1097

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1097 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1097
MXCVII
Ab urbe condita 1850
Armenian calendar 546
ԹՎ ՇԽԶ
Assyrian calendar 5847
Balinese saka calendar 1018–1019
Bengali calendar 504
Berber calendar 2047
English Regnal year 10  Will. 2   11  Will. 2
Buddhist calendar 1641
Burmese calendar 459
Byzantine calendar 6605–6606
Chinese calendar 丙子(Fire  Rat)
3793 or 3733
     to 
丁丑年 (Fire  Ox)
3794 or 3734
Coptic calendar 813–814
Discordian calendar 2263
Ethiopian calendar 1089–1090
Hebrew calendar 4857–4858
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1153–1154
 - Shaka Samvat 1018–1019
 - Kali Yuga 4197–4198
Holocene calendar 11097
Igbo calendar 97–98
Iranian calendar 475–476
Islamic calendar 490–491
Japanese calendar Eichō 2 / Jōtoku 1
(承徳元年)
Javanese calendar 1001–1002
Julian calendar 1097
MXCVII
Korean calendar 3430
Minguo calendar 815 before ROC
民前815年
Nanakshahi calendar −371
Seleucid era 1408/1409 AG
Thai solar calendar 1639–1640
Tibetan calendar 阳火鼠年
(male Fire-Rat)
1223 or 842 or 70
     to 
阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
1224 or 843 or 71

Year 1097 ( MXCVII ) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year that begins on Thursday, 1 January, and ends on Thursday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is D. The most recent year of such kind was 2015 and the next one will be 2026 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2010 and 2021 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. This common year contains the most Friday the 13ths; specifically, the months of February, March, and November. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic. From February until March in this type of year is also the shortest period that occurs within a Friday the 13th.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

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Europe

Donald III of Scotland King of Scots

Donald III, and nicknamed "Donald the Fair" or "Donald the White", was King of Scots from 1093–1094 and 1094–1097.

Edmund or Etmond mac Maíl Coluim was a son of Malcolm III of Scotland and his second wife, Margaret of Wessex. He may be found on some lists of Scottish kings, but there is no evidence that he was king. Although Edmund was probably Malcolm and Margaret's second son, he was passed over in subsequent successions as a result of betraying his siblings by siding with their uncle, Donald III.

Kingdom of Scotland historic sovereign kingdom on the British Isles from the 9th century and up to 1707

The Kingdom of Scotland was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain, sharing a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England. It suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert I it fought a successful war of independence and remained an independent state throughout the late Middle Ages. In 1603, James VI of Scotland became King of England, joining Scotland with England in a personal union. In 1707, the two kingdoms were united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain under the terms of the Acts of Union. Following the annexation of the Northern Isles from the Kingdom of Norway in 1472 and final capture of the Royal Burgh of Berwick by the Kingdom of England in 1482, the territory of the Kingdom of Scotland corresponded to that of modern-day Scotland, bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest.

Births

March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 291 days remaining until the end of the year.

Fujiwara no Tadamichi was the eldest son of the Japanese regent (Kampaku) Fujiwara no Tadazane and a member of the politically powerful Fujiwara clan. He was the father of Fujiwara no Kanefusa and Jien.

Year 1164 (MCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Deaths

Odo of Bayeux 11th-century Bishop of Bayeux and half-brother of William the Conqueror

Odo of Bayeux, Earl of Kent and Bishop of Bayeux, was the half-brother of William the Conqueror, and was, for a time, second in power after the King of England.

June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 208 days remaining until the end of the year.

Agnes of Aquitaine was a daughter of William VIII, Duke of Aquitaine, and his third wife, Hildegarde of Burgundy, and thus half-sister of Agnes of Aquitaine, Queen of Castile, with whom she is sometimes confused.

Related Research Articles

The 1090s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1090, and ended on December 31, 1099.

Year 1099 (MXCIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1098 (MXCVIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

The 1140s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1140, and ended on December 31, 1149.

1211 Year

Year 1211 (MCCXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1148 (MCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1108 (MCVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Eustace III, Count of Boulogne Count of Boulogne

Eustace III was the count of Boulogne from 1087, succeeding his father Count Eustace II. His mother was Ida of Lorraine.

Stephen, Count of Blois Count of Blois

Stephen II Henry, Count of Blois and Count of Chartres, was the son of Theobald III, count of Blois, and Gersent of Le Mans. He is numbered Stephen II after Stephen I, Count of Troyes.

First Crusade Crusade from 1095 to 1099 that captured Jerusalem and established the Crusader States

The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095. Urban called for a military expedition to aid the Byzantine Empire, which had recently lost most of Anatolia to the Seljuq Turks. The resulting military expedition of primarily Frankish nobles, known as the Princes' Crusade, not only re-captured Anatolia but went on to conquer the Holy Land, which had fallen to Islamic expansion as early as the 7th century, and culminated in July 1099 in the re-conquest of Jerusalem and the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse Occitan noble

Raymond IV, sometimes called Raymond of Saint-Gilles or Raymond I of Tripoli, was a powerful noble in southern France and one of the leaders of the First Crusade (1096–99). He was the Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne and Margrave of Provence from 1094, and he spent the last five years of his life establishing the County of Tripoli in the Near East.

Robert II, Count of Flanders Count of Flanders

Robert II was Count of Flanders from 1093 to 1111. He became known as Robert of Jerusalem or Robert the Crusader after his exploits in the First Crusade.

Siege of Antioch

The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. The first siege, by the crusaders against the Muslim-held city, lasted from 21 October 1097 to 2 June 1098. Antioch lay in a strategic location on the crusaders' route to Palestine. Supplies, reinforcements and retreat could all be controlled by the city. Anticipating that it would be attacked, the Muslim governor of the city, Yaghi-Siyan, began stockpiling food and sending requests for help. The Byzantine walls surrounding the city presented a formidable obstacle to its capture, but the leaders of the crusade felt compelled to besiege Antioch anyway.

Tancred, Prince of Galilee Norman leader of the First Crusade

Tancred was an Italo-Norman leader of the First Crusade who later became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch. Tancred had a great-grandfather with the same name, Tancred of Hauteville; since both Tancreds were from the house of Hauteville, they may be confused.

The military history of Croatia encompasses wars, battles and all military actions fought on the territory of modern Croatia and the military history of the Croat people regardless of political geography.

Battle of Gvozd Mountain middle ages battle

The Battle of Gvozd Mountain took place in the year 1097 and was fought between the army of Petar Svačić and King Coloman I of Hungary. It was a decisive Hungarian victory.

The Battle of Harim (Harenc) was fought on 12 August 1164 near Artah between the forces of Nur ad-Din Zangi and a combined army from the County of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, the Byzantine Empire and Armenia. Nur ad-Din won a crushing victory, capturing most of the leaders of the opposing army.

The Army of Godfrey of Bouillon was created by Godfrey, Lord of Bouillon, and Duke of Lower Leuven, in response to the call by Pope Urban II to both liberate Jerusalem from Muslim forces and protect the Byzantine Empire from similar attacks. Godfrey and his army, one of several Frankish forces deployed during the First Crusade, was among the first to arrive in Constantinople. The army was unique in that it included among its warriors the first three kings of Jerusalem, although Godfrey preferred the title Defender of the Holy Sepulchre as he believed that the true King of Jerusalem was Christ. This article focuses on the members of the arrmy rather that its exploits which are described in detail in Godfrey’s biography as well as numerous sources listed below.

The following is an overview of the armies of First Crusade, including the armies of the European noblemen of the "Princes' Crusade", the Byzantine army, a number of independent crusaders as well as the preceding People’s Crusade and the subsequent Crusade of 1101 and other European campaigns prior to the Second Crusade beginning in 1147.

Battle of the Lake of Antioch

The Battle of the Lake of Antioch took place on 9 February 1098 during the First Crusade. As the Crusaders were besieging Antioch, word reached the Crusader camp that a large relief force led by Radwan, the Seljuq ruler of Aleppo, was on the way. Bohemond of Taranto gathered all remaining horses and marched in the night to ambush the Muslim army. After several successful cavalry charges the Crusader knights routed the numerically superior Muslim army, forcing Radwan to retreat back to Aleppo.

References

  1. Abels, Richard Philip; Bernard S. Bachrach (2001). The Normans and their adversaries at war. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. p. 92. ISBN   0-85115-847-1.
  2. Rickard, J. "Antioch, crusader siege of, 21 October 1097-3 June 1098" . Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  3. Rickard, J. "Battle of Harenc, 9 February 1098" . Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  4. Picard C. (1997) La mer et les musulmans d'Occident au Moyen Age. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.