The Gunditjmaraor Gunditjamara, also known as Dhauwurd Wurrung, are an Aboriginal Australian people of southwestern Victoria. They are the traditional owners of the areas now encompassing Warrnambool, Port Fairy, Woolsthorpe and Portland. Their land includes much of the Budj Bim heritage areas. The Kerrup Jmara (Kerrupjmara, Kerrup-Jmara) are a clan of the Gunditjmara, whose traditional lands are around Lake Condah. The Koroitgundidj (Koroit gundidj) are another clan group, whose lands are around Tower Hill.
The Djargurd Wurrung, Girai wurrung, and Gadubanud are also Aboriginal Victorian groups who all spoke languages in the dialect continuum known as the Dhauwurd Wurrung language ("Gunditjmara language").
Gunditjmara is formed from two morphemes: Gunditj, a suffix denoting belonging to a particular group or locality, and the noun mara, meaning "man".
The Dhauwurd wurrung language is a term used for a group of languages spoken by various groups of the Gunditjmara people. Different linguists have identified different groupings of lects and languages (see the main article for details), and the whole group is also sometimes referred to as the Gunditjmara language or the Warrnambool language. Some of the major languages or dialects often grouped under these names were:
The Gunditjmara tribal territories extends over an estimated 7,000 square kilometres (2,700 sq mi). The western boundaries are around Cape Bridgewater and Lake Condah. Northwards they reach Caramut and Hamilton. Their eastern boundaries lay around the Hopkins River. Their neighbours to the west are the Buandig people, to the north the Jardwadjali and Djab wurrung peoples, and in the east the Girai wurrung people. Early settlers remarked on the richness of the game to be found from the Eumerella Creek down to the coast.
The way of life of the Aboriginal people of Western Victoria differed from other Aboriginal Victorians in several respects. Because of the colder climate, they made, wore, and used as blankets, rugs of possum and kangaroo.Possum-skin cloaks, used by Gunditjmara and other peoples of the south-east, were made sewn with string, and worn for warmth, used to carry babies on their backs, as drums in ceremony and as a burial cloak. They are still made today as part of revitalisation of culture and as an instrument for healing.
They also built huts from wood and local basalt (known as bluestone), with roofs made of turf and branches.Stone tools were used for cutting, and are held in collections across Victoria today. The women used digging sticks, also known as yam sticks, for digging yams, goannas, ants and other foods out of the ground, as well as for defence, for settling disputes and for punishment purposes as part of customary law.
The Gunditjmara believe that the landscape's features mark out the traces of a creator, Budj Bim (meaning "High Head"), who emerged in the form of the volcano previously called Mount Eccles. In a spate of eruption, the lava flows, constituting his blood and teeth, spilled over the landscape, fashioning its wetlands. "High Head" still refers to the crater's brow, which can be accessed only by Gunditjmara men wearing special emu-feather footwear.Opposite, beyond the coastline, the island they call Deen Maar/Dhinmar held special value for its burial associations. A cave there, known as Tarn wirrung ("road of the spirits"), is thought of as the mouth of a passage linking the mainland and the island.
In Gunditjmara funeral rites, bodies are enfolded in grass bundles and interred with their heads pointing to the island, with an apotropaic firebrand of native cherry wood. If grass was thereafter found outside the mouth of Tarn wirrung, it was regarded as evidence that the good spirit Puit puit chepetch had conveyed the corpse via the subterranean passage to the island, while guiding its spirit to the realm of the clouds. If the burial coincided with the appearance of a meteor, this was read as proof that the being in transit to the heavens had been furnished with fire. If grass was found at the cave when no one had been buried, then it was thought it showed someone had been murdered, and the cave could not be approached until the grass had been dispersed.
The Gunditjmara were divided into 59 clans, each with its headmen (wungit), a role passed on by hereditary transmission.They spoke distinct dialects, not all of them mutually intelligible, with the three main hordes located around Lake Condah, Port Fairy and Woolsthorpe respectively. The Gunditjmara groups are divided into two moieties, respectively the grugidj (sulphur-crested cockatoo or Long-billed corella) and the gabadj (Red-tailed black cockatoo, the latter once thriving in buloke woodlands, now mainly cleared.
According to Alfred William Howitt, they had four sections, which however did not affect marriage rules:
However these terms refer to 4 of the 58 clans.[ citation needed ]
Descent was matrilineal.
The following is a list of the Gunditjmara clans (conedeet),taken from that in Ian D. Clark's work.
|No||Clan name||Approximate location|
|1||Art gundidj||Tarrone station, near Moyne Swamp|
|3||Bate gundidj||Junction of Stokes, Crawford and Glenelg Rivers|
|4||Biteboren gundidj||Grasmere station|
|5||Bokerer gundidj||Glenelg River|
|7||Bonedol gundidj||Ponedol Hills|
|8||Can can corro gundidj||south-southeast of Mount Rouse|
|9||Carnbul gundidj||southwest of Tahara station|
|10||Cart gundidj||Mount Clay|
|11||Cartcorang gundidj||Lake Cartcorang|
|13||Cupponenet gundidj||Mount Chaucer|
|15||Direk gundidj||Condah Swamp|
|16||Gilgar gundidj||Darlots Creek|
|17||Kerup gundidj (aka Kerrup Jmara)||Lake Condah|
|18||Kilcarer gundidj||Convincing Ground|
|19||Koroit gundidj||Tower Hill|
|20||Lay gundidj mallo||unknown|
|21||Mallun gundidj||Griffiths Island|
|23||Mendeet gundidj marayn||unknown|
|24||Moonwer gundidj||near Sisters Point, southwest of Killarney|
|25||Moperer gundidj||Spring Creek|
|26||Mordoneneet gundidj||southwest or west-southwest of Mount Rouse|
|27||Morro gundidj||south of Mount Rouse|
|28||Mum keelunk gundidj||Boodcarra Lake, west of Goose Lagoon|
|29||Mumdorrong gundidj||Marm reserve, south of Lake Wangoom|
|30||Narcurrer gundidj||southwest of Crawford River|
|31||Nartitbeer gundidj||Dunmore station|
|32||Net net yune gundidj||southeast of Crawford River|
|33||Nillan gundidj||south-southwest of Mount Napier|
|34||Omebegare rege gundidj||junction of Merri River and Spring Creek|
|35||Pallapnue gundidj Their clan head was Koort Kirrup (1840),||Stokes River|
|37||Ponungdeet gundidj||junction of Glenelg and Stokes Rivers|
|38||Pyipgil gundidj||Port Fairy townsite|
|39||Tarrerwung gundidj||mouth of Glenelg River. Clan head Mingbum (1840)|
|40||Tarerer gundidj||Tarerer, a swamp between Tower Hill and Merri River|
|41||Tarngonene wurrer gundidj||Surrey River|
|42||Teerar gundidj||southeast of Spring Creek station|
|44||Tone gundidj||near Hopkins River|
|45||Ure gundidj||Portland township|
|46||Wane gundidj||Grasmere station|
|47||Wanedeet gundidj||Tahara and Murndal stations|
|48||Warerangur gundidj||Aringa station|
|49||Waywac gundidj||southwest of Mount Rouse|
|50||Weereweerip gundidj||east of Eumeralla River|
|52||Worcarre gundidj||northeast of the head of Stokes River|
|53||Worerome killink gundidj||Macarthur|
|54||Worn gundidj||west of Mount Warrnambool|
|55||Yallo gundidj||junction of Crawford and Glenelg Rivers|
|56||Yambeet gundidj||Yambuk station|
|57||Yarrer gundidj||between Campbell's Merri River station and Allandale station|
|58||Yiyar gundidj||Mount Eckersley.|
|59||Yowen (Yowenillum/ Tarrone) gundidj||Moyne River|
The Gunditjmara are traditionally river and lake people, with Framlingham Forest, Lake Condah and the surrounding river systems being of great importance to them economically and spiritually. Numerous distinct structures, extending over 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) of the landscape, are employed for the purpose of farming short-finned eels, the staple of the Gunditjmara diet. These include stone races; canals; traps; stone walls; stone house sites and stone cairns. Some of the groundwork is older than the Egyptian pyramids. A controversy exists concerning the extent to which these features are the results of natural environmental processes or cultural modifications of the landscape by Indigenous people. Peter Coutts and others argued, in a work entitled Aboriginal Engineers of the Western District, Victoria, that numerous features show the handiwork of Aboriginal landscaping for economic purposes. This thesis was challenged as a mythical "romancing of the landscape" by Anne Clarke, one that confused natural processes with socially crafted infrastructure. However, fresh archaeological work by Heather Builth led to her contending that they had a sophisticated system of aquaculture and eel farming. They built stone dams to hold the water in these swampy volcanic areas, especially the area comprising the lava flow of the Budj Bim volcano, creating ponds and wetlands in which they harvested short-finned eels (kuyang or more commonly kooyang ).
The Budj Bim National Heritage Landscape, which includes both the Tyrendarra Area and the Mt Eccles – Lake Condah Area, comprising Budj Bim National Park (formerly Mt Eccles National Park), Stones State Faunal Reserve, Muldoons Aboriginal Land, Allambie Aboriginal Land and Condah Mission) was added to the National Heritage List on 20 July 2004,under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 .
Several designated areas comprising the Budj Bim Cultural Landscape were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2019.In the wake of the burning of some 7,000 hectares of bushland around Lake Condah and in the Budj Bim National Park, further channel structures came to light.
They also created channels linking these wetlands. These channels contained weirs with large woven baskets made by women to cull mature eels. Professor Peter Kershaw, noted palynologist at Monash University,as cited by Bruce Pascoe in his best-selling work Dark Emu , found evidence of a sudden change in vegetation consistent with an artificial ponding system, and initial radiocarbon dating of the soil samples suggests the ponds were created up to 8,000 years ago.
The eels were prepared by smoking them with burning leaves from Australian blackwood.The coastal clans, like other tribes on the south-west coast, according to an early settler, Thomas Browne, had a rich fish diet, which included whale (cunderbul) flesh,
In a study published in February 2020, new evidence produced by using a form of radiometric dating known as argon-argon dating, showed that both Budj Bim and Tower Hill volcanoes erupted at least 34,000 years ago.Specifically, Budj Bim was dated at within 3,100 years either side of 36,900 years BP, and Tower Hill was dated at within 3,800 years either side of 36,800 years BP. Significantly, this is a "minimum age constraint for human presence in Victoria", and also could be interpreted as evidence for the Gunditjmara oral histories which tell of volcanic eruptions being some of the oldest oral traditions in existence. An axe found underneath volcanic ash in 1947 was also proof that humans inhabited the region before the eruption of Tower Hill.
The beginnings of contact with ngamadjidj (white people) date as far back as 1810, when whalers and sealers began to use Portland as a base area for their operations. Contact exposed the local people to epidemics from new diseases born by whites but otherwise was seasonal, and allowed time for demographic recovery.
The major turn in relations occurred with the arrival of, and settlement of their lands by, the Henty Brothers from 1834 onwards.Though much silence surrounded the massacres that took place, and, despite Boldrerwood's explicit testimony, some early historians dismissed the idea of a guerilla war.
The Gunditjmara people fought fiercely for their lands during what became known as the Eumerella Wars, which lasted for decades. Women would fight as well, using their digging sticks which had a dual purpose as a weapon, for defence, for settling disputes and for meting out punishments as part of customary law.
Ian D. Clark has identified 28 massacre sites acres near Port Fairy a decade after the main killings.most of the colonialist slaughters taking place during the Eumerella War, so named when the phrase was used as a chapter heading in the memoirs of the novelist Rolf Boldrewood who squatted 50,000
Sometime in 1833–1834, though the incident has been dated later, to around, 1839,whalers, perhaps 'tonguers,' are thought to have clashed with the Kilcarer Gundidj on the beach at Portland at a site that later became known as Convincing Ground in an incident now known as the Convincing Ground massacre. Various versions exist. The site earned its name either because whalers hashed out their disputes there, because some transaction took place between the indigenous people and whalers, or because disputes arose, either of whale flesh or of the use of native women. If the dispute was over the carcass of a beached whale, the whites may have wished to flense it while the natives may have insisted that it was theirs, as dictated by their ancient customs.
Estimates of the number of people killed in the dispute is unknown,varying from only a few to 30, 60 and as high as 200. All but two of the Kilcarer gundidj clan, Pollikeunnuc and Yarereryarerer, were said to have died. Robinson surmised many had been killed from encounters with 30 members of several different Dhauwurd wurrung clans. A minority view argued by Michael Connors, emerging in the context of Australia's recent History wars argues the figure of 200 dead misinterprets an 1841 report by the Portland Police Magistrate James Blair to Governor Latrobe referring to up to 200 Aboriginals amassing at Convincing Ground, and claims that modern research has fabricated the massacre. His arguments have been analysed, with a negative verdict by Ian D. Clark.
George Augustus Robinson, the official Protector of Aborigines, in travelling in this western area in 1841, reported that settlers in the districts spoke of 'dropping the Aborigines as coolly as if speaking of dropping birds.'The loss of numbers, and headsmen meant clans were forced to unite under other clans and their chieftains. Thus the wungit of the Yiyar clan Boorn Boorn assumed leadership of the Cart gunditj, the Kilgar gunditj and Eurite gunditj when their leadership was eliminated.
Rev Benjamin Hurst (missionary to the Port Phillip tribe) noted in a Weslayen Mission meeting in 1841 that in the Portland bay area "it was usual for some to go out in parties on the Sabbath with guns, for the ostensible purpose of kangarooing, but, in reality to hunt and kill these miserable beings — the bones and the bodies of the slaughtered blacks had been found — but because the evidence of the native was not admissible in a court, the white murderers had escaped with impunity, and were still pursuing their career of crime and blood".
Resisting dispossession, the Gunditjmara concentrated in the Stony Rises from which they waged guerilla warfare against the pastoralists usurping their lands, raiding their flocks and herds.Some protection was also afforded by the native protectorate set up at Mount Rouse, which the tribes used as a basis for their operations. A particular point of ire were settlements that took over sacred sites associated with Mount Napier, Lake Condah and Port Fairy.
Due to the ongoing battles in the 1840s, the Gunditjmara became well known as "The fighting Gunditjmara".
|Date||Location||Aborigines involved||Europeans involved||Aboriginal deaths reported|
|1833 or 1834||Convincing Grounds two miles west of the mouth of the Surrey River||Kilcarer gundidj clan||Whalers||from 60 to 200 people, decimating all but 2 tribespeople|
|June 1838||Merino Downs station, Wannon River, near Henty||unknown Gunditjmara clan||Joseph Bonsor, shepherd and hutkeeper, who had been waddied||1 Gunditmara man|
|October 1838||Merino Downs station, Wannon River, near Henty||unknown Gunditjmara clan||William Heath, shepherd, killed||1 Gunditmara man, stabbed with sheep shears. Oral version 40.|
|October 1838||Samuel Winter's station Spring Valley or Murndal, Wannon River, near Merino||unknown Gunditjmara clan||William Jefrey speared, while, with Charles Corrigan and, William Elliot, fighting a mob raiding for sheep||2 Gunditmara men|
|November 1838||Samuel Winter's station Spring Valley or Murndal||unknown Gunditjmara clan||7 whites set upon and shot an Aboriginal group of 20–30 camping at the Wannon River||1 Gunditjmara youth wounded, fate unknown|
|February 1840||Merino Downs station, Wannon River, near Henty||unknown Gunditjmara clan||A shepherd named Blood maliciously wounded Woolangwang||1 man, Woolangwang, died.|
|Before 17 February 1840||George Winter's Tahara station on the Wannon River and McLeods Creek, northeast of Merino||unknown Gunditjmara or Djab wurrung clan||George Winter and his men, one, Robinson known for his violence. He had dashed out the brains of an Aboriginal child.||5 Gunditjmara or Djab wurrung men killed|
|February / March 1840||unknown||a presumed Gunditjmara man||A stockman employed by the Henty brothers||1 Gunditjmara shot wantonly|
|date unknown||Clover Flat, junction of junction of Bryan Creek. and the Wannon River, near Casterton. Called 'Murdering Flat'.||Either Gunditjmara or Jardwadjali.||Thought to have occurred after one of Francis Henty.'s shepherds was killed.||No. of victims unknown.|
|Perhaps November 1840||Wannon River, between the Sandford Bridge and junction with Glenelg River||Either Gunditjmara or Jardwadjali.||Connell, an overseer for the Henty brothers, whose stocks of flour were subject to stealing||'dozens' reportedly killed by arsenic poisoning.|
|Around 1841||Picaninny Waterhole, Springbank, Glenelg River, south of Casterton||Elderly Gunditjmara||Tom, a shepherd for John Henty, who shot and then bayonetted to death a woman.||Narrerburnin, a wife of the Pallapnue gundidj headsman Koort Kirrup|
|2 June 1841||Valley of 'Cor.roit'||Wanedeet gundidj clan of the Gunditjmara||3 shepherds working for W. J. Purbrick shot Aborigines after reportedly offering them damper.||'Kitting', 'Marg', and 'Piccaninny Jemmy'|
|date unknown||place unknown, perhaps identical to Murdering Flat (2) above.||unknown clan of Gunditjmara||Shepherds working for either Edward Henty at Muntham or Francis Henty at Merino Downs, using poison.||7 Gunditjmara: Bokarcarreep, Corroitleek, Joeingjoeingburmin, Loohechurning, Marnderremin, Tolort and Yangolarri|
|3 January 1842||Eumeralla station||Unknown Gunditjmara:clan||James Guthrie, overseer at the Eumeralla station||I Gunditjmara, shot dead while reportedly wielding a liangle|
|February 1842||Tarrone station, Moyne River, some 12 miles north of Port Fairy||Yowen gundidj clan||40 men formed a vigilante band, after 7 stockmen were faced by a milling mob of Aborigines at the station, and tracked them down to a camp, which they plundered while shooting those who fled.||2 or 3.|
|24 February 1842||The junction of Lubra Creek and the Penshurst–Caramut road, at Caramut station||Moperer gundidj clan||6 settlers attacked and killed 5 members of two families asleep among tea-trees by a stream off Mustons Creek and plundered their goods. 3 of the murderers were put on trial before a jury of mainly squatters in a court presided over by Redmond Barry and though the incident was well decumented, were deemed not guilty.||4 women, Connyer, Natgoncher (pregnant), Wenigoniber, Wooigouing, and 1 male child|
|October 1842||Tarrone station||Yowen gundidj clan||Dr James Kilgour who had established his station on the Yowen lands, mustered 40 men to take revenge for a shepherd's murder, and shot two or three in a camp.. Robertson, an overseer then supplied members of the tribe with flour laced with arsenic.||9 killed: three men, three women and three children|
|1842||Warndaa ssite at Boggy Gully, near Black Swamp, just west of Merrang House, on the Hopkins River south of Hexham||Moperer gundidj clan||unknown||unknown|
|1842||near Donald McKenzie's station on the Crawford River||Net net yune gundidj clan||Donald McKenzie and Frederick Edinge had been killed 15 May 1842 and revenge was taken on an unknown number of Gunditjmara||Several.|
|September 1843||Headwaters of the Crawford River||Pallapnue gundidj clan||Australian native police under HEP Dana in retribution for the killing of Christopher Bassett in August 1843 and the theft of his flock.||9 shot dead in two separate incidents.|
|October 1843||8 miles from Mount Eckersley, on the road between Portland and Kanawalla||Gunditjmara||George D Lockhart of Kanawalla station had his dray stolen by attackers. Pursued by HEP Dana and his native police, of whom two wounded.||2 Aborigines killed, one wounded|
|25 January 1844||Mullagh station, nearly 7 miles north of Harrow||clan unknown||Thomas Barrett was threatened with a liang by a Gunditjmara who wanted his bag of flour||1 aboriginal, Jim, was shot dead|
|20 May 1847||Euremete and Lyne stations, near Branxholme||unknown clan of Gunditjmara||A GW Elms shepherd attacked. Subsequently, a group of settlers clashed with some men believed to be responsible||2 dead|
|April 1847||Eumeralla district||Nillan gundidj clan,||Native Police Corps||Tarerer (Jupiter) and Tykoohe (Cocknose)|
|1847||Mount Eccles,||Gunjditjmara, clan.unknown||Settler vigilante group||An estimated 30 Aborigines, including babies.|
|Between August 1843 and 1849||Castlemaddie or Ettrick pastoral runs||Gunjditjmara, clan.unknown||William Learmonth, who had taken up 39,000 acres, and the Jamieson brothers, William and Robert||1 Aborigine.|
|unknown||Lake Gorrie, Squattleseamere||Gunjditjmara, clan.unknown||A groups of settlers led by Charles Hamilton Macknight who had just acquired 47,228 acres in the district, in retribution for the pillaging by 30 blacks of some stores.||unknown number|
|1840s?-early 1850s?||Murderers Flat by Darlots Creek, Lake Condah Mission||Kerup gundidj clan,||Unknown white gave the community a large bag of flour laced with arsenic. This is a Kerup clan tradition, though there are numerous difficulties with the version given by Rose Donker.||20 men, women and children|
From the mid- late 19th century attempts were made to have them move into the Framlingham Aboriginal Station, a mission outside Warrnambool. This was unacceptable, it was located moreover on Girai wurrung land. 827 hectares were set aside for them at Lake Condah, and two decades later, in 1885, this reserve was expanded by a further 692 hectares. The tribe congregated here, until an act was passed to deny right of residence to any "half-caste", resulting in the dispersal of many Gunditjmara kinsfolk, and the loss of their collective traditions, with the Condah mission numbers dropping drastically from 117 to 20.
The land was reclaimed in 1951 by the government and allocated to returnee soldiers.
In 2005 the area began to be bulldozed for groundwork for an eight-lot subdivision.The dispute was settled when the area was set aside as a reservation, in an agreement forged in February 2007.
In 1987, the Victorian Labor government under John Cain attempted to grant some of the Framlingham State Forest to the trust as inalienable title. However, the legislation was blocked by the Liberal Party opposition in the Victorian Legislative Council. The federal Labor government under Bob Hawke intervened, passing the Aboriginal Land (Lake Condah and Framlingham Forest) Act 1987 , which gave 1,130 acres (5 km2) of the Framlingham Forest to the Framlingham Trust. Although the title is essentially inalienable, in that it can only be transferred to another Indigenous land trust, the Framlingham Trust has rights to prevent mining on the land, unlike trusts or communities holding native title.
The Lake Condah Mission lands were also returned to the Gunditjmara on 1 January 1987, when the 53-hectare (130-acre) former reserve was vested to the Kerrup Jmara Elders Corporation. The transfer included "full management, control and enjoyment by the Kerrup-Jmara Elders Aboriginal Corporation of the land granted to it".
In 1993, the Peek Whurrong members of the Gunditjmara purchased the Deen Maar under the auspices of ATSIC for the Framlingham Aboriginal Trust, with the intention that it become an Indigenous Protected Area (IPA), it was granted this status in 1999. Becoming the first IPA in Victoria.[ citation needed ]
The Lake Condah Mob launched their Native Title Claim in August 1996.[ citation needed ]
On 30 March 2007, the Federal Court of Australia under Justice Anthony North determined on recognising the Gunditjmara People's non-exclusive native title rights and interests over 137,000 hectares (340,000 acres) of vacant Crown land, national parks, reserves, rivers, creeks and sea in the Portland region of Victoria's western district. 4,000 hectares (9,900 acres) between Dunkeld and Yambuk on Victoria's south-west coast were set aside to include the eastern Marr.
On 27 July 2011, together with the Eastern Maar people, the Gunditjmara People were recognised to be the native title-holders of the 4,000 hectares of Crown including Lady Julia Percy Island, known to them as Deen Maar.
The Gunditj Mirring Traditional Owners Aboriginal Corporation (GMTOAC) is a Registered Native Title Body Corporate (RNTBC) under the Commonwealth Native Title Act 1993 , and a Registered Aboriginal Party under the Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 . The TOAC owns culturally significant properties across Western Victoria on behalf of the Gunditjmara community.
Sources: Tindale 1974 , p. 204 Howitt 1904 , p. 69,
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The Girai wurrung, also spelt Kirrae Wuurong and Kirrae Whurrung, are an Aboriginal Australian people who traditionally occupied the territory between Mount Emu Creek and the Hopkins River up to Mount Hamilton, and the Western Otways from the Gellibrand River to the Hopkins River. The historian Ian D. Clark has reclassified much of the material regarding them in Norman Tindale's compendium under the Djargurd Wurrung, a term reflecting the assumed pre-eminence of one of their clans, the Jacoort/Djargurd.
Budj Bim, also known as Mount Eccles, is a dormant volcano near Macarthur in southwestern Victoria, Australia. It lies within the geologically-defined area known as the Newer Volcanics Province, which is the youngest volcanic area in Australia and stretches from western Victoria to south-eastern South Australia.
Dhauwurd Wurrung is a term used for a group of languages spoken by various groups of the Gunditjmara people of the Western District of Victoria, Australia. Keerray Woorroong is regarded by some as a separate language, by others as a dialect. The dialect continuum consisted of various lects such as Kuurn Kopan Noot, Big Wurrung, Gai Wurrung, and others. There was no traditional name for the entire dialect continuum and it has been classified and labelled differently by different linguists and researchers. The group of languages is also referred to as Gunditjmara language and the Warrnambool language.
Aboriginal Victorians, the Aboriginal Australians of Victoria, Australia, occupied the land for tens of thousands of years prior to European settlement. Aboriginal people have lived a semi-nomadic existence of fishing, hunting and gathering, and farming eels in Victoria for at least 40,000 years.
The Eumeralla Wars were the violent encounters over the possession of land between British colonists and Gunditjmara Aboriginal people in what is now called the Western District area of south west Victoria.
Budj Bim heritage areas includes several protected areas in Victoria, Australia, the largest two being Budj Bim National Heritage Landscape and the Budj Bim Cultural Landscape. Within the latter, there are three Indigenous Protected Areas: the Tyrendarra Indigenous Protected Area, Kurtonitj Indigenous Protected Area, and the Lake Condah Indigenous Protected Area.
Lake Condah Mission, also known as Condah Mission, was established in 1867 as a Church of England mission, approximately 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from Lake Condah, which was traditionally known as Tae Rak, and about 20 kilometres (12 mi) to 25 kilometres (16 mi) south-east of the small town of Condah. The site of the mission, on 2,000 acres (810 ha) north of Darlot Creek, was formally reserved in 1869, and the Mission continued operations until the reserve was finally revoked in 1951, with most of the land handed over to the Soldiers Settlement Scheme to provide land for white veterans of World War II.
Darlot Creek, also known as Darlots Creek or Darlot's Creek, arises in Lake Condah in south-western Victoria, flows through the wetlands in the Budj Bim heritage areas, past the site of the Lake Condah Mission, and joins the Fitzroy River at the south-eastern corner of the Tyrendarra Nature Conservation Reserve. It lies within the Shire of Glenelg, and is heritage-listed.