731

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Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
731 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 731
DCCXXXI
Ab urbe condita 1484
Armenian calendar 180
ԹՎ ՃՁ
Assyrian calendar 5481
Balinese saka calendar 652–653
Bengali calendar 138
Berber calendar 1681
Buddhist calendar 1275
Burmese calendar 93
Byzantine calendar 6239–6240
Chinese calendar 庚午(Metal  Horse)
3427 or 3367
     to 
辛未年 (Metal  Goat)
3428 or 3368
Coptic calendar 447–448
Discordian calendar 1897
Ethiopian calendar 723–724
Hebrew calendar 4491–4492
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 787–788
 - Shaka Samvat 652–653
 - Kali Yuga 3831–3832
Holocene calendar 10731
Iranian calendar 109–110
Islamic calendar 112–113
Japanese calendar Tenpyō 3
(天平3年)
Javanese calendar 624–625
Julian calendar 731
DCCXXXI
Korean calendar 3064
Minguo calendar 1181 before ROC
民前1181年
Nanakshahi calendar −737
Seleucid era 1042/1043 AG
Thai solar calendar 1273–1274
Tibetan calendar 阳金马年
(male Iron-Horse)
857 or 476 or −296
     to 
阴金羊年
(female Iron-Goat)
858 or 477 or −295
Pope Gregory III (731-741) Pope Gregory III Illustration.jpg
Pope Gregory III (731–741)

Year 731 ( DCCXXXI ) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 731 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is G. The most recent year of such kind was 2018 and the next one will be 2029 in the Gregorian calendar, or likewise, 2013 and 2019 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1900, was also a common year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year of this type contains two Friday the 13ths in April and July. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic, but also have another in January.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

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Europe

Uthman ibn Naissa, better known as Munuza, was a Berber governor depicted in different contradictory chronicles during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania.

Cerdanya Natural region

Cerdanya or often La Cerdanya, is a natural comarca and historical region of the eastern Pyrenees divided between France and Spain. Historically it was one of the counties of Catalonia.

Pyrenees Range of mountains in southwest Europe

The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea.

Britain

Saint Ceolwulf was King of Northumbria from 729 until 737, except for a short period in 731 or 732 when he was deposed, and quickly restored to power. Ceolwulf finally abdicated and entered the monastery at Lindisfarne. He was the "most glorious king" to whom Bede dedicated his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.

Monastery complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplace(s) of monks or nuns

A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits). A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, and may also serve as an oratory.

Throne seat of state of a potentate or dignitary

A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary, especially the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions; or the seat occupied by a pope or bishop on ceremonial occasions. "Throne" in an abstract sense can also refer to the monarchy or the Crown itself, an instance of metonymy, and is also used in many expressions such as "the power behind the throne". The expression "ascend (mount) the throne" takes its meaning from the steps leading up to the dais or platform, on which the throne is placed, being formerly comprised in the word's significance.

Asia

Battle of the Defile

The Battle of the Defile or Battle of the Pass was fought in the Tashtakaracha Pass between a large Arab army of the Umayyad Caliphate and the Turkic Turgesh khaganate over three days in July 731 CE. The Turgesh had been besieging Samarkand, and its commander, Sawra ibn al-Hurr al-Abani, sent a request for relief to the newly appointed governor of Khurasan, Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri. Junayd's army was attacked by the Turgesh in the pass, and although the Umayyad army managed to extricate itself from the pass and reach Samarkand, it suffered enormous casualties, while Sawra's 12,000 men, who had been commanded to attack the Turgesh in the rear in a relief effort, were almost annihilated. The battle, for which one of the most detailed accounts of the entire Umayyad era survives in the History of al-Tabari, halted and even reversed Muslim expansion into Central Asia for a decade.

Samarkand Place in Samarqand Region, Uzbekistan

Samarkand, alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan, and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia. There is evidence of human activity in the area of the city from the late Paleolithic era, though there is no direct evidence of when Samarkand was founded; some theories propose that it was founded between the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Prospering from its location on the Silk Road between China and the Mediterranean, at times Samarkand was one of the greatest cities of Central Asia.

Uzbekistan Landlocked Republic in Central Asia

Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan, is a landlocked country in Central Asia. The sovereign state is a secular, unitary constitutional republic, comprising 12 provinces, one autonomous republic, and a capital city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan to the southeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest. Along with Liechtenstein, it is one of the world's only two doubly landlocked countries.

By topic

Literature

Bede 7th and 8th-century Anglo-Saxon monk, writer, and saint

Bede, also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable, was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles. Born on lands likely belonging to the Monkwearmouth monastery in present day Sunderland, Bede was sent there at the age of seven and later joined Abbot Ceolfrith at the Jarrow monastery, both of whom survived a plague that struck in 686, an outbreak that killed a majority of the population there. While he spent most of his life in the monastery, Bede travelled to several abbeys and monasteries across the British Isles, even visiting the archbishop of York and King Ceolwulf of Northumbria. He is well known as an author, teacher, and scholar, and his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, gained him the title "The Father of English History". His ecumenical writings were extensive and included a number of Biblical commentaries and other theological works of exegetical erudition. Another important area of study for Bede was the academic discipline of computus, otherwise known to his contemporaries as the science of calculating calendar dates. One of the more important dates Bede tried to compute was Easter, an effort that was mired with controversy. He also helped establish the practice of dating forward from the birth of Christ, a practice which eventually became commonplace in medieval Europe. Bede was one of the greatest teachers and writers of the Early Middle Ages and is considered by many historians to be the single most important scholar of antiquity for the period between the death of Pope Gregory I in 604 and the coronation of Charlemagne in 800.

Monk religious occupation

A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks. A monk may be a person who decides to dedicate his life to serving all other living beings, or to be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live his or her life in prayer and contemplation. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy.

Historian person who studies and writes about the past

A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Some historians are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere.

Religion

February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 323 days remaining until the end of the year.

Pope Gregory II 89th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church (from 715 to 731)

Pope Gregory II was Pope from 19 May 715 to his death in 731. His defiance of the Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian as a result of the iconoclastic controversy in the Eastern Empire prepared the way for a long series of revolts, schisms and civil wars that eventually led to the establishment of the temporal power of the popes.

Rome Capital city and comune in Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

Charles Martel Frankish military and political leader

Charles Martel was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death. The son of the Frankish statesman Pepin of Herstal and a noblewoman named Alpaida, Charles successfully asserted his claims to power as successor to his father as the power behind the throne in Frankish politics. Continuing and building on his father's work, he restored centralized government in Francia and began the series of military campaigns that re-established the Franks as the undisputed masters of all Gaul.

714 Year

Year 714 (DCCXIV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 714 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

The 730s decade ran from January 1, 730, to December 31, 739.

The 720s decade ran from January 1, 720, to December 31, 729.

The 710s decade ran from January 1, 710, to December 31, 719.

732 Year

Year 732 (DCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 732 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

724 Year

Year 724 (DCCXXIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 724 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

718 Year

Year 718 (DCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 718 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

733 Year

Year 733 (DCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 733 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

721 Year

Year 721 (DCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 721 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Year 725 (DCCXXV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 725 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Year 729 (DCCXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 729 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

734 Year

Year 734 (DCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 734 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

739 Year

Year 739 (DCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 739 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Battle of Tours battle fought in 732 by Merovingian Franks against the Umayyad Caliphate

The Battle of Tours – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Highway of the Martyrs – marked the victory of the Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel over the invasion forces of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus. It was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in the Aquitaine of west-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of Poitiers. The location of the battle was close to the border between the Frankish realm and the then-independent Duchy of Aquitaine under Odo the Great.

The Battle of Toulouse (721) was a victory of an Aquitanian Christian army led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine over an Umayyad Muslim army besieging the city of Toulouse, and led by the governor of Al-Andalus, Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani. The victory checked the spread of Umayyad control westward from Narbonne into Aquitaine.

Odo the Great, was the Duke of Aquitaine by 700. His territory included the Vasconia in the south-west of Gaul and the Duchy of Aquitaine, a realm extending from the Loire to the Pyrenees, with the capital in Toulouse. He fought the Carolingian Franks and made alliances with the Moors to combat them. He retained this domain until his abdication in 735. He is remembered for defeating the Umayyads in 721 as they advanced down the Garonne through Aquitaine. He was the first to defeat them decisively in Western Europe. The feat earned him the epithet "The Great".

The Battle of the River Garonne, also known as the Battle of Bordeaux, was fought in 732 between an Umayyad army led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, governor of Al-Andalus, and Aquitanian forces led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine.

Umayyad invasion of Gaul conquest of Septimania and Aquitaine

The Umayyad invasion of Gaul in 720 followed immediately on the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. During the 8th century, Umayyad armies conquered the region of Septimania, the last remnant of the Visigothic Kingdom.

References

  1. David Nicolle (2008). Poitiers AD 732, Charles Martel turns the Islamic tide (p. 41). ISBN   978-184603-230-1
  2. David Nicolle (2008). Poitiers AD 732, Charles Martel turns the Islamic tide (p. 19). ISBN   978-184603-230-1
  3. Blankinship (1994), pp. 156, 157
  4. Kennedy (2001), p. 29
  5. Kennedy (2007), p. 285
  6. Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Gregory III". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  7. Treadgold, p. 354