1st Cavalry Division (United States)

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1st Cavalry Division
1st Cavalry Division Patch-C.png
1st Cavalry Division's Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
Founded1921
CountryFlag of the United States.svg United States of America
BranchFlag of the United States Army.svg  United States Army
Type Combined arms
Size Division
Part of III Corps
Garrison/HQ Fort Hood, Texas
Nickname(s)"First Team" [1]
Motto(s)"America’s First Team!"
March"Garryowen"
Mascot(s)Trigger the Horse
Engagements World War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
Operation Desert Storm
Global War on Terrorism
Website Official Website
Commanders
Current
commander
Major General John B. Richardson IV
Notable
commanders
Full list of commanders
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia
1st Cavalry Division - Distinctive Unit Insignia.svg
Flag
Flag of the U.S. Army 1st Cavalry Division.svg
U.S. Cavalry Divisions
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none 2nd Cavalry Division

The 1st Cavalry Division ("First Team") [1] is a combined arms division and is one of the most decorated combat divisions of the United States Army. [2] It is based at Fort Hood, Texas. It was formed in 1921 and served during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, with the Stabilization Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina, in the Iraq War, in the War in Afghanistan and in Operation Freedom's Sentinel. As of October 2017, the 1st Cavalry Division is subordinate to III Corps and is commanded by Major General John B. Richardson.

Contents

The unit is unique in that it has served as a horseback cavalry division, an infantry division, an air assault division and an armored division during its existence.

History

The history of the 1st Cavalry Division began in 1921 after the army established a permanent cavalry division table of organization and equipment on 4 April 1921. It authorized a square division organization of 7,463 officers and men, organized as follows:

1st Cavalry Division's Horse Cavalry Detachment charge during a ceremony at Fort Bliss, Texas, 2005. 1st Cavalry Division's Horse Cavalry Detachment charge across Noel Field, activation of 4th BCT, 1st Armor Division, Fort Bliss, TX 2005.jpg
1st Cavalry Division's Horse Cavalry Detachment charge during a ceremony at Fort Bliss, Texas, 2005.

On 20 August 1921, the War Department Adjutant General constituted the 1st and 2nd Cavalry Divisions to meet partial mobilization requirements, and authorized the establishment of the 1st Cavalry Division under the new TO&E on 31 August 1921. Since 1st Cavalry Division was to assemble from existing units, it was able to go active in September 1921, even though the subordinate units did not arrive completely until as late as 1922.

1st Cavalry Division was assigned to the VIII Corps Area, with its division headquarters and 2nd Brigade located at Fort Bliss, Texas, and the 1st Brigade at Camp Harry J. Jones in Douglas, Arizona. The headquarters facilities used by 1st Cavalry Division were those previously vacated by 8th United States Brigade when it was commanded by MG John J. Pershing in 1916, and the wartime 15th Cavalry Division, which had existed at Fort Bliss between 10 December 1917 and 12 May 1918.

The 1st Cavalry Division Band during an Operation Iraqi Freedom 2 Color Uncasing Ceremony at Fort Hood, Texas in 2005. 1st Cavalry Division Band - OIF 2 - Color Uncasing Ceremony.jpg
The 1st Cavalry Division Band during an Operation Iraqi Freedom 2 Color Uncasing Ceremony at Fort Hood, Texas in 2005.

The 1st Cavalry Division's assembled at Douglas, Arizona. The 1st, 7th, and 8th Cavalry Regiments had previously been assigned to the wartime 15th Cavalry Division until they were returned to the VIII Corps Area troop list on 12 May 1918. 1st Cavalry Regiment remained assigned until it was transferred to 1st Cavalry Division on 20 August 1921. The 7th, 8th, and 10th Cavalry Regiments were transferred on 13 September 1921, although the assignment of the 10th Cavalry Regiment to the 1st Cavalry Division was controversial because the transfer violated the Jim Crow laws.[ citation needed ] This controversy continued until 18 December 1922, when the 5th Cavalry Regiment, then on the VIII Corps Area Troop List, swapped places with the 10th Cavalry Regiment.

In 1923 the 1st Cavalry Division held division maneuvers for the first time, intending to hold them annually thereafter. However, financial constraints made that impossible. Only in 1927, through the generosity of a few ranchers who provided free land, was the division able to conduct such exercises again. In 1928 Major General Herbert B. Crosby, Chief of Cavalry, faced with personnel cuts, reorganized the cavalry regiments, which in turn reduced the size of the 1st Cavalry Division. Crosby's goal was to decrease overhead while maintaining or increasing firepower in the regiment. After the reorganization each cavalry regiment consisted of a headquarters and headquarters troop; a machine gun troop; a medical and chaplain element; and two squadrons, each with a headquarters element; and two line troops. The cavalry brigades' machine gun squadrons were inactivated, while the responsibility for training and employing machine guns fell to the regimental commanders, as in the infantry.

About the same time that Crosby cut the cavalry regiment, the army staff, seeking to increase the usefulness of the wartime cavalry division, published new tables of organization for an even larger unit. The new structure increased the size of the signal troop (177), expanded the medical unit to a squadron (233), and endorsing Crosby's movement of the machine gun units from the brigades to the regiments (2X176). A divisional aviation section, an armored car squadron (278), and tank company (155) were added, the field artillery battalion was expanded to a regiment (1,717), and divisional strength rose to 9,595.

Prelude to World War II

Standard organization chart for a cavalry division in November 1940 Cavalry Division 1 November 1940.jpg
Standard organization chart for a cavalry division in November 1940

With the arrival of the 1930s, serious work started on the testing and refining of new equipment and TO&Es for a mechanized and motorized army. To facilitate this, 1st Cavalry Division traded 1st Cavalry Regiment for 12th Cavalry Regiment on 3 January 1933.[ citation needed ]

Taking into account recommendations from the VIII Corps Area, the Army War College, and the Command and General Staff School, the board developed a new smaller triangular cavalry division, which the 1st Cavalry Division evaluated during maneuvers at Toyahvale, Texas, in 1938. Like the 1937 infantry division test, the maneuvers concentrated on the divisional cavalry regiments around which all other units were to be organized.

Following the test, a board of 1st Cavalry Division officers, headed by Brigadier General Kenyon A. Joyce, rejected the three-regiment division and recommended retention of the two-brigade (four-regiment) organization. The latter configuration allowed the division to deploy easily in two columns, which was accepted standard cavalry tactics. However, the board advocated reorganizing the cavalry regiment along triangular lines, which would give it a headquarters and headquarters troop, a machine gun squadron with special weapons and machine gun troops, and three rifle squadrons, each with one machine gun and three rifle troops. No significant change was made in the field artillery, but the test showed that the engineer element should remain a squadron to provide the divisional elements greater mobility on the battlefield and that the special troops idea should be extended to include the division headquarters, signal, and ordnance troops; quartermaster, medical, engineer, reconnaissance, and observation squadrons; and a chemical warfare detachment. One headquarters would assume responsibility for the administration and disciplinary control for these forces.

Although the study did not lead to a general reorganization of the cavalry division, the wartime cavalry regiment was restructured, effective 1 December 1938, to consist of a headquarters and headquarters troop, machine gun and special weapons troops, and three squadrons of three rifle troops each. The special troops remained as structured in 1928, and no observation squadron or chemical detachment found a place in the division. With the paper changes in the cavalry divisions and other minor adjustments, the strength of a wartime divisional rose to 10,680.

In order to prepare for war service, 1st Cavalry Division participated in the following maneuvers:

World War II

History

Composition

1st Cavalry Division organisation early World War II United States World War II 1st Cavalry Division 1942 Structure.png
1st Cavalry Division organisation early World War II
1st Cavalry Division organisation 1944-1945 United States World War II 1st Cavalry Division 1944-45 Structure.png
1st Cavalry Division organisation 1944–1945

The division was composed of the following units: [3]

  • 1st Cavalry Brigade
    • 5th Cavalry Regiment
    • 12th Cavalry Regiment
  • 2nd Cavalry Brigade
    • 7th Cavalry Regiment
    • 8th Cavalry Regiment
  • 3rd Cavalry Division Artillery
    • 61st Field Artillery Battalion
    • 82nd Field Artillery Battalion
    • 99th Field Artillery Battalion
    • 271st Field Artillery Battalion
  • 1st Medical Squadron
  • 8th Engineer Squadron
  • 16th Quartermaster Squadron
  • 1st Signal Troop
  • 27th Ordnance Company
  • 302nd Reconnaissance Troop
  • 603rd Light Tank Company
  • 801st CIC Detachment

Training

1st Cav soldiers during the Battle of Leyte. 1st Cav troops at Leyte.jpg
1st Cav soldiers during the Battle of Leyte.

With the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, the "great laboratory" phase for developing and testing organizations, about which Marshall wrote in the summer of 1941, closed, but the War Department still had not developed ideal infantry, cavalry, armored, and motorized divisions. In 1942 it again revised the divisions based on experiences gained during the great GHQ maneuvers of the previous year. As in the past, the reorganizations ranged from minor adjustments to wholesale changes.[ citation needed ]

1st Cavalry Division retained its square configuration after the 1941 maneuvers, but with modifications. The division lost its antitank troop, the brigades their weapons troops, and the regiments their machine gun and special weapons troops. These changes brought no decrease in divisional firepower, but placed most weapons within the cavalry troops. The number of .50-caliber machine guns was increased almost threefold. In the reconnaissance squadron, the motorcycle and armored car troops were eliminated, leaving the squadron with one support troop and three reconnaissance troops equipped with light tanks. These changes increased the division from 11,676 to 12,112 officers and enlisted men.[ citation needed ]

The last of the 1st Cavalry Division's mounted units permanently retired their horses and converted to infantry formations on 28 February 1943. However, a mounted special ceremonial unit known as the Horse Platoon – later, the Horse Cavalry Detachment – was established within the division in January 1972. Its ongoing purpose is to represent the traditions and heritage of the American horse cavalry at military ceremonies and public events. [4]

1st Cavalry Division reported for its port call at Camp Stoneman, CA as follows:

UnitStagedDepartedArrived
HHT, 1st Cavalry Division21 June 194326 June11 July
HHT, 1st Cavalry Brigade21 June 19433 July24 July
HHT, 2nd Cavalry Brigade18 June 194326 June11 July
5th Cavalry Regiment20 June 19432 July24 July
7th Cavalry Regiment18 June 194326 June11 July
8th Cavalry Regiment18 June 194326 June11 July
12th Cavalry Regiment20 June 19433 July24 July
HHB, Division Artillery
61st Field Artillery Battalion3 July 194324 July
82nd Field Artillery Battalion4 June 194323 June
99th Field Artillery Battalion23 May 194323 June
8th Engineer Squadron23 May 194318 June
1st Medical Squadron
16th Quartermaster Squadron
7th Cavalry Recon Squadron26 June 194311 July
1st Antitank Troop
1st Signal Troop
101st Unit Search and Rescue Team10 May 1945

Combat chronicle

Although originally being part of the III Corps (which eventually participated in the European Theater), while training in the United States, most of the 1st Cavalry Division arrived in Australia as shown above, continued its training at Strathpine, Queensland, until 26 July, then moved to New Guinea to stage for the Admiralties campaign 22–27 February 1944. The division experienced its first combat in the Admiralty Islands, units landing at Los Negros on 29 February 1944. Momote airstrip was secured against great odds. Attacks by Japanese were thrown back, and the enemy force surrounded by the end of March. Nearby islands were taken in April and May. The division next took part in the invasion of Leyte, 20 October 1944, captured Tacloban and the adjacent airstrip, advanced along the north coast, and secured Leyte Valley, elements landing on and securing Samar Island. Moving down Ormoc Valley (in Leyte) and across the Ormoc plain, the division reached the west coast of Leyte 1 January 1945.

The division then invaded Luzon, landing in the Lingayen Gulf area 27 January 1945, and fought its way as a "flying column" to Manila by 3 February 1945. More than 3,000 civilian prisoners at the University of Santo Tomas, including more than 60 US Army nurses (some of the "Angels of Bataan and Corregidor") were liberated, [5] and the 1st Cavalry then advanced east of Manila by the middle of February before the city was cleared. On 20 February the division was assigned the mission of seizing and securing crossings over the Marikina River and securing the Tagaytay-Antipolo Line. After being relieved 12 March in the Antipolo area, elements pushed south into Batangas and provinces of Bicol Region together with recognized guerrillas. They mopped up remaining pockets of resistance in these areas in small unit actions. Resistance was officially declared at an end on 1 July 1945.

Casualties

Postwar

The division left Luzon 25 August 1945 for occupation duty in Japan, arriving in Yokohama 2 September 1945 and entering Tokyo 8 September, the first United States division to enter the Japanese capital. 101 unit was set up in May 1945 to search for the missing soldiers in the Second World War. The detachment consisted of two officers (a Captain MacColeman and a Lieutenant Foley) and 15 enlisted members (among them a Sergeant Ryan). The operation was successful, although it lasted three years. Occupation duty in Japan followed for the next five years.

Korean War

In the summer of 1950, North Korea attacked South Korea, and the 1st Cavalry Division was rushed to Korea to help shore up the Pusan Perimeter. From 26 to 29 July 1950, the 7th Cavalry Regiment, one of the Division's three infantry regiments, killed at least 163 South Korean civilians in an incident now known as the No Gun Ri massacre, fearing North Korean infiltrators among with refugee groups. While the 7th Cavalry was directly responsible, Divisional commanders, including General Hobart R. Gay, had given them orders to do so.

After the X Corps attack at Incheon, a breakout operation was launched at the Pusan Perimeter. The Division then joined the UN counteroffensive that recaptured most of South Korea by the end of September. The UN offensive was continued northwards, past Seoul, and across the 38th Parallel into North Korea on 1 October. The momentum of the attack was maintained, and the race to the North Korean capital, Pyongyang, ended on 19 October when elements of the Division and the Republic of Korea Army (ROK) 1st Infantry Division captured the city. The advance continued, but against unexpectedly stiffening resistance. The Chinese People's Volunteer Army (PVA) entered the war on the side of North Korea, making their first attacks in late October.

On 28 October 1950, Eighth Army commander General Walton Walker relieved the 1st Cavalry Division of its security mission in Pyongyang. The division's new orders were to pass through the ROK 1st Division's lines at Unsan and attack toward the Yalu River. Leading the way on the twenty-ninth, the 8th Cavalry regiment departed Pyongyang and reached Yongsan-dong that evening. The 5th Cavalry Regiment arrived the next morning, with the mission to protect the 8th Cavalry regiment's rear. With the arrival of the 8th Cavalry Regiment at Unsan on the 31st, the ROK 1st Division redeployed to positions northeast, east, and southeast of Unsan; the 8th Cavalry took up positions north, west, and south of the town. Meanwhile, the ROK 15th Regiment was desperately trying to hold its position east of the 8th Cavalry, across the Samt'an River.

During the afternoon of 1 November, the PVA attack north of Unsan gained strength against the ROK 15th Regiment and gradually extended to the right flank of the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry. At nightfall, the 1st Battalion controlled the northern approaches to the Samt'an River, except for portions of the ROK 15th Regiment's zone on the east side. The battalion's position on the left was weak; there were not enough soldiers to extend the defensive line to the main ridge leading into Unsan. This left a gap between the 1st and 2nd Battalions. East of the Samt'an the ROK 15th Regiment was under heavy attack, and shortly after midnight it no longer existed as a combat force. At 19:30 on 1 November, the PVA 116th Division attacked the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, all along its line. At 21:00 PVA troops found the weak link in the ridgeline and began moving through it and down the ridge behind the 2nd Battalion, penetrating its right flank and encircling its left. Now both the 1st and 2nd Battalions were engaged by the enemy on several sides. Around midnight, the 8th Cavalry received orders to withdraw southward to Ipsok. At 01:30 on 2 November, no PVA activity was reported in the 3rd Battalion's sector south of Unsan. But as the 8th Cavalry withdrew, all three battalions became trapped by roadblocks made by the PVA 347th Regiment, 116th Division south of Unsan during the early morning hours. Members of the 1st Battalion who were able to escape reached the Ipsok area. A head count showed the battalion had lost about 15 officers and 250 enlisted men. Members of the 2nd Battalion, for the most part, scattered into the hills. Many of them reached the ROK lines near Ipsok. Others met up with the 3rd Battalion, the hardest hit. Around 03:00 the PVA launched a surprise attack on the battalion command post. Hand-to-hand fighting ensued for about half an hour before the PVA were driven from the area. The disorganized members of the 3rd Battalion formed a core of resistance around three tanks on the valley floor and held off the PVA until daylight. By that time, only six officers and 200 enlisted men were still able to function. More than 170 were wounded, and the number dead or missing were uncounted. Attempts by the 5th Cavalry to relieve the beleaguered battalion were unsuccessful, and the 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry, soon ceased to exist as an organized force. [7]

Following the battle, there were disparaging rumors about the 1st Cavalry Division's fighting abilities, including a folk song of the time called "The Bug-Out Ballad". [8] The series of engagements were rumored to have given rise to the song were due (at least partly) to the myth that the division lost its unit colors. [9] Other Army and Marine units disparagingly described the division shoulder insignia as representing 'The horse they never rode, the river they never crossed, and the yellow speaks for itself'. Another version goes: "The shield they never carried, the horse they never rode, the bridge they never crossed, the line they never held, and the yellow is the reason why." The aforementioned ballad only lasted until the Division which changed leadership proved itself in the months to come and during operation Crombez when the fifth relived Chipyong-ni. [10]

The 1st Cavalry Division remained in the line until it was relieved by the 45th Infantry Division from the United States Army National Guard in January 1952. Following the relief, the division returned to Japan. The division returned to Korea in 1957, where it remained until 1965.

Vietnam War

Air Cav (Airmobile) troopers, exiting from a "Huey" chopper, during stateside training. Infantry 1-9 US Cavalry exiting UH-1D.jpg
Air Cav (Airmobile) troopers, exiting from a "Huey" chopper, during stateside training.
1965 Organization of the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) 1st CAV 1965.JPG
1965 Organization of the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile)

The 1st Cavalry Division next fought in the Vietnam War. No longer a conventional infantry unit, the division had become an air assault division as the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), commonly referred to as the 1st Air Cavalry Division. The use of helicopters on such large scale as troop carriers, cargo lift ships, medevacs, and as aerial rocket artillery, was never before implemented, but by doing so it freed the infantry from the tyranny of terrain to attack the enemy at the time and place of its choosing. In 1965, colors and subordinate unit designations of the Division were transferred from Korea to Fort Benning, Georgia, where they were used, along with separate elements of what had been the 2nd Infantry Division, to reflag the existing 11th Air Assault Division (Test) into the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Concurrently, the personnel and units of the 1st Cavalry Division, which remained in Korea, were used to reflag the division into a new 2nd Infantry Division. [11] [12]

1st Cavalry DesignationPrevious Designation
HHC, 1st Cavalry DivisionHHC, 11th Air Assault Division (Test)
1st Squadron, 9th Cavalry3rd Squadron, 17th Cavalry
HHC, 1st BrigadeHHC, 1st Brigade, 11th Air Assault Division (Test)
1st Battalion (Airborne), 8th Cavalry1st Battalion (Airborne), 188th Infantry
2nd Battalion (Airborne), 8th Cavalry1st Battalion (Airborne), 511th Infantry
1st Battalion (Airborne), 12th Cavalry1st Battalion (Airborne), 187th Infantry
HHC, 2nd BrigadeHHC, 2nd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division
1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry1st Battalion, 38th Infantry
2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry2nd Battalion, 38th Infantry
2nd Battalion, 12th Cavalry1st Battalion, 23rd Infantry
HHC, 3rd BrigadeHHC, 3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division
1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry2d Battalion, 23d Infantry
2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry2nd Battalion, 9th Infantry
5th Battalion, 7th Cavalry1st Battalion, 11th Infantry
HHB, Division ArtilleryHHB, Division Artillery, 11th Air Assault Division (Test)
2nd Battalion (Airborne), 19th Artillery (105mm)6th Battalion, 81st Artillery (105mm)
2nd Battalion, 20th Artillery (Aerial Rocket)3rd Battalion, 377th Artillery (Aerial Rocket)
1st Battalion, 21st Artillery (105mm)5th Battalion, 38th Artillery (105mm)
1st Battalion, 77th Artillery (105mm)1st Battalion, 15th Artillery (105mm)
Battery E, 82nd Artillery (AVN)Battery E, 26th Artillery (AVN)
HHC & Band, Support CommandHHC & Band, Support Command, 11th Air Assault Division (Test)
15th Medical Battalion11th Medical Battalion
15th Supply & Services Battalion408th Supply & Services Battalion
Aerial Equipment Supply Co (Airborne)/15th S&S Battalion165th Aerial Equipment Supply Detachment (Airborne)
15th Administrative Company11th Administrative Company
27th Maintenance Battalion711th Maintenance Battalion
8th Engineer Battalion127th Engineer Battalion
13th Signal Battalion511th Signal Battalion
15th Transportation Battalion611th Aircraft Maintenance & Supply Battalion
545th Military Police Company11th Military Police Company
191st Military Intelligence Detachment11th Military Intelligence Detachment
371st Army Security Agency CompanyCompany C, 313th Army Security Agency Battalion

Shortly thereafter, the Division began deploying to Camp Radcliff, An Khe, Vietnam, in the Central Highlands and was equipped with the new M16 rifle, the UH-1 troop carrier helicopter, UH-1C gunships, the CH-47 Chinook cargo helicopter, and the massive CH-54 Skycrane cargo helicopter. All aircraft carried insignia to indicate their battalion and company. [13]

The division's first major operation was to help relieve the Siege of Plei Me near Pleiku and the pursuit of the withdrawing People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) which culminated in the Battle of Ia Drang, described in the book We Were Soldiers Once...And Young , was also the basis of the film We Were Soldiers . Because of that battle the division earned the Presidential Unit Citation (US), the first unit to receive such in the war. In 1966, the division attempted to root the communist Viet Cong (VC) and PAVN out of Bình Định Province with Operation Masher, Operation Crazy Horse and Operation Thayer. 1967 was then spent conducting Operation Pershing, a large scale search and destroy operation of PAVN/VC base areas in II Corps in which 5,400 PAVN/VC soldiers were killed and 2,000 captured. In Operation Jeb Stuart, January 1968, the division moved north to Camp Evans, north of Hue and on to Landing Zones Sharon and Betty, south of Quang Tri City, all in the I Corps Tactical Zone. [14]

27 January 1968. 1st Cavalry Division LRP at LZ Betty prelude to Tet. Prelude to Tet Offensive.jpg
27 January 1968. 1st Cavalry Division LRP at LZ Betty prelude to Tet.

In the early morning hours of 31 January 1968, the largest battle of the Vietnam War, the Tet Offensive, was launched by 84,000 PAVN/VC soldiers across South Vietnam. In the Division's area of operation, the PAVN/VC forces seized most of the city of Huế. As the 3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, fought to cut off PAVN/VC reinforcements pouring into Huế, at Quang Tri City, five battalions, most from the 324th Division, attacked the city and LZ Betty (Headquarters 1st Brigade). To stop allied troops from intervening, three other PAVN/VC infantry battalions deployed as blocking forces, all supported by a 122mm-rocket battalion and two heavy-weapons companies armed with 82mm mortars and 75mm recoilless rifles. After intense fighting, 900 PAVN/VC soldiers were killed in and around Quang Tri City and LZ Betty. However, across South Vietnam, 1,000 Americans, 2,100 South Vietnamese, 14,000 civilians, and 32,000 PAVN/VC were killed. [14]

In March 1968 the Division shifted forces to LZ Stud, the staging area for Operation Pegasus to break the siege of the Marine's Khe Sanh Combat Base—the second largest battle of the war. All three brigades participated in this airmobile operation, along with a Marine armor thrust. US Air Force B-52s alone dropped more than 75,000 tons of bombs on PAVN soldiers from the 304th and 325th Divisions encroaching the combat base in trenches. As these two elite enemy divisions, with history at Dien Bien Phu and the Ia Drang Valley, depleted, the Division leapfrogged west, clearing Route 9, until at 0:800 hours 8 April, the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry, linked-up with Marines at the combat base, ending the 77-day siege. [14] [15]

LRPs on Signal Hill directing artillery on enemy trucks in valley. LRPs directing artillery.jpg
LRPs on Signal Hill directing artillery on enemy trucks in valley.

On 19 April 1968, as the 2nd Brigade continued pushing west to the Laotian border, the 1st and 3rd Brigades (about 11,000 men and 300 helicopters) swung southwest and air assaulted A Shau Valley, commencing Operation Delaware. The PAVN was a well-trained, equipped, and led force. They turned A Shau into a formidable sanctuary —complete with PT76 tanks; powerful crew-served 37mm antiaircraft cannons, some radar controlled; twin-barreled 23mm cannons; and scores of 12.7mm heavy machine guns. A long-range penetration operation was launched by members of the Division's long-range reconnaissance patrol (LRP) against the PAVN when they seized "Signal Hill"—the name attributed to the peak of Dong Re Lao Mountain, a densely forested 4,879 feet (1,487 m) mountain midway in the valley—so the 1st and 3rd Brigades, slugging it out hidden deep behind the mountains, could communicate with Camp Evans near the coast or with approaching aircraft. [16] [17]

Despite hundreds of B-52 and jet air strikes, the PAVN forces shot down a C-130, a CH-54, two Chinooks, and nearly two dozen UH-1 Hueys. Many more were lost in accidents or damaged by ground fire. The division also suffered more than 100 dead and 530 wounded in the operation. Bad weather aggravated the loss by causing delays in troop movements, allowing a substantial number of PAVN to escape to safety in Laos. Still, the PAVN lost more than 800 dead, a tank, 70 trucks, two bulldozers, 30 flamethrowers, thousands of rifles and machine guns, and dozens of antiaircraft cannons. They also lost tons of ammunition, explosives, medical supplies and foodstuffs. [16]

In mid-May 1968 Operation Delaware ended, however, the division continued tactical operations in I Corps as well as local pacification and "medcap" (medical outreach programs to local Vietnamese). In the autumn of 1968, the Division relocated south to Phước Vĩnh Base Camp northeast of Saigon. [14] In May 1970, the Division participated in the Cambodian Incursion, withdrawing from Cambodia on 29 June. Thereafter, the division took a defensive posture while US troops withdrawals continued from Vietnam. On 29 April 1971 the bulk of the division was withdrawn to Fort Hood, Texas, but its 3rd Brigade remained as one of the final two major US ground combat units in Vietnam, departing 29 June 1972. However, its 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry, Task Force Garry Owen, remained another two months. [18]

In the Vietnam War, the Division suffered more casualties than any other army division: 5,444 men killed in action and 26,592 wounded in action. [14] [19] [20] However, the First Marine Division suffered 7,012 men killed in action and the Third Marine Division suffered 6,869 men killed in action. [21] [22]

Air Cavalry troops serving in the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile)

This list of air cavalry troops is alphabetical by regiment, per the U.S. Army Combat Arms Regimental System, known as CARS, in use from 1957 to 1981. Under this system the unit nomenclature "regiment" was not used to designate the lineage of companies/batteries/troops or their parent battalions/squadrons. However, there were five armored cavalry regiments (ACRs) not organized under CARS, these units, including the 11th ACR, retained the "regiment" nomenclature in their official designation.

Cold War service and REFORGER Exercise

1971-1974 Organization of the 1st Cavalry Division (TRICAP) TRICAP 1971.JPG
1971–1974 Organization of the 1st Cavalry Division (TRICAP)
1st Cavalry Division structure 1989 (click to enlarge) 1st US Cavalry Division 1989.png
1st Cavalry Division structure 1989 (click to enlarge)

When the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) departed Vietnam, its colors were retained by reflagging the existing 1st Armored Division at Fort Hood as the "new" 1st Cavalry Division, configured as an armored division. Concurrently, the colors of the 1st Armored Division were transferred to Germany where the 4th Armored Division was reflagged as the 1st Armored Division.

In the aftermath of Vietnam, the 1st Cavalry Division was converted from an airmobile light infantry role into a triple capabilities (TRICAP) division. The unit received an infusion of mechanized infantry and artillery, to make it capable of missions needing three types of troops; armored, airmobility, and air cavalry.

In the post-Vietnam era, morale in the US Army waned. In response, from 1973 through 1979 HQDA permitted local commanders to encourage morale-enhancing uniform distinctions. Consequently, many units embraced various colored berets, for example armor and armored cavalry units often adopted the black beret. Similarly many other units including the First Cavalry Division embraced various colored berets in an attempt to improve dwindling morale. The First Cav decided to assign various colored berets to the three major TRICAP and division support units. In this implementation, armored cavalry, airmobile infantry units, air cavalry units, division artillery units, and division support units all wore different colored berets, including black, light blue, kelly green, and red.

However, the TRICAP concept was short-lived, and by 1975, the division was equipped as a two-brigade armored division with its third brigade provided by the Mississippi Army National Guard's 155th Armored Brigade from 1984–1991.

The division participated in numerous REFORGER exercises, and was used to test new doctrinal concepts and equipment, including the XM-1 tank. The unit assignment and structure changed significantly, notably when 1st Battalion, 9th Cavalry, the division's most famous unit, was inactivated. The 13th Signal Battalion fielded mobile subscriber equipment (MSE), a secure digital communications system for corps and below units.

Middle East in 1990s

Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm

Battle plan for the first Gulf War, with the 1st Cavalry Division attacking through the center of the main force. DesertStormMap v2.svg
Battle plan for the first Gulf War, with the 1st Cavalry Division attacking through the center of the main force.

The 1st Cavalry next fought as a heavy division, during Operation Desert Storm [23] in January and February 1991. It participated in the Battle of Norfolk. The 1st Cavalry Division deployed in October 1990 as part of VII Corps. The division's 'round-out' formation, the 155th Armored Brigade was not deployed in a surprise political decision.[ citation needed ] It was planned to augment the division by attaching the Tiger Brigade from the 2nd Armored Division, but that brigade was attached to the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force (1st & 2nd Marine Divisions) to add heavy armor support to that force. Consequently, the 1st Cavalry Division was assigned the role of the VII Corps' reserve for much of the ground war, but was crucial in the movement of ground forces to the Kuwaiti and west Saudi Arabian theaters by making two assaults into Iraqi held territory with the division's Black Jack Brigade moving north drawing Iraqi divisions out of Kuwait to support the Iraqi units defending in Iraq. This movement was led by the 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry, from the Wadi Al-Batien to just north of Basra through several Iraqi divisions before stopping. The assault by M1 Abrams main battle tanks, M2 Bradley infantry fighting vehicles, and other support vehicles moved much faster than was thought possible, catching the Iraqi Army off guard.

The 13th Signal Battalion was the first unit in the U.S. Army to deploy mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) into combat.[ citation needed ] Installing, operating, and maintaining communications equipment to support a communications network spanning over 280 kilometers, the 13th Signal Battalion again provided the division's communications. 13th Signal Battalion was the first unit in the U.S. Army to provide digital communications in Southwest Asia. It was a gateway link from the Port of Dammam to the U.S. Army XVIII Airborne Corps Headquarters.

After the division returned from Kuwait, the 1st "Tiger" Brigade, 2d Armored Division was reflagged as the 3d Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (separate lineage). [24] In response to the continued hostile movements by the Iraqi Armed Forces after Desert Storm, the U.S. Department of Defense ordered successive Operation Intrinsic Action deployments by combat brigades and special forces units to the Iraq/Kuwait border. The 1st Cavalry's three brigades contributed heavily to the decade-long deployments from 1992–2002.[ citation needed ]

Bosnia-Herzegovina

The 1st Cavalry Division took control of the U.S. peacekeeping contingent in Bosnia-Herzegovina with approximately 6,900 personnel on 20 June 1998, as part of the multinational Stabilization Force (SFOR). 1st Brigade served for Rotation SFOR 4. 2nd Brigade served for Rotation SFOR 5. 2nd Brigade was alerted for action during the Russian move from Bosnia to the Pristina International Airport in June 1999, but no action was ultimately taken after consultation at the highest levels in NATO. In August 1999, the 10th Mountain Division took over operations in the Tuzla/Multinational Division North area.

2001–present: War on Terror

Elements of the division arrived in Washington, D.C., shortly after the 11 September attacks.

Iraq

Soldiers from the 1st Cavalry Division engaging insurgents in the Battle of Baqubah, 14 March 2007. Stryker Battalion rolls into Baqubah DVIDS38283.jpg
Soldiers from the 1st Cavalry Division engaging insurgents in the Battle of Baqubah, 14 March 2007.

In October 2001 an advance party of a division brigade combat team was deployed to the Iraq/Kuwait border. Some divisional units participated in the initial 2003 invasion of Iraq. [25] The division in its entirety deployed to Iraq in January 2004, sending an initial detachment of the 9th Cavalry Regiment into combat in September 2003. The 1st Cavalry relieved the 1st Armored Division in Baghdad. Among its subordinate formations were: Louisiana's 256th Infantry Brigade; Arkansas' 39th Infantry Brigade; element of A Company, 28th Signal Battalion; elements of Washington's 81st Armored Brigade; and the 2d Battalion, 162nd Infantry (Oregon Army National Guard), and Company E (Air Traffic Control Services), 126th Aviation, MA ARNG. After spending more than a year in Iraq, it redeployed back to the US by April 2005. It was relieved by the 3d Infantry Division. Division Artillery (DIVARTY) was organized as the 5th BCT. It contained HHB, DIVARTY; 1–7 CAV; 1–8 CAV; 1–21 FA; and the 515th FSB (Provisional). The division fought in many key battles against insurgents, including the Second Battle of Fallujah in 2004, where the 2nd Brigade Combat Team engaged in house to house intense urban combat to root out enemy cells in the city. During its OIF2 deployment division assigned and attached personnel numbered approximately 40,000. 168 personnel were killed in action, with approximately 1,500 wounded.

The division assumed duties as Headquarters, Multi-National Division – Baghdad from November 2006 to December 2007. 4th Brigade Combat Team, activated in 2005, arrived in Ninawa Governorate in October and November 2006. However, 2–12 Cavalry was detached, deployed to Baghdad to augment the division efforts there.

The 3d Brigade Combat Team, "Greywolf", deployed to the Diyala Province in September 2006 and fought in the Battle of Baqubah as a part of the Iraq War troop surge of 2007.

The division assumed duties as the Headquarters, Multi-National Division – Baghdad Jan 2009– Jan 2010. The deployment was extended by 23 days past the one year mark.

The 4th Brigade Combat Team "Long Knife" deployed to Mosul, Nineva Province, September 2010 to September 2011.

Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014)

In November 2001, elements of the 1st Cavalry Division (3d Platoon, 545th MP CO, originally assigned to 2d Brigade "BlackJack" 1st Cav) deployed to Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan as part of Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan.

In May 2011, the division headquarters deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and assumed command of Regional Command East, replacing the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault). The 1st Infantry Division HQ took command of RC-East on 19 April 2012.

In June 2014, the division headquarters returned to Afghanistan and assumed command of Regional Command South, replacing the 4th Infantry Division.

In October 2014, the division flag returned to Fort Hood, leaving its Deputy Commanding General behind as the new Train Advise Assist Command South.

Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (OEF-A) ended in late 2014. [26]

Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)

After the completion of Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan, the new US deployment to Afghanistan was known as Operation Freedom's Sentinel. [26]

In June 2015, the division element in TAAC South was relieved by an element from the 7th Infantry Division Headquarters.

In September 2016, the 1st Cavalry Division Headquarters deployed again to Afghanistan, this time with the 1st Cavalry Division Sustainment Brigade alongside it. [27] [28] The headquarters serves as the United States Forces – Afghanistan National Support Element, and is also responsible for Bagram Airfield, the largest US military base in Afghanistan. It supports forces serving in the United States' Operation Freedom's Sentinel and NATO's Resolute Support Mission, enabling both the international effort to train, advise, and assist the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces and the counterterrorism fight. The 1st Cavalry Division Sustainment Brigade also supports both Operation Freedom's Sentinel and Resolute Support, and is the Army's only currently-deployed active duty Sustainment Brigade.

Operation Inherent Resolve

The division's 3d BCT deployed in February 2017 to Kuwait, [29] and elements of 3ABCT supported operations in Iraq to retake Mosul from ISIS.

Global missions

The 1st Cavalry Division currently holds three of the active Army's ten armored brigade combat teams. The division provides the Army and Combatant Commanders with trained and ready forces.

In April 2014, 2–5 Cavalry from 1st BCT, 1CD deployed to Europe to support Operation Combined Resolve II, a NATO exercise in southeastern Germany. [30] In October 2014, 1CD returned to Europe to support its NATO partners in another pair of exercises, this time participating in Operations Combined Resolve III and Atlantic Resolve with the majority of 1ABCT. [31] [32]

A battalion task force from the Combat Aviation Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division deployed to Germany in November 2015; it participated in Atlantic Resolve, then stayed in Germany for the next nine months to provide aviation support to US and NATO forces across Europe. [33] [34]

In June 2015, the 2d BCT was the first rotational brigade deployed to South Korea, [35] relieving the 1st BCT, 2d Infantry Division as it inactivated. The 2d BCT deployed for nine months; in February 2016, the Army called on the First Team again, and the 2d BCT was replaced by the 1st BCT on another nine-month rotation.

Current structure

On 15 July 2005, the 1st Cavalry Division transitioned to the Unit of Action modified table of organization and equipment (MTOE). No longer are there battalion-sized elements made up purely of armor and/or infantry battalions. Brigades are now composed of combined arms battalions (CAB), meaning every maneuver battalion combines infantry and armor, excluding the reconnaissance squadrons. The Division's artillery battalions are assigned to all three of the Brigade Combat Teams.

1st Cavalry Division organization 2021 1st US Cavalry Division Structure 2016.png
1st Cavalry Division organization 2021

Combat service identification badge of the United States Army 1st Cavalry Division.svg 1st Cavalry Division consists of a division headquarters and headquarters battalion, three armored brigade combat teams, a division artillery, a combat aviation brigade, and a division sustainment brigade.

the 1st Cavalry Division's Combat Aviation Brigade performs a mock charge with the horse detachment. 1 CAV DIV charge.jpg
the 1st Cavalry Division's Combat Aviation Brigade performs a mock charge with the horse detachment.

The 4th Brigade Combat Team "Long Knife" inactivated in October 2013 the following units: the Special Troops Battalion, 4th BCT; the 5th Battalion, 82nd Artillery; and 27th Brigade Support Battalion, with some of the companies of the latter two used to augment artillery and support battalions in the remaining three BCTs. The 1st Squadron, 9th Cavalry joined the 2d Brigade Combat Team, the 2d Battalion, 7th Cavalry joined the 3d Brigade Combat Team and the 2d Battalion, 12th Cavalry joined the 1st Brigade Combat Team. The 3d Cavalry Regiment was subordinate to the Division until March 2017. [46]

Shoulder sleeve insignia

Shoulder Sleeve Insignia: Class A/OG-107, BDU, DCU, UCP, OCP CAV patches 19 May 11 002.JPG
Shoulder Sleeve Insignia: Class A/OG-107, BDU, DCU, UCP, OCP

The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally approved 3 January 1921, with several variations in colors of the bend and horse's head to reflect the subordinate elements of the division. The design was authorized for wear by all subordinate elements of the division on 11 December 1934, and previous authorization for the variations was canceled. The insignia is worn subdued on field uniforms after experience in the Vietnam War, where the gold was too conspicuous. Normally, the gold is changed to the base color of the uniform to subdue it. [47] With the retirement of the green "Class A" uniform in October 2015, only the subdued version of the SSI is worn, on the ACU's left sleeve.

It consists on a yellow, triangular Norman shield with rounded corners 5.25 inches (133 mm) in height overall, a black diagonal stripe extends over the shield from upper left to lower right, and in the upper right a black horse's head cuts off diagonally at the neck, all within a 0.125-in green border.

Yellow was chosen because it is the traditional cavalry color, and the horse's head refer to the division's original cavalry structure. Black, symbolic of iron, alludes to the transition to tanks and armor. The black diagonal stripe represents a sword baldric and is a mark of military honor; it also implies movement "up the field" and thus symbolizes aggressive elan and attack. The one diagonal bend and the one horse's head also allude to the division's numerical designation.

A soldier wearing the SSI of the 1st Cavalry Division speaking with Gen Peter Pace, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Peter Pace in Iraq - Dec of 2006.jpg
A soldier wearing the SSI of the 1st Cavalry Division speaking with Gen Peter Pace, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Distinctive unit insignia

Description: A metal and enameled device, 1 inch in height overall, consisting of a gold-colored Norman shield with a black horse's head couped in sinister chief, and a black bend charged with two five-pointed stars. Properly: Or, on a bend sable two stars of five points Or, in chief sinister a sable couped horse head, a border vert

Symbolism: The device is a miniature reproduction of the 1st Cavalry Division's shoulder sleeve insignia with the addition of two five-pointed stars. The Division Commander and the Division Staff wore the distinctive insignia design from 1922 to 1934 as a shoulder sleeve insignia.

Background: The distinctive unit insignia was approved 25 August 1965.

The Flag of the 1st Cavalry Division is a white field with the distinctive yellow triangular Norman shield with rounded corners, a black diagonal stripe extending over the shield from upper left to lower right and in the upper right a silhouetted horse's head cut off diagonally at the neck with a green border. [48]

Awards and decorations

Campaign credit

ConflictStreamerYear(s)
World War II
Streamer APC.PNG
New Guinea1943
Bismarck Archipelago1943
Leyte with Arrowhead1944
Luzon1944
Korean War
Korean Service Medal - Streamer.png
UN Defensive1950
UN Offensive1950
CCF Intervention1950–1951
First UN Counteroffensive1951
CCF Spring Offensive1951
UN Summer–Fall Offensive1951
Second Korean Winter1951–1952
Vietnam War
Vietnam Service Streamer vector.svg
Defense1965
Counteroffensive1965–1966
Counteroffensive, Phase II1966–1967
Counteroffensive, Phase III1967–1968
Tet Counteroffensive1968
Counteroffensive, Phase IV1968
Counteroffensive, Phase V1968
Counteroffensive, Phase VI1968–1969
Tet 69/Counteroffensive1969
Summer–Fall 19691969
Winter–Spring 19701969–1970
Sanctuary Counteroffensive1970
Counteroffensive, Phase VII1970–1971
Gulf War
Streamer SAS.PNG
Defense of Saudi Arabia1991
Liberation and Defense of Kuwait1991
Iraq
Iraq Campaign streamer (USMC).svg
Iraqi Governance2004
National Resolution2005
Iraqi Surge2007
Iraqi Sovereignty2009
Afghanistan
Streamer AFGCS.PNG
Consolidation III2011
Transition I2011–2012
Transition I2014
Transition II2015

Unit decorations

RibbonAwardYearNotes
United States Army and U.S. Air Force Presidential Unit Citation ribbon.svg Presidential Unit Citation (Army)Pleiku Province
Valorous Unit Award ribbon.svg Valorous Unit Award (Army)Fish Hook
Meritorious Unit Commendation ribbon.svg Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army)Iraq
Meritorious Unit Commendation ribbon.svg Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army)Afghanistan (2011–2012)
Meritorious Unit Commendation ribbon.svg Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army)Afghanistan (2014–2015)
Philippines Presidential Unit Citation.png Philippine Republic Presidential Unit Citation 1944–1945
Korean Presidential Unit Citation.png Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation (Army)Waegwan–Taegu
Greek Cross of Valour ribbon.png Gold Cross of Valour (Greece)1955Korea
Gallantry Cross Unit Citation.png Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry, with Palm1965–1969For service in Vietnam
Gallantry Cross Unit Citation.png Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry, with Palm1969–1970For service in Vietnam
Gallantry Cross Unit Citation.png Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry, with Palm1970–1971For service in Vietnam
Civil Action Unit Citation.png Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Unit Citation 1969–1970For service in Vietnam

Notable former members

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Special Unit Designations". United States Army Center of Military History. 21 April 2010. Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
  2. "News Release: Army Announces Divisions to Remain in the 10-Division Force". Defense.gov. 12 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2 March 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  3. "Component Elements of the 1st Cavalry Divisions in World War II". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  4. "The Horse Cavalry Detachment". Hood.army.mil. Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  5. 50th Anniversary Commemorative Album of the Flying Column 1945–1995: The Liberation of Santo Tomas Internment Camp 3 February 1945, by Rose Contey-Aiello (1995) ( ISBN   0-9645150-0-8; ISBN   978-0-9645150-0-0); G. Ward and K. Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945, p. 342 (Alfred A. Knopf 2007)
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Army Battle Casualties and Nonbattle Deaths, Final Report (Statistics and Accounting Branch, Office of the Adjutant General, 1 June 1953)
  7. Capt. Scott Kuhn (29 October 2018) 1st Cavalry Division Soldier missing since Korean War laid to rest 3rd Bn, 8th Cav Regiment. Missing since 2 November 1950, remains repatriated July 2018.
  8. "The Bug-Out Ballad". Sniff.numachi.com. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  9. "Loss of Colors". United States Army Center of Military History. Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  10. interview one of the 23 of 160 men of the 5th cav who rode into Chipyon-ni on the deck of the tanks of task force Crombez
  11. Flanagan, p. 378.
  12. http://www.first-team.us/tableaux/chapt_07/ Reflagging the Division for Vietnam
  13. vietnam-hueys.tripod.com
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 Ankony, Robert C. (2008). Lurps: A Ranger's Diary of Tet, Khe Sanh, A Shau, and Quang Tri. Hamilton Books. ISBN   978-0-7618-4373-3.
  15. Tolson, John, Lt. Gen., Vietnam Studies: Airmobility 1961–1971, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C., 1973.
  16. 1 2 Ankony, Robert C. (October 2008). "No Peace in the Valley". Vietnam Magazine. pp. 26–31.
  17. Stanton, Shelby, Anatomy of a Division: The 1st Cav in Vietnam, Presidio Press, Novato, CA, 1987:146.
  18. Stanton, Shelby, Anatomy of a Division: The 1st Cav in Vietnam, Presidio Press, Novato, CA, 1987.
  19. Lt. Gen. Tolson, John J. Vietnam Studies: Airmobility 1961 – 1971, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C. (1973).
  20. Stanton, Shelby, L., Anatomy of a Division: The 1st Cav in Vietnam, Presidio Press, CA (1987).
  21. CDR Kenneth Davis, US Navy (ret), and associates of the Coffelt Database of Vietnam casualties.
  22. Carpenter, William, and Robert Ankony, "First Casualties: First Cav LRRPs," CFM Research, Nov. 2015.
  23. AR 600-8-27, p. 26 paragraph 9–14 & p. 28 paragraph 2–14
  24. "Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division | Lineage and Honors | U.S. Army Center of Military History".
  25. "Apaches are the attack helicopters of choice in Iraqi battle". Odessa American. Associated Press. 24 March 2003.
  26. 1 2 "Meet Operation Freedom's Sentinel, the Pentagon's new mission in Afghanistan". Washington Post. 29 December 2014.
  27. "Army: 500 from 1st Cavalry Division deploy to Afghanistan". Stars and Stripes. 22 March 2016.
  28. "At 95, 1st Cav set to 'ride' in support of Afghanistan mission".
  29. https://www.armytimes.com/articles/army-announces-deployments-for-5-300-soldiers
  30. "Combined Resolve II to exercise Army's European Rotational Force". army.mil. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  31. "1st Cav's Ironhorse Brigade to support Operation Atlantic Resolve in Europe". DVIDS. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  32. "Cavalry Soldiers wrap up successful Atlantic Resolve rotation". army.mil. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  33. "1st CAV aviators will deploy to Europe this fall". 7 August 2017.
  34. "Regionally Allocated Forces from 1st CAV arrive in Germany". army.mil. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  35. Korea deployment accessdate=2015-02-18
  36. "Headquarters and Tactical Command Posts 1st Cavalry Division".
  37. TIOH – Heraldry – Special Troops Battalion, 1 Cavalry Division
  38. "Headquarters, 1st Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division".
  39. "Headquarters, 1st Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division".
  40. "Headquarters, 2d Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division".
  41. "Headquarters, 2d Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division".
  42. "Headquarters and Headquarters Company Aviation Brigade 1st Cavalry Division".
  43. http://www.forthoodsentinel.com/story.php?id=16960/article_cad50052-2506-11e5-9b00-bb6b8f20a380.html
  44. "Fort Hood, Texas | 1st Cavalry Division". Hood.army.mil. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  45. "Headquarters and Headquarters Company 1st Cavalry Division Support Command".
  46. Geiger, Capt. Grace (5 April 2017). "3rd Cav Regt transitions to III Corps". Killeen, TX: 3rd Cavalry Regiment Public Affairs Office. DVIDS . Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  47. For more variations on the unit's shoulder sleeve insignia, see "Rag Clippings" (PDF). The Trading Post. American Society of Military Insignia Collectors: 19–20. April–June 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2014.
  48. Here is a link to a source showing the flag and description.
  49. https://firstteam.football/

Further reading

Media

Preceded by
101st Airborne Division
Regional Command East
2011–2012
Succeeded by
1st Infantry Division