Led Zeppelin III

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Led Zeppelin III
Led Zeppelin - Led Zeppelin III.png
Studio album by
Released5 October 1970 (1970-10-05)
RecordedNovember 1969 – August 1970
Label Atlantic
Producer Jimmy Page
Led Zeppelin chronology
Led Zeppelin II
Led Zeppelin III
Singles from Led Zeppelin III
  1. "Immigrant Song" / "Hey, Hey, What Can I Do"
    Released: 5 November 1970

Led Zeppelin III is the third studio album by the English rock band Led Zeppelin, released in October 1970. It had a more eclectic style than prior albums, adding folk-style songs to their standard hard rock and blues rock repertoire.

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew heavily from the genres of blues, rhythm and blues, and from country music. Rock music also drew strongly from a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass, drums, and one or more singers. Usually, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political.

Led Zeppelin English rock band

Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968. The group consisted of vocalist Robert Plant, guitarist Jimmy Page, bassist/keyboardist John Paul Jones and drummer John Bonham. Along with Black Sabbath and Deep Purple, the band's heavy, guitar-driven sound has led them to be cited as one of the originators of heavy metal. Their style drew from a wide variety of influences, including blues, psychedelia and folk music.

Folk music Music of the people

Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century, but folk music extends beyond that.


While hard rock influences were still present, such as on "Immigrant Song", acoustic-based songs such as "Gallows Pole" and "That's the Way" showed Led Zeppelin were capable of playing different styles successfully. The band wrote most of the material themselves, but as with prior records, included two songs that were re-interpretations of earlier works, "Gallows Pole" based on a traditional English folk song, by way of American singer Fred Gerlach, and "Hat's off to (Roy) Harper", a reworking of a blues song by Bukka White.

Immigrant Song 1970 single by Led Zeppelin

"Immigrant Song" is a 1970 song by the English rock band Led Zeppelin. It is built upon a repeating riff and features lyrical references to Norse mythology, with singer Robert Plant's howling vocals mentioning war-making and Valhalla. The song was included on their third studio album, Led Zeppelin III and released as a single. Several live recordings have also been issued on various Led Zeppelin albums. Other artists have recorded renditions of the song or performed it live.

"That's the Way" is a ballad by English rock band Led Zeppelin from their third album, Led Zeppelin III, released in 1970. As with several of the tracks on the album, it is an acoustic song.

Fred Gerlach was an American folk musician and luthier, perhaps most famous for his recording of the traditional song "Gallows Pole", which Led Zeppelin guitarist Jimmy Page credited with inspiring his own band's version.

The acoustic material developed from a songwriting session between band members Jimmy Page and Robert Plant at Bron-Yr-Aur cottage in Wales, which influenced the musical direction. The songs were recorded in three locations. Much of the work was done at Headley Grange, a country cottage, using the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio. Additional sessions were held in more traditional recording studios such as Island Studios, and Olympic Studios in London. As with the prior album, the band eschewed the use of guest musicians, with all music played by band members Page (guitars), Plant (vocals), John Paul Jones (bass, keyboards), and John Bonham (drums). The range of instruments played by the band was greatly enhanced in this album, with Jones especially emerging as a talented multi-instrumentalist, playing a wide range of keyboard and stringed instruments including various synthesizers, mandolin and double bass in addition to his usual bass guitar. As with prior albums, Page served as producer on the album, with mixing done by Andy Johns and Terry Manning.

Jimmy Page British guitarist of Led Zeppelin

James Patrick Page is an English musician, songwriter, and record producer who achieved international success as the guitarist and founder of the rock band Led Zeppelin.

Robert Plant British singer-songwriter and producer

Robert Anthony Plant is an English singer, songwriter, and musician, best known as the lead singer and lyricist of the rock band Led Zeppelin.

Bron-Yr-Aur grade II listed cottage in the United kingdom

Bron-Yr-Aur is a privately owned 18th-century cottage, on the outskirts of Machynlleth, Wales, best known for its association with the English rock band Led Zeppelin. In 1970, both Jimmy Page and Robert Plant went there, and wrote many of the tracks that appeared on the band's third and fourth studio albums, including Immigrant Song and Stairway to Heaven.

The album was one of the most anticipated of 1970, and its shipping date was held up by the intricate inner sleeve design based around a volvelle, with numerous images visible through holes in the outer cover. It was an immediate commercial success upon release and topped the UK and US charts. Although critics were typically confused over the change in musical style and gave the album a mixed response, Led Zeppelin III has since been acknowledged as representing an important milestone in the band's history, and a turning point in their music.

Volvelle paper construct with rotating parts, may be considered a subclass of slide chart or movable book

A volvelle or wheel chart is a type of slide chart, a paper construction with rotating parts. It is considered an early example of a paper analog computer. Volvelles have been produced to accommodate organization and calculation in many diverse subjects. Early examples of volvelles are found in the pages of astronomy books. They can be traced back to "certain Arabic treatises on humoral medicine" and to the Persian astronomer, Abu Rayhan Biruni, who made important contributions to the development of the volvelle.


Many songs on Led Zeppelin III were written by Jimmy Page and Robert Plant in Bron-Yr-Aur cottage in Wales. Bron yr aur2.jpg
Many songs on Led Zeppelin III were written by Jimmy Page and Robert Plant in Bron-Yr-Aur cottage in Wales.

By 1970, Led Zeppelin had achieved commercial success in both the UK and the US with their first two albums. They were determined to have a proper break, having recorded most of Led Zeppelin II in various locations while on tour, financing the sessions with the album sales and tour receipts. [1] Following an exhausting concert tour of North America that spring, lead singer Robert Plant recommended to guitarist and producer Jimmy Page that they should retreat to Bron-Yr-Aur, an 18th-century cottage in Snowdonia, Wales, on a hilltop overlooking the Dyfi Valley, three miles (4.8 km) north of the market town Machynlleth. Plant had spent holidays there with his family. [1] [2]

<i>Led Zeppelin II</i> 1969 studio album by Led Zeppelin

Led Zeppelin II is the second album by the English rock band Led Zeppelin, released on 22 October 1969 in the United States and on 31 October 1969 in the United Kingdom by Atlantic Records. Recording sessions for the album took place at several locations in both the United Kingdom and North America from January to August 1969. The album's production was credited to the band's lead guitarist and songwriter Jimmy Page, and it was also Led Zeppelin's first album on which Eddie Kramer served as engineer. It was entirely recorded using the core band members, Page (guitar), Robert Plant, John Paul Jones and John Bonham (drums).

Led Zeppelin North American Tour Spring 1970

Led Zeppelin's Spring 1970 North American Tour was the fifth concert tour of North America by the English rock band. The tour commenced on 21 March and concluded on 18 April 1970. It took place a little over a week after the conclusion of their recent European concert tour.

Snowdonia region in north Wales

Snowdonia is a mountainous region in northwestern Wales and a national park of 823 square miles (2,130 km2) in area. It was the first to be designated of the three national parks in Wales, in 1951. It contains the highest peaks in the United Kingdom outside of Scotland.

This remote setting had no running water or electric power, which encouraged a slight change of musical direction for the band towards an emphasis on acoustic arrangements. [1] [3] Page later explained the tranquillity of Bron-Yr-Aur stood in sharp contrast to the continual touring of 1969, and affected the overall tone of the songwriting, and the dominance of acoustic guitars. [4] His playing was influenced by folk guitarists Davey Graham and Bert Jansch, who regularly used alternative guitar tunings. Plant also recalled the band were "obsessed with change" and enjoyed listening to John Fahey. [5] The band specifically wanted a change in direction, to show they could play any style of music they wanted. [6]

Davey Graham British guitarist

David Michael Gordon "Davey" Graham was a British guitarist and one of the most influential figures in the 1960s British folk revival. He inspired many famous practitioners of the fingerstyle acoustic guitar such as Bert Jansch, Wizz Jones, John Renbourn, Martin Carthy, John Martyn, Paul Simon and Jimmy Page, who based his solo "White Summer" on Graham's "She Moved Through the Fair". Graham is probably best known for his acoustic instrumental, "Anji" and for popularizing DADGAD tuning, later widely adopted by acoustic guitarists.

Bert Jansch Scottish folk musician

Herbert Jansch was a Scottish folk musician and founding member of the band Pentangle. He was born in Glasgow and came to prominence in London in the 1960s, as an acoustic guitarist, as well as a singer-songwriter. He recorded at least 25 albums and toured extensively from the 1960s to the 21st century.

John Fahey (musician) 1939–2001; American fingerstyle guitarist

John Aloysius Fahey was an American fingerstyle guitarist and composer who played the steel-string acoustic guitar as a solo instrument. His style has been enormously influential and has been described as the foundation of American Primitive Guitar, a term borrowed from painting and referring mainly to the self-taught nature of the music and its minimalist style. Fahey borrowed from the folk and blues traditions in American roots music, having compiled many forgotten early recordings in these genres. He would later incorporate 20th-century classical, Portuguese, Brazilian, and Indian influences into his work.


The first recording sessions for Led Zeppelin III took place at Olympic Studios in November 1969. [7] A press statement from manager Peter Grant said the group were recording a non-album track to be released as a single, but this was ultimately abandoned. Further sessions took place towards the end of the year, in between touring, before the decision to stop work and take a break at Bron-Yr-Aur. [7] [8] After preparing material for the album there, Page and Plant were joined by drummer John Bonham and bassist / keyboardist John Paul Jones at Headley Grange, a mansion in East Hampshire, to rehearse the songs. The rural atmosphere gave a relaxed feel to the sessions, and the band found it a more enjoyable environment to develop songs than a studio in the city. [1]

The album was recorded between May and June 1970 at Headley Grange (using the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio) and at Olympic, with further recording at Island Records' Basing Street Studios in Notting Hill the following month. Mixing took place at Ardent Studios, Memphis, in August 1970 partway through the group's sixth American concert tour. [1] [9] The album was produced by Page and engineered by Andy Johns and Terry Manning. [10] Page had first met Manning when the latter's band, Lawson and Four More had supported Page's old band the Yardbirds in 1966. Manning had been to several Led Zeppelin shows, and this led to Page asking him to engineer the new album. [11]


Led Zeppelin III marked a change in focus for the band from late 1960s hard rock to a psychedelic folk and acoustic sound. [12] These styles had been present to a lesser degree in the band's first two releases, such as "Babe I'm Gonna Leave You" and "Ramble On" from the first and second albums respectively. However, on this album, the group used more acoustic arrangements, and they would remain prominent to various degrees in the group's later releases. [13] With Led Zeppelin III the group's songwriting dynamic also changed, from Page's domination of the first two albums towards a more democratic situation in which all four group members contributed their own compositions and ideas. [1] Plant wrote all of the lyrics, with the exception of "Tangerine". [14]

Side one

"Immigrant Song" was written about the Viking invasions of England and inspired by a short tour of Iceland in June 1970. It was released as a single in the US and became a top 20 hit. It was the opening song for the band's appearance at the Bath Festival of Blues and Progressive Music and subsequent gigs for the next two years. [12] It was popularised in the 2003 movie School of Rock after Jack Black made a short video with fans asking for permission for its use. [15] Page clarified that the song's opening is a combination of a voice and echo feedback. [14]

"Friends" is an acoustic track that uses C6 chord open tuning (C-A-C-G-C-E). [16] It includes a string section arranged by Jones, which Page had wanted to achieve an Indian style of sound. [14] The song was re-recorded as an experimental arrangement with the Bombay Orchestra in March 1972, along with "Four Sticks" from the following album. [17] That arrangement appeared on the 2015 reissue of the retrospective album Coda . [18] The song segues into "Celebration Day" via a Moog synthesiser drone. [17]

"Since I've Been Loving You" was one of the first songs to be written for the album in late 1969. [19] It is a blues in the key of C minor featuring Jones on Hammond organ and bass pedals simultaneously. [14] The song became a live performance staple for the band throughout the rest of their career, replacing "I Can't Quit You Baby" from the first album as the band's slow blues showcase, with Page's guitar solo featured both on the recorded version and in the band's live show. [20]

"Out on the Tiles" was written by Bonham, who came up with the idea for the riffs that run through the track. The introduction was used to open live versions of "Black Dog" (from 1971's untitled album), and Bonham's drum solo on the 1977 US tour. [21]

Side two

"Gallows Pole" is an updated arrangement of a traditional folk song called "The Maid Freed from the Gallows", and was inspired by a version recorded by Fred Gerlach. Page played a variety of acoustic and electric guitars and banjo, while Jones played mandolin as well as bass. [21] It was reworked by Page and Plant for their 1994 album No Quarter: Jimmy Page and Robert Plant Unledded . [22]

"Tangerine" was written by Page in 1968 when the Yardbirds were still together. The track features pedal steel guitar as well as acoustic. It was added to the group's live acoustic set in 1971 and performed regularly into the following year. It was then revived as a four-part harmony arrangement in 1975. [21]

"That's the Way" had the original title of "The Boy Next Door". It was written in Bron-Yr-Aur about the problems two people faced in a relationship, and the clashes with their families. The song became a staple part of the group's acoustic set throughout the 1970s, and was played at the Bath Festival, where Led Zeppelin performed acoustically for the first time in the UK. [21] [23] Page thought highly of Plant's lyrics and considered it a breakthrough in their development as a songwriting team. [24] The pair had gone for a walk and on their return, sat down by a ravine with a tape recorder where Page started to play the tune, to which Plant improvised a verse.. [14]

"Bron-Y-Aur Stomp" was originally called "Jennings Farm Blues" and recorded as an electric arrangement at the end of 1969. It was subsequently reworked as an acoustic number, and featured Bonham playing spoons. The closing track, "Hats Off to (Roy) Harper" was based on the Bukka White blues song "Shake 'Em On Down" and named as a tribute to their friend and folk singer, Roy Harper. The original LP credited the arrangement to "Charles Obscure", a band in-joke. [21] [25] It features Plant's voice fed through a vibrato amplifier. [14]

Unreleased material

Page said that the group had 16 tracks to choose for release on Led Zeppelin III. [14] Six other songs that were recorded during the Led Zeppelin III sessions were released at a later date. "Poor Tom" was released on Coda , "Bron-Yr-Aur" was included on the 1975 double album Physical Graffiti , "Hey, Hey, What Can I Do" was released as the B-side to the 1970 "Immigrant Song" single, and the 1972 sampler album The New Age of Atlantic . [21] It later appeared on the first box set in 1990 and then Coda (Deluxe Edition) in 2015 with "St. Tristan's Sword", and "Jennings Farm Blues" and "Key to the Highway/Trouble in Mind" later appeared on the 2014 deluxe edition of the album. [26]

Packaging and artwork

The volvelle used on the front cover Led Zeppelin III volvelle .jpg
The volvelle used on the front cover

Led Zeppelin III's original vinyl edition was packaged in a gatefold sleeve with an innovative cover, designed by Zacron, a multi-media artist whom Page had met in 1963 whilst Zacron was a student at Kingston College of Art. [11] [27] Zacron subsequently graduated at the Royal Academy of Arts and became a lecturer at the University of Leeds. Page asked him if he would help design a sleeve for the album, and on 24 January 1970 Zacron met the band at their gig at his university and agreed to do the cover. That spring, he met the band members individually and took a series of photos of each of them, which would be put into collage. [28]

The cover and interior gatefold art consisted of a surreal collection of seemingly random images on a white background, many of them connected thematically with flight or aviation. Behind the front cover was a rotatable laminated card disc, or volvelle, covered with more images, including photos of the band members, which showed through holes in the cover; moving an image into place behind one hole would usually bring one or two others into place behind other holes. [29] The back cover was a composite shot of the best photographs from the photography sessions. Zacron chose the images because he wanted to "show them as the giant force they were in music". [29] In France, this album was released with a different album cover, simply showing a photo of the four band members. [30]

Zacron later said that upon his completion of the artwork, Page telephoned him while he was in New York to express his satisfaction with the results, saying "I think it is fantastic". [31] He later thought the artwork was unsatisfactory because of working to a deadline. [32]

Release and reception

Retrospective professional ratings
Review scores
AllMusic Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg [33]
Christgau's Record Guide B+ [34]
The Daily Telegraph Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svg [35]
Encyclopedia of Popular Music Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svg [36]
The Great Rock Discography 9/10 [36]
Music Story Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar half.svg [36]
MusicHound Rock 3.5/5 [37]
Q Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg [38]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svg [39]

Led Zeppelin III was one of the most anticipated albums of 1970, and advance orders in the US alone were close to the million mark. The volvelle-designed sleeve held up production, and caused a two-month delay. [12] In the run-up to release, the group bought a full page advertisement in Melody Maker magazine at the end of September, which simply said "Thank you for making us the world's number one band." [12] The album was released in the US on 5 October, then in the UK on 23 October. It immediately topped the British charts. [40]

Although the band's expanding musical boundaries were greeted warmly by some, detractors attacked the heavier tracks as being mindless noise. In a review in Rolling Stone , critic Lester Bangs praised "That's the Way" as "beautiful and genuinely moving", while characterising the band's heavier songs as crude and little differentiated from each other. [41] Others criticised the acoustic material for imitating the music of Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, which Page disputed as the group had featured that style on their previous albums. [6] [42] Page has also said that the negative press given to the third album affected him so much that he did not give press interviews for 18 months after its release, and was also one of the reasons why the following album contained no written information on it at all. [4] He later came to believe that journalists had little time to listen to the material and were simply looking for "the new Whole Lotta Love" instead of appreciating the material on its own merits. [43]

A positive review came from Robert Christgau in The Village Voice , who assigned it an A-minus grade and wrote in his capsule review: "I have always approved theoretically of Led Zep's concept, and now the group has finally whipped it into shape. It's amazing to realize that Robert Plant's vocals can convey that same overbearing power when Page plays acoustic, as he does to great effect on several cuts here. No drum solos, either. Heavy." [44]

Led Zeppelin III was a trans-Atlantic number one hit. In the UK, it reached No. 1 on 7 November 1970 and remained on the chart for 40 weeks. [45] [46] In the US, it entered the chart at No. 3 on 24 October [47] and reached No. 1 the following week. [48] It remained on the chart for 19 weeks and was certified Gold on 8 October 1970. [49] However, following the lukewarm, if not confused and sometimes dismissive reception from critics, sales lagged after this initial peak. [24]

Despite mostly indifferent reviews and lower sales than Led Zeppelin's previous two albums, Led Zeppelin III's reputation has recovered over time. The RIAA certified the album 2 times platinum in 1990, and 6 times platinum in 1999. [50] The 2014 reissue of the album helped itself get back into the Billboard Top 10. [51]


The Book of Rock ListsUS"The Top 40 Albums (1970)" [52] 198139
Mojo UK"The 100 Greatest Albums Ever Made" [53] 199699
Colin Larkin UK All Time Top 1000 Albums [54] 1998361
Q UK"50 Best British Albums Ever" [55] 20049
Robert DimeryUS 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die [56] 2005*
Classic Rock UK"100 Greatest British Rock Album Ever" [57] 200631
(*) designates unordered lists.

2014 reissue

2014 reissue ratings
Aggregate scores
Metacritic 98/100 [58]
Review scores
The Austin Chronicle Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar half.svgStar empty.svg [59]
Consequence of Sound A [60]
Paste 9/10 [61]
Pitchfork 9.5/10 [62]
Q Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg [63]
Rolling Stone Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg [64]

Along with the group's self-titled debut album and their second album, Led Zeppelin II , the album was remastered and reissued on 2 June 2014. The reissue comes in six formats: a standard CD edition, a deluxe two-CD edition, a standard LP version, a deluxe two-LP version, a super deluxe two-CD plus two-LP version with a hardback book, and as high-resolution, 96k/24-bit digital downloads. The deluxe and super deluxe editions feature bonus material containing alternative takes, backing tracks and the previously unreleased songs, "Bathroom Sound", "Jennings Farm Blues" and "Key to the Highway/Trouble in Mind". The LP versions replicate the original volvelle sleeve design. The reissue was released with an inverted colour version of the original album's artwork as its bonus disc's cover. [65]

The reissue was met with widespread critical acclaim. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream publications, the album received an average score of 98, based on 10 reviews. [58] The bonus disc was hailed by Pitchfork journalist Mark Richardson as "easily the best" of the three reissues. [62] In Rolling Stone , David Fricke wrote of highlights in the bonus disc: "'Jennings Farm Blues', an electric run at the folk gallop 'Bron-Y-Aur Stomp', shows Zeppelin exploring options, and the medley 'Keys to the Highway/Trouble in Mind', by Page and Plant, feels like a deep-blues breath before the next rush forward." [64]

Track listing

Side one
1."Immigrant Song"2:26
  • Page
  • Plant
3."Celebration Day"
4."Since I've Been Loving You"
  • Jones
  • Page
  • Plant
5."Out on the Tiles"
Side two
1."Gallows Pole"Traditional, arr..
  • Page
  • Plant
3."That's the Way"
  • Page
  • Plant
4."Bron-Y-Aur Stomp"
  • Jones
  • Page
  • Plant
5."Hats Off to (Roy) Harper"Traditional, arr.. Charles Obscure3:41
2014 deluxe edition bonus disc
1."The Immigrant Song" (alternative mix)
  • Page
  • Plant
2."Friends" (backing track – no vocal)
  • Page
  • Plant
3."Celebration Day" (alternative mix)
  • Jones
  • Page
  • Plant
4."Since I've Been Loving You" (rough mix of first recording)
  • Jones
  • Page
  • Plant
5."Bathroom Sound" ("Out on the Tiles" backing track – no vocal)
  • Bonham
  • Page
  • Plant
6."Gallows Pole" (rough mix)Traditional, arr.
  • Page
  • Plant
7."That's the Way" (rough mix with dulcimer & backwards echo)
  • Page
  • Plant
8."Jennings Farm Blues" ("Bron-Y-Aur Stomp" rough mix of all guitar overdubs that day)
  • Jones
  • Page
  • Plant
9."Key to the Highway/Trouble in Mind" (rough mix)4:05
Total length:41:29





Weekly charts


RegionCertification Certified units/sales
Argentina (CAPIF) [76] Platinum40,000^
Australia (ARIA) [77] 3× Platinum210,000^
Canada (Music Canada) [78] 3× Platinum300,000^
France (SNEP) [79] Platinum300,000*
Germany (BVMI) [80] Gold250,000^
Italy (FIMI) [81] Gold50,000*
Netherlands (NVPI) [82] Gold50,000^
Spain (PROMUSICAE) [83] Gold50,000^
Switzerland (IFPI Switzerland) [84] Gold25,000^
United Kingdom (BPI) [85] Platinum300,000^
United States (RIAA) [86] 6× Platinum6,000,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

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  3. Welch 1994, pp. 52, 55.
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  6. 1 2 Lewis 2012, p. 96.
  7. 1 2 Lewis 1990, p. 88.
  8. Lewis 2012, p. 74.
  9. Lewis 2012, p. 76.
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