertura di una scatoletta, legando il tutto con il tema ricorrente delle galline in batteria: se ne potrebbe evincere che come atto di ribellione all’omologazione sociale sia giustificato perfino commettere reati.
  57. Horan, Anthony. "Ministry - Tapes of Wrath - DVD Review". DVD.net. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  58. Mühlmann, Wolf-Rüdiger. "Ministry: Tapes of Wrath". Rock Hard (in German). Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  59. Barker, Paul (June 28, 2001). "Ministry". Ink19 (Interview). Interviewed by Kiran Aditham. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  60. Popson, Tom (March 28, 1986). "Adventures With Ministry In The Land Of Majors". Chicago Tribune . Archived from the original on August 29, 2018. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
  61. Greene 1993 , p. 32; Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013 , p. 68.
  62. "Session with Robert Roberts". Prongs.org. n.d. p. 5. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  63. Scaccia, Mike (July 13, 2012). "Ministry guitarist Mike Scaccia on Rigor Mortis, Psalm 69 and his friendship with Al Jourgensen". Westword (Interview). Interviewed by Tom Murphy. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  64. Greene 1993, p. 32.
  65. Neilstein, Vince (2007-02-07). "I come bearing a gift: Ministry's official soundscan numbers". pissarmy.com. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
    • Twitch (vinyl sleeve). Ministry. Sire Records. 1986. 9 25309-1.CS1 maint: others (link)
    • Twitch (CD booklet). Ministry. Sire Records. 1990. 9 25309-2.CS1 maint: others (link)
  66. "Twitch - Ministry". Billboard .

Bibliography