Lancaster (UK Parliament constituency)

Last updated
Lancaster
Former County constituency
for the House of Commons
Lancaster1974Constituency.svg
Lancaster in Lancashire, showing boundaries used from 1974–1983
County Lancashire
18851997
Number of membersOne
Replaced by Lancaster and Wyre, Morecambe and Lunesdale, Fylde
Created from North Lancashire
1523–1867
Number of membersTwo
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Replaced by North Lancashire
Created from Lancashire
1295–1376
Type of constituency Borough constituency

Lancaster was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1867, centred on the historic city of Lancaster in north-west England. It was represented by two Members of Parliament until the constituency was disenfranchised for corruption in 1867.

Contents

Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, Lancaster was re-established for the 1885 general election as a county constituency. It then returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, with elections held under the first-past-the-post system. This constituency in turn was abolished when it was largely replaced by the new Lancaster and Wyre constituency for the 1997 general election.

History

Lancaster returned Members to Parliament between 1295 and 1331 but is not known to have done so again, on the grounds of the poverty of the town's burgesses, until the election of William Banester in 1523.

Representation was reduced during the protectorate: Lancaster was not represented in the Barebones Parliament and sent only one Member to the first and second Protectorate Parliaments.

The two Member constituency was disenfranchised in 1867 for corruption and representation not restored until 1885 as a one Member constituency. The constituency was finally abolished in 1997 and replaced by the constituency of Lancaster and Wyre.

Boundaries

1885–1918: The Borough of Lancaster, the Sessional Divisions of Garstang and Hornby, and part of the Sessional Division of South Lonsdale.

1918–1950: The Boroughs of Lancaster and Morecambe, the Urban Districts of Heysham and Preesall, the Rural District of Garstang, and part of the Rural District of Lancaster.

1950–1983: The Borough of Lancaster, the Urban District of Carnforth, the Rural District of Lunesdale, and in the Rural District of Lancaster the parishes of Ashton with Stodday, Cockerham, Elllel, Heaton with Oxcliffe, Middleton, Overton, Over Wyresdale, Scotforth, and Thurnham.

1983–1997: The City of Lancaster wards of Bulk, Castle, Caton, Ellel, Hornby, John O'Gaunt, Scotforth East, Scotforth West, Skerton Central, Skerton East, and Skerton West, and the Borough of Wyre wards of Brock, Calder, Catterall, Duchy, Garstang, Great Eccleston, Pilling, and Wyresdale.

Members of Parliament

Lancaster borough

1295–1640

ParliamentFirst memberSecond member
1523 William Banester ?Lawrence Starkey [1]
1529 Lawrence Starkey Richard Southworth [1]
1536?
1539?
1542?
1545Sir John Baker Sir Nicholas Hare [1]
1547Sir Thomas Chaloner Stephen Vaughan died
and repl. by Jan 1552 by
William Ward [1]
1553 (Mar) John Caryll Thomas Carus [1]
1553 (Oct) Sir Thomas Tresham Thomas Carus [1]
1554 (Apr) John Heywood George Felton [1]
1554 (Nov) Richard Baker Richard Weston [1]
1555 Thomas Carus Thomas Hungate [1]
1558Sir Clement Heigham William Rice [1]
1559 (Jan) Sir Thomas Benger William Fleetwood [2]
1562/1563 John Hales William Fleetwood [2]
1571 Henry Sadler Miles Sandys [2]
1572 Thomas Sadler Henry Sadler [2]
1584 (Nov) Henry Sadler Thomas Gerard [2]
1586 Thomas Gerard Henry Sadler [2]
1588 Roger Dalton John Atherton [2]
1593 John Preston John Awdeley [2] [3]
1597 (Oct)Sir Thomas Hesketh Edward Hubberd [2]
1601 (Oct)Sir Jerome Bowes Sir Carew Reynell [2]
1604Sir Thomas Hesketh, died
and repl. 1605 by
Sir Thomas Howard
Thomas Fanshawe
1614 Thomas Fanshawe William Fanshawe
1621 Sir Humphrey May Thomas Fanshawe
1624 Sir Humphrey May, sat for Leicester
and repl. by
John Selden
Thomas Fanshawe
1625 Sir Humphrey May Sir Thomas Fanshawe
1626 Sir Thomas Fanshawe Thomas Jermyn
1628 Sir Thomas Fanshawe Francis Bindlosse
1629–1640No Parliaments summoned

1640–1867

YearFirst member [4] First partySecond member [4] Second party
April 1640 Roger Kirkby John Harrison
November 1640 Thomas Fanshawe Royalist John Harrison Royalist
September 1642Fanshawe disabled from sitting – seat vacant
September 1643Harrison disabled from sitting – seat vacant
1645 Thomas Fell Sir Robert Bindlosse
December 1648Bindlosse excluded in Pride's Purge – seat vacant
1653Lancaster was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Major Henry Porter Lancaster had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656
January 1659 Henry Porter, junior Colonel William West
May 1659 Thomas Fell One seat vacant
April 1660 Sir Gilbert Gerard William West
1661 Richard Kirkby Sir John Harrison
1669 Richard Harrison
1679 William Spencer
1685 Roger Kirkby Henry Crispe
January 1689 Curwen Rawlinson Thomas Preston
November 1689 Roger Kirkby
1697 Fitton Gerard
1698 Robert Heysham
1702 Sir William Lowther
1705 William Heysham
1715 Dodding Bradyll
1716 William Heysham, junior
1722 Sir Thomas Lowther
1727 Christopher Tower
1734 Robert Fenwick
1745 Francis Reynolds
1747 Edward Marton
1758 (Sir) George Warren [5]
1773 Lord Richard Cavendish
1780 Wilson Braddyll Abraham Rawlinson
1784 Captain Francis Reynolds
1786 Sir George Warren
1790 John Dent
1796 Richard Penn
1802 Alexander Hamilton, 10th Duke of Hamilton Whig
1806 John Fenton-Cawthorne Tory [6]
1807 Peter Patten
1812 John Fenton-Cawthorne Tory [6] Gabriel Doveton Whig [6]
1818 John Gladstone Tory [6]
1820 John Fenton-Cawthorne Tory [6]
1824 Thomas Greene Tory [6]
1831 Patrick Maxwell Stewart Whig [6]
1834 Conservative [6]
1837 George Marton Conservative [6]
1847 Samuel Gregson [7] Whig [8] [9] Peelite [10] [11] [8] [12] [13]
1848 Robert Baynes Armstrong [14] Radical [15] [16] [17] [18]
1852 Samuel Gregson Whig [8] [9]
1853 Thomas Greene Peelite [10] [11] [8] [12] [13]
1857 William Garnett Conservative
1859 Liberal
1864 Edward Matthew Fenwick Liberal
1865 Henry Schneider Liberal
1867Constituency disfranchised for corruption [19]

Lancaster county constituency

1885–1997

ElectionMember [4] Party
1885 Constituency re-created
1885 George Marton Conservative
1886 James Williamson Liberal
1895 William Foster Conservative
1900 Norval Helme Liberal
1918 Archibald Hunter Coalition Conservative
1922 John Singleton Conservative
1923 John O'Neill Liberal
1924 Gerald Strickland Conservative
1928 by-election Robert Tomlinson Liberal
1929 Herwald Ramsbotham Conservative
1941 by-election Fitzroy Maclean Conservative
1959 Humphry Berkeley Conservative
1966 Stan Henig Labour
1970 Dame Elaine Kellett-Bowman Conservative
1997 constituency abolished: see Lancaster and Wyre

Elections

Elections in the 1840s

General election 1841: Lancaster [20] [6]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Thomas Greene 69937.5
Conservative George Marton 59431.8
Whig John Armstrong [21] 57230.7
Majority221.2
Turnout 933 (est)72.0 (est)
Registered electors 1,296
Conservative hold Swing
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1847: Lancaster [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Samuel Gregson 72435.0+4.3
Peelite Thomas Greene 72134.9−2.6
Conservative Edward Dodson Salisbury [22] 62130.1−1.7
Turnout 1,033 (est)75.0 (est)+3.0
Registered electors 1,377
Majority30.1N/A
Whig gain from Conservative Swing +2.6
Majority1004.8+3.6
Peelite hold Swing −0.9

Gregson's election was declared void on petition due to bribery, causing a by-election. [23]

By-election, 9 March 1848: Lancaster [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical Robert Baynes Armstrong 63650.6+15.6
Conservative Edward Stanley [24] 62049.4−15.6
Majority161.3+1.2
Turnout 1,25691.2+16.2
Registered electors 1,377
Radical gain from Whig Swing +15.6

Elections in the 1850s

General election 1852: Lancaster [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Samuel Gregson 69930.0−5.0
Radical Robert Baynes Armstrong 69029.6N/A
Peelite Thomas Greene 50921.8−13.1
Conservative John Ellis [25] 43218.5−11.6
Turnout 1,165 (est)83.6 (est)+8.6
Registered electors 1,393
Majority90.4+0.3
Whig hold Swing +0.4
Majority1817.8N/A
Radical gain from Peelite Swing N/A

Armstrong's election was declared void due to corruption and bribery, causing a by-election. [26]

By-election, 12 April 1853: Lancaster [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Peelite Thomas Greene 68655.3+33.5
Radical John Armstrong [27] 55444.7+15.1
Majority13210.6N/A
Turnout 1,24087.3 (est)+3.7
Registered electors 1,420
Peelite gain from Radical Swing +9.2
General election 1857: Lancaster [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Samuel Gregson 82738.7+8.7
Conservative William Garnett 77336.2+26.9
Conservative Robert Gladstone [28] 53725.1+15.8
Majority542.5+2.1
Turnout 1,069 (est)80.5 (est)−3.1
Registered electors 1,328
Whig hold Swing −25.7
Conservative gain from Radical Swing +15.6
General election 1859: Lancaster [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Garnett 66029.1−7.1
Liberal Samuel Gregson 64128.3+8.9
Conservative William Allen Francis Saunders [29] 50922.4−2.7
Liberal Edward Matthew Fenwick 45920.2+0.8
Turnout 1,135 (est)88.1 (est)+7.6
Registered electors 1,288
Majority190.8N/A
Conservative hold Swing −6.0
Majority1325.8+3.3
Liberal hold Swing +6.9

Elections in the 1860s

Garnett resigned, causing a by-election.

By-election, 13 April 1864: Lancaster [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Edward Matthew Fenwick 68256.5+8.0
Conservative William Allen Francis Saunders [30] 52543.5−8.0
Majority15713.0+7.2
Turnout 1,20786.6−1.5
Registered electors 1,394
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +8.0

Gregson's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 20 February 1865: Lancaster [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Henry Schneider Unopposed
Liberal hold
General election 1865: Lancaster [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Edward Matthew Fenwick 71334.5+14.3
Liberal Henry Schneider 68733.3+5.0
Conservative Edward Lawrence [31] 66532.2−19.3
Majority221.1−4.7
Turnout 1,365 (est)93.2 (est)+5.1
Registered electors 1,465
Liberal hold Swing +12.0
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +7.3

Extensive bribery caused both members to be unseated on 23 April 1866, and the seat to lose its right to return a member of Parliament under the Reform Act 1867. It was incorporated into North Lancashire. [32]

Elections in the 1880s

General election 1885: Lancaster [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative George Marton 4,38755.4N/A
Liberal James Carlile McCoan [34] 3,53044.6N/A
Majority85710.8N/A
Turnout 7,91788.3N/A
Registered electors 8,961
Conservative win (new seat)
General election 1886: Lancaster [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal James Williamson 3,88651.3+6.7
Conservative George Marton 3,69148.7−6.7
Majority1952.6N/A
Turnout 7,57784.6−3.7
Registered electors 8,961
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +6.7

Elections in the 1890s

General election 1892: Lancaster [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal James Williamson 4,75553.9+2.6
Liberal Unionist Thomas Storey4,07546.1−2.6
Majority6807.8+5.2
Turnout 8,83088.3+3.7
Registered electors 9,995
Liberal hold Swing +2.6
Foster William Henry Foster of Lancaster.jpg
Foster
General election 1895: Lancaster [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Henry Foster5,02853.4+7.3
Liberal Isaac Saunders Leadam4,39446.6−7.3
Majority6346.8N/A
Turnout 9,42287.4−0.9
Registered electors 10,778
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +7.3

Elections in the 1900s

Norval Helme Norval Helme.jpg
Norval Helme
General election 1900: Lancaster [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Norval Helme 5,11350.2+3.6
Conservative William Henry Foster5,06949.8−3.6
Majority440.4N/A
Turnout 10,18282.6−4.8
Registered electors 12,334
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +3.6
General election 1906: Lancaster [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Norval Helme 6,52453.6+3.4
Conservative William Henry Foster5,64046.4−3.4
Majority8847.2+6.8
Turnout 12,16486.4+3.8
Registered electors 14,085
Liberal hold Swing +3.4

Elections in the 1910s

General election January 1910: Lancaster [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Norval Helme 7,13254.1
Conservative Edward Russell-Taylor6,04845.9
Majority1,0848.2
Turnout 89.1
Liberal hold Swing
General election December 1910: Lancaster [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Norval Helme 6,16850.5
Conservative Herwald Ramsbotham 6,05249.5
Majority1161.0
Turnout 82.6
Liberal hold Swing

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

Hunter Sir Archibald Hunter.jpg
Hunter
General election 1918: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
C Unionist Archibald Hunter 14,40359.6+10.1
Liberal Norval Helme 9,77840.4−10.1
Majority4,62519.2N/A
Turnout 24,18165.4−17.2
Registered electors 36,960
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +10.1
Cindicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920s

Fenner Brockway A. Fenner Brockway.jpg
Fenner Brockway
General election 1922: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist John Singleton 19,57168.4+8.8
Labour Fenner Brockway 9,04331.6N/A
Majority10,52836.8+17.6
Turnout 28,61479.2+13.8
Registered electors 36,121
Unionist hold Swing +8.8
General election 1923: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal John O'Neill 17,76359.2N/A
Unionist John Singleton 12,26340.8−27.6
Majority5,50018.4N/A
Turnout 30,02680.0+0.8
Registered electors 37,522
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing N/A
Strickland Gerald Strickland 1930.jpg
Strickland
General election 1924: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Gerald Strickland 15,24347.8+7.0
Liberal John O'Neill 11,08534.7−24.5
Labour Harold Mostyn Watkins5,57217.5N/A
Majority4,15813.1N/A
Turnout 31,90082.9+2.9
Registered electors 38,466
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +15.8
1928 Lancaster by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Robert Tomlinson 14,68943.7+9.0
Unionist Herwald Ramsbotham 12,86038.2−9.6
Labour David R Davies6,10118.1+0.6
Majority1,8295.5N/A
Turnout 33,65082.7−0.2
Registered electors 40,705
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing +9.3
General election 1929: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Herwald Ramsbotham 17,41439.3−8.5
Liberal Robert Tomlinson 16,97738.3+3.6
Labour Reginald Penrith Burnett9,90322.4+4.9
Majority4371.0−12.1
Turnout 44,29483.9+1.0
Registered electors 52,774
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing −6.1

Elections in the 1930s

General election 1931: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Herwald Ramsbotham 32,185
Labour Robert Carrington-Willis10,309
Majority21,876
Turnout
Conservative hold Swing
Ramsbotham Herwald Ramsbotham, 1st Viscount Soulbury.jpg
Ramsbotham
1935 general election : Lancaster [36]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Herwald Ramsbotham 26,63253.7
Liberal Robert Tomlinson 13,05426.3n/a
Labour Charles Royle 9,93820.0
Majority13,57827.4
Turnout 49,62479.0
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1940s

General Election 1939/40:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected;

1941 Lancaster by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Fitzroy MacLean 15,78356.9
Independent Liberal William Ross 6,55123.6
Ind. Labour Party Fenner Brockway 5,41819.5
Majority9,23233.3
Turnout 27,75241.9
Conservative hold Swing 1.5
General election 1945: Lancaster [36]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Fitzroy Maclean 27,09049.42
Labour Albert Edward Victor Ainsworth Farrer19,36735.33
Liberal Eric Johnson 8,35715.25
Majority7,72314.09
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1950s

General election 1950: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Fitzroy MacLean 18,43748.27−1.2
Labour Albert Edward Victor Ainsworth Farrer15,34140.17+4.84
Liberal H Rogerson4,41611.563.69
Majority3,0968.115.98
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1951: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Fitzroy MacLean 20,55553.18
Labour Dodo Lees18,09946.82
Majority2,4566.35
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1955: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Fitzroy MacLean 19,87356.46+8.19
Labour Christopher Sebastian Bravery Attlee15,32443.54+3.37
Majority4,54912.92+4.81
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1959: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Humphry Berkeley 20,78356.67+1.21
Labour Ernest Gardner15,25542.331.21
Majority5,52815.34+2.42
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1960s

General election 1964: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Humphry Berkeley 18,81153.54.1
Labour Ernest Gardner16,33046.47+4.1
Majority2,4817.068.28
Turnout 79.74
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1966: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Stanley Henig 18,16852.62+6.15
Conservative Humphry Berkeley 16,35747.386.15
Majority1,8115.25
Turnout 79.17
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1970s

General election 1970: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Elaine Kellett 18,58449.1+1.7
Labour Stanley Henig 16,84344.5−8.1
Liberal Andrew Paton2,4366.4N/A
Majority1,7414.6
Turnout 37,86379.5
Conservative gain from Labour Swing +4.9
General election February 1974: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman 17,66643.47−5.6
Labour David Owen15,19737.40−7.1
Liberal Anthony Walstan Drury6,89817.0+10.5
Independent Liberal Philip Edgar Wallace6311.6
Independent Geoffrey Darnton2450.6
Majority2,4936.1+1.5
Turnout 40,63782.45
Conservative hold Swing −5.6
General election October 1974: Lancaster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman 16,54042.610.86
Labour D Owen15,11938.95+1.15
Liberal Michael Mumford7,16118.45+1.48
Majority1,4213.662.42
Turnout 38,82083.23
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1979: Lancaster [37] [38]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman 19,40047.64+5.03
Labour Ruth Henig 15,17437.271.68
Liberal Michael Mumford5,94914.613.84
National Front David F. White1960.48
Majority4,26610.38+6.72
Turnout 40,71979.45−0.3
Conservative hold Swing −5.6

Elections in the 1980s

General election 1983: Lancaster [39]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman 21,05050.3+2.7
Labour Colin Harkins10,41424.9−12.4
Liberal William Booth10,21424.4+9.8
Independent Stuart R. Leach1790.4
Majority10,63625.4+15.0
Turnout 74.69−0.3
Conservative hold Swing +7.6
General election 1987: Lancaster [39]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman 21,14246.7−3.6
Labour Joseph Gallacher14,68932.4+7.5
Liberal Claire Brooks 9,00319.9−4.5
Green Peter Jones4731.0n/a
Majority6,45314.2−11.2
Turnout 45,30779.17−0.3
Conservative hold Swing −5.6

Elections in the 1990s

General election 1992: Lancaster [40] [41]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman 21,08445.6−1.1
Labour Ruth Henig 18,13139.2+6.8
Liberal Democrats John C. Humberstone6,52414.1−5.8
Green Gina Dowding 4330.9−0.1
Natural Law Robert Barcis830.2+0.2
Majority2,9536.4−7.9
Turnout 46,25578.9−0.3
Conservative hold Swing −3.9

Notes and references

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "History of Parliament" . Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "History of Parliament" . Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  3. Awdeley was also elected for Stockbridge
  4. 1 2 3 Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "L" (part 1)
  5. Knighted (KB), 1761
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844–1850]. Craig, F. W. S. (ed.). The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 178–179. ISBN   0-900178-13-2.
  7. On petition, Gregson's election was declared void and a by-election was held
  8. 1 2 3 4 "The General Election" . Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 31 July 1847. pp. 2–3, 6–7. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  9. 1 2 "Domestic Intelligence" . Fife Herald. 27 July 1837. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  10. 1 2 "The Elections" . Preston Chronicle. 7 August 1847. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  11. 1 2 "Bell's New Weekly Messenger" . 18 July 1847. p. 5. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  12. 1 2 Dod, Charles Roger; Dod, Robert Phipps (1847). Dod's Parliamentary Companion, Volume 15. Dod's Parliamentary Companion. p. 175. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  13. 1 2 "Montrose, Arbroath and Brechin review; and Forfar and Kincardineshire advertiser" . 15 April 1853. p. 2. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  14. On petition, Armstrong's re-election in 1852 was declared void and a by-election was held
  15. "The Elections" . Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 10 July 1852. p. 5. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  16. "Lancaster Gazette" . 4 March 1848. p. 3. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  17. "Lancaster Election" . Morning Post. 10 March 1848. p. 3. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  18. Hawkins, Angus (2007). "Conservative Schism: 1846–1848". The Forgotten Prime Minister: The 14th Earl of Derby — Volume I: Ascent, 1799–1851. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 333. ISBN   978-0-19-920440-3 . Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  19. Fenwick and Schneider were re-elected at the general election of 1865, but on petition their election was declared void. The constituency's writ was suspended, and a Royal Commission appointed to investigate. Following the Commission's report that it had found evidence of extensive bribery, the constituency was abolished and incorporated into the Northern Lancashire county division from the start of the next Parliament.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1885(e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN   978-1-349-02349-3.
  21. "Lancaster Gazette" . 19 June 1841. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 15 November 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  22. "English Cities and Boroughs" . Globe. 20 August 1847. p. 1. Retrieved 15 November 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  23. "Wednesday's and Thursday's Posts" . Salisbury and Winchester Journal. 4 March 1848. p. 2. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  24. "Lancasster Election" . Morning Post. 10 March 1848. p. 3. Retrieved 15 November 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  25. "Lancaster" . Bolton Chronicle. 10 July 1852. p. 5. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  26. "The Lancaster Election" . The Scotsman. 16 April 1853. p. 4. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  27. "Lancaster" . Westmorland Gazette. 4 April 1857. p. 2. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  28. "Lancaster" . Bolton Chronicle. 30 April 1859. p. 8. Retrieved 15 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  29. "The Lancaster Election. Nomination of Candidates" . Preston Herald. 16 April 1864. p. 11. Retrieved 25 March 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  30. "General Election" . Manchester Times . 15 July 1865. pp. 2–6. Retrieved 25 March 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  31. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "L" (part 1)
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 6 British parliamentary election results, 1885–1918 (Craig)
  33. "McCoan, James Carlile"  . Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1912.
  34. 1 2 Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885–1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN   9781349022984.
  35. 1 2 F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1918–1949; Political Reference Publications, Glasgow 1949
  36. "'Lancaster', Feb 1974 – May 1983". ElectionWeb Project. Cognitive Computing Limited. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
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  39. "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
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Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918–1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN   0-900178-06-X.

Sources

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