1097

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
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Years:
1097 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1097
MXCVII
Ab urbe condita 1850
Armenian calendar 546
ԹՎ ՇԽԶ
Assyrian calendar 5847
Balinese saka calendar 1018–1019
Bengali calendar 504
Berber calendar 2047
English Regnal year 10  Will. 2   11  Will. 2
Buddhist calendar 1641
Burmese calendar 459
Byzantine calendar 6605–6606
Chinese calendar 丙子(Fire  Rat)
3793 or 3733
     to 
丁丑年 (Fire  Ox)
3794 or 3734
Coptic calendar 813–814
Discordian calendar 2263
Ethiopian calendar 1089–1090
Hebrew calendar 4857–4858
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1153–1154
 - Shaka Samvat 1018–1019
 - Kali Yuga 4197–4198
Holocene calendar 11097
Igbo calendar 97–98
Iranian calendar 475–476
Islamic calendar 490–491
Japanese calendar Eichō 2 / Jōtoku 1
(承徳元年)
Javanese calendar 1001–1002
Julian calendar 1097
MXCVII
Korean calendar 3430
Minguo calendar 815 before ROC
民前815年
Nanakshahi calendar −371
Seleucid era 1408/1409 AG
Thai solar calendar 1639–1640
Tibetan calendar 阳火鼠年
(male Fire-Rat)
1223 or 842 or 70
     to 
阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
1224 or 843 or 71
Map of Anatolia during the First Crusade. Anatolia 1097.svg
Map of Anatolia during the First Crusade.

Year 1097 ( MXCVII ) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year that begins on Thursday, 1 January, and ends on Thursday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is D. The most recent year of such kind was 2015 and the next one will be 2026 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2010 and 2021 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. This common year contains the most Friday the 13ths; specifically, the months of February, March, and November. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic. From February until March in this type of year is also the shortest period that occurs within a Friday the 13th.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 708 AUC (46 BC/BCE), was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 709 AUC (45 BC/BCE), by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

By place

First Crusade

  • Spring The Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon attack the Byzantine imperial palace at Blachernae. Norman forces led by Bohemond I join the Crusaders – he is not welcome in Constantinople because his father, Robert Guiscard, has invaded Illyria (territory belonging to the Byzantine Empire), and captured the cities of Dyrrhachium and Corfu (see 1084).
  • May 14 Siege of Nicaea: The Crusaders begin their campaign with the siege of Nicaea (the capital of the Sultanate of Rum), assigning their forces to different sections of the walls, which are well-defended with 200 towers. Towards the end of May an advance party of the Seljuk Turks is defeated by troops of Raymond IV (Saint-Gilles) and Robert II. [1]
  • June 19 The Seljuk Turks surrender Nicaea to the Crusaders after a month siege. The Byzantines occupy the city; their commander Manuel Boutoumites is named by Emperor Alexios I (Komnenos) as doux of Nicaea. In the consternation the Crusaders are not allowed to plunder the city and are forced (again) to pledge their allegiance to Alexios.
  • July 1 Battle of Dorylaeum: The Crusaders defeat an Seljuk army led by Kilij Arslan I, ruler of the Sultanate of Rum, who wants revenge for the capture of Nicaea. During the battle many Crusaders are killed but the Seljuk Turks are forced to flee and abandon their tents and treasure after being surprised by the arrival of an second Crusader army.
  • October 21 Siege of Antioch: The Crusaders arrive outside the city and begin the siege. They can not impose a complete blockade on Antioch. The Seljuk garrison comes out of the city to harass Crusader siege-lines and intercept supply convoys (supported by a Genoese fleet of 12 galleys) from Saint Symeon and Alexandretta (modern Turkey). [2]
  • December 31 Battle of Harenc: The Crusaders under the command of Bohemond I and Robert II defeat Seljuk forces from Aleppo, which try to relieve besieged Antioch. [3]
Godfrey of Bouillon Medieval Frankish knight

Godfrey of Bouillon was a Frankish knight and one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until its conclusion in 1099. He was the Lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076 and the Duke of Lower Lorraine from 1087. After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He refused the title of King, however, as he believed that the true King of Jerusalem was Jesus Christ, preferring the title of Advocate of the Holy Sepulchre. He is also known as the "Baron of the Holy Sepulchre" and the "Crusader King".

Blachernae was a suburb in the northwestern section of Constantinople, the capital city of the Byzantine Empire. It is the site of a water source and a number of prominent churches were built there, most notably the great Church of St. Mary of Blachernae, built by Empress Pulcheria in c. 450, expanded by Emperor Leo I and renovated by Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century.

Bohemond I of Antioch Prince of Taranto and Prince of Antioch

Bohemond I was the Prince of Taranto from 1089 to 1111 and the Prince of Antioch from 1098 to 1111. He was a leader of the First Crusade, which was governed by a committee of nobles. The Norman monarchy he founded in Antioch arguably outlasted those of England and of Sicily.

Europe

Battle of Gvozd Mountain middle ages battle

The Battle of Gvozd Mountain took place in the year 1097 and was fought between the army of Petar Snačić and King Coloman I of Hungary. It was a decisive Hungarian victory.

Kingdom of Croatia (925–1102) (925–1102) a medieval kingdom comprising most of what is today Croatia as well as, periodically, parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Balkans

The Kingdom of Croatia, or Croatian Kingdom, was a medieval kingdom in Central Europe comprising most of what is today Croatia, as well as most of the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Part of the Croatian Kingdom period ruled by ethnic dynasties, the Kingdom existed as a sovereign state for nearly two centuries. Its existence was characterized by various conflicts and periods of peace or alliance with the Bulgarians, Byzantines, Hungarians, and competition with Venice for control over the eastern Adriatic coast. The goal of promoting the Croatian language in the religious service was initially brought and introduced by the 10th century bishop Gregory of Nin, which resulted in a conflict with the Pope, later to be put down by him. In the second half of the 11th century Croatia managed to secure most coastal cities of Dalmatia with the collapse of Byzantine control over them. During this time the kingdom reached its peak under the rule of kings Peter Krešimir IV (1058–1074) and Demetrius Zvonimir (1075–1089).

Drava river in Italy, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia and Hungary

The Drava or Drave is a river in southern Central Europe. With a length of 710 kilometres (440 mi), 724 kilometres (450 mi) including the Sextner Bach source, it is the fifth or sixth longest tributary of the Danube, after the Tisza, Sava, Prut, Mureș and perhaps Siret. Its source is near the market town of Innichen, in the Puster Valley of South Tyrol, Italy. The river flows eastwards through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria into the Styria region of Slovenia. It then turns southeast, passing through Croatia and, after merging with its main tributary Mur, forms most of the border between Croatia and Hungary, before it joins the Danube near Osijek.

England

Donald III, and nicknamed "Donald the Fair" or "Donald the White", was King of Scots from 1093–1094 and 1094–1097.

Edgar, King of Scotland King of Scotland

Edgar or Étgar mac Maíl Choluim, nicknamed Probus, "the Valiant", was King of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. He was the fourth son of Malcolm III and Margaret of Wessex but the first to be considered eligible for the throne after the death of his father.

William II of England 11th-century King of England

William II, the third son of William the Conqueror, was King of England from 1087 until 1100, with powers over Normandy, and influence in Scotland. He was less successful in extending control into Wales. William is commonly known as William Rufus, perhaps because of his ruddy appearance or, more likely, due to having red hair as a child that grew out in later life.

By topic

Religion

  • October Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, goes into exile. Conflicts between him and William II result in Anselm leaving England and heading for Rome. William confiscates Anselm's land.
Anselm of Canterbury 11th and 12th-century Archbishop of Canterbury, theologian, and saint

Saint Anselm of Canterbury, also called Anselm of Aosta after his birthplace and Anselm of Bec after his monastery, was an Italian Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. After his death, he was canonized as a saint; his feast day is 21 April.

Diocese of Canterbury Church of Englands diocese covering eastern Kent

The Diocese of Canterbury is a Church of England diocese covering eastern Kent which was founded by St. Augustine of Canterbury in 597. The diocese is centred on Canterbury Cathedral and is the oldest see of the Church of England.

Exile event by which a person is forced away from home

To be in exile means to be away from one's home, while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.

Births

March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 291 days remain until the end of the year.

Fujiwara no Tadamichi was the eldest son of the Japanese regent (Kampaku) Fujiwara no Tadazane and a member of the politically powerful Fujiwara clan. He was the father of Fujiwara no Kanefusa and Jien.

Nobility privileged social class

Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary, and vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can also carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is typically hereditary.

Deaths

Related Research Articles

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Year 1078 (MLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

1096 Year

Year 1096 (MXCVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1091 Year

Year 1091 (MXCI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

1094 Year

Year 1094 (MXCIV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Principality of Antioch former country

The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade which included parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria. The principality was much smaller than the County of Edessa or the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, bordering the County of Tripoli to the south, Edessa to the east, and the Byzantine Empire or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date.

Battle of Dorylaeum (1097) Part of the First Crusade

The Battle of Dorylaeum took place during the First Crusade on July 1, 1097, between the crusaders and the Seljuk Turks, near the city of Dorylaeum in Anatolia. It was won by the crusaders.

The Treaty of Devol was an agreement made in 1108 between Bohemond I of Antioch and Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, in the wake of the First Crusade. It is named after the Byzantine fortress of Devol. Although the treaty was not immediately enforced, it was intended to make the Principality of Antioch a vassal state of the Byzantine Empire.

The Battle of Harran took place on May 7, 1104 between the Crusader states of the Principality of Antioch and the County of Edessa, and the Seljuk Turks. It was the first major battle against the newfound Crusader states in the aftermath of the First Crusade, marking a key turning point against Frankish expansion. The battle had a disastrous effect on the Principality of Antioch as the Turks regained territory earlier lost.

Siege of Antioch

The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. The first siege, by the crusaders against the Muslim-held city, lasted from 21 October 1097 to 2 June 1098. Antioch lay in a strategic location on the crusaders' route to Palestine. Supplies, reinforcements and retreat could all be controlled by the city. Anticipating that it would be attacked, the Muslim governor of the city, Yaghi-Siyan, began stockpiling food and sending requests for help. The Byzantine walls surrounding the city presented a formidable obstacle to its capture, but the leaders of the crusade felt compelled to besiege Antioch anyway.

Siege of Nicaea The Siege of Nicaea

The Siege of Nicaea took place from May 14 to June 19, 1097, during the First Crusade. The city belonged to the Seljuk Turks and preferred to surrender to the Byzantines in fear of the Crusaders breaking into the city first. After the siege followed the Battle of Dorylaeum, and the siege of Antioch all in modern Turkey.

Komnenian restoration

The Komnenian restoration is the term used by historians to describe the military, financial, and territorial recovery of the Byzantine Empire under the Komnenian dynasty, from the accession of Alexios I Komnenos in 1081 to the death of Andronikos I Komnenos in 1185. At the onset of the reign of Alexios I, the empire was reeling from its defeat by the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The empire was also being threatened by the Normans of Robert Guiscard, who were invading the Balkans from their base in southern Italy. All this occurred as the empire's military institution was in disarray and had grown increasingly reliant on mercenaries. Previous emperors had also squandered the large gold deposits of Constantinople, so the defense of the empire had broken down, and there were few troops to fill the gaps.

Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty

The Byzantine Empire was ruled by emperors of the Komnenos dynasty for a period of 104 years, from 1081 to about 1185. The Komnenian period comprises the reigns of five emperors, Alexios I, John II, Manuel I, Alexios II and Andronikos I. It was a period of sustained, though ultimately incomplete, restoration of the military, territorial, economic and political position of the Byzantine Empire.

Battle of Antioch on the Meander

The Battle of Antioch on the Meander was a military engagement near Antioch-on-the-Meander between the forces of the Empire of Nicaea and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. The Turkish defeat ensured continued Nicaean hegemony of the Aegean coast of Asia Minor. The Seljuk sultan, Kaykhusraw I, was killed on the field of battle. The battle took place near the modern town of Yamalak in Kuyucak district in Aydın Province.

Manuel Boutoumites or Butumites was a leading Byzantine general and diplomat during the reign of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, and one of the emperor's most trusted aides. He was instrumental in the Byzantine recovery of Nicaea from the Seljuk Turks, in the reconquest of Cilicia, and acted as the emperor's envoy in several missions to Crusader princes.

The following is an overview of the armies of First Crusade, including the armies of the European noblemen of the "Princes' Crusade", the Byzantine army, a number of independent crusaders as well as the preceding People’s Crusade and the subsequent Crusade of 1101 and other European campaigns prior to the Second Crusade beginning in 1147.

Timeline of the Principality of Antioch

The timeline of the Principality of Antioch is a chronological list of events of the history of the Principality of Antioch.

References

  1. Abels, Richard Philip; Bernard S. Bachrach (2001). The Normans and their adversaries at war. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. p. 92. ISBN   0-85115-847-1.
  2. Rickard, J. "Antioch, crusader siege of, 21 October 1097-3 June 1098" . Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  3. Rickard, J. "Battle of Harenc, 9 February 1098" . Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  4. Picard C. (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident au Moyen Age. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.