Menindee, New South Wales

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Menindee
New South Wales
MenindeeAhChungsBakehouseGallery.JPG
Ah Chung's Bakehouse Gallery
Australia New South Wales location map blank.svg
Red pog.svg
Menindee
Coordinates 32°24′0″S142°26′0″E / 32.40000°S 142.43333°E / -32.40000; 142.43333 Coordinates: 32°24′0″S142°26′0″E / 32.40000°S 142.43333°E / -32.40000; 142.43333
Population551 (2016 census) [1]
Postcode(s) 2879
Elevation61.0 m (200 ft)
Location
LGA(s) Central Darling Shire
State electorate(s) Barwon
Federal Division(s) Parkes [2]
Mean max tempMean min tempAnnual rainfall
25.9 °C
79 °F
11.3 °C
52 °F
245.8 mm
9.7 in
Junction of the Paramaru & the Darling
Hermann Beckler (1861) Junction of the Pamamaru River.png
Junction of the Paramaru & the Darling
Hermann Beckler (1861)

Menindee, frequently but erroneously spelled "Menindie", [3] is a small town in the far west of New South Wales, Australia, in Central Darling Shire, on the banks of the Darling River, with a sign-posted population of 980 and a 2016 census population of 551. [1]

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In December 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Central Darling Shire Local government area in New South Wales, Australia

Central Darling Shire is a local government area in the Far West region of New South Wales, Australia. The Shire is located adjacent to the Barrier Highway. Central Darling Shire was constituted in 1959 and at 53,511 square kilometres (20,661 sq mi), it is the largest incorporated local government area in New South Wales.

Darling River river in Australia

The Darling River is the third longest river in Australia, measuring 1,472 kilometres (915 mi) from its source in northern New South Wales to its confluence with the Murray River at Wentworth, New South Wales. Including its longest contiguous tributaries it is 2,844 km (1,767 mi) long, making it the longest river system in Australia.

Contents

History

Menindee is the oldest European settlement in western New South Wales, and the first town to be established on the Darling River. The first European to visit the area was the surveyor and explorer Major Thomas Mitchell in 1835. He was followed by Charles Sturt in 1844 and the town was the advance base for the Burke and Wills expedition in 1860.

Thomas Mitchell (explorer) Scottish surveyor and explorer in Australia

Lieutenant Colonel Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, surveyor and explorer of south-eastern Australia, was born at Grangemouth in Stirlingshire, Scotland. In 1827 he took up an appointment as Assistant Surveyor General of New South Wales. The following year he became Surveyor General and remained in this position until his death. Mitchell was knighted in 1839 for his contribution to the surveying of Australia.

Charles Sturt Australian explorer

Captain Charles Napier Sturt was a British explorer of Australia, and part of the European exploration of Australia. He led several expeditions into the interior of the continent, starting from both Sydney and later from Adelaide. His expeditions traced several of the westward-flowing rivers, establishing that they all merged into the Murray River. He was searching to prove his own passionately held belief that there was an "inland sea" at the centre of the continent.

Burke and Wills expedition Australian exploration expedition in 1860–61 led by Robert OHara Burke and William John Wills

The Burke and Wills expedition was organised by the Royal Society of Victoria in Australia in 1860–61. It consisted of 19 men led by Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills, with the objective of crossing Australia from Melbourne in the south, to the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north, a distance of around 3,250 kilometres. At that time most of the inland of Australia had not been explored by non-Indigenous people and was largely unknown to the European settlers.

Burke and Wills

The Burke and Wills expedition camped at Menindee on their journey to cross Australia from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria. They arrived here on 14 October 1860, crossed the Darling River at Kinchega Station and made Camp XXXIV (their thirty-fourth camp since leaving Melbourne). There was dissent within the party and the deputy-leader George Landells resigned. Robert O'Hara Burke split the party, heading north to Cooper Creek with half the men, stores and animals. The remaining men, stores and animals made a depot camp at Pamamaroo Creek and a sign and cairn mark the site of the camp. This camp was used for the remainder of 1860 and for most of 1861. While in Menindee, Burke stayed at the Maiden's Hotel, which was then owned by Thomas Pain and was known as Pain's Hotel.

Gulf of Carpentaria A large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the Arafura Sea

The Gulf of Carpentaria is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the eastern Arafura Sea. The northern boundary is generally defined as a line from Slade Point, Queensland in the northeast, to Cape Arnhem, Northern Territory in the west.

Robert OHara Burke Australian explorer

Robert O'Hara Burke was an Irish soldier and police officer who achieved fame as an Australian explorer. He was the leader of the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition, which was the first expedition to cross Australia from south to north, finding a route across the continent from the settled areas of Victoria to the Gulf of Carpentaria. The expedition party was well equipped, but Burke was not experienced in bushcraft. A Royal Commission report conducted upon the failure of the expedition was a censure of Burke's judgement.

Heritage listings

Menindee has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

Population

According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 551 people in Menindee.

Geography

Menindee is located where the transcontinental railway line crosses the Darling River. Menindee railway station is serviced by the NSW TrainLink Outback Xplorer passenger train from Sydney to Broken Hill on Monday, returning from Broken Hill to Sydney on Tuesday. [5] The GSR Indian Pacific also stops once weekly in each direction on request. [6] The railway line is about 900 km west of Sydney and about 110 kilometres south-east of Broken Hill.

Menindee railway station

Menindee railway station is located on the Broken Hill line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the town of Menindee.

NSW TrainLink operator of passenger rail services in New South Wales (exclusive of the Sydney suburban network)

NSW TrainLink is an Australian brand for the medium and long distance passenger rail and coach services in New South Wales. It operates services throughout New South Wales and into the neighbouring Australian states and territories of Victoria, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory. Train services are operated by the government agency NSW Trains, while coach services are contracted to private operators. NSW Trains is an agency of Transport for NSW.

Outback Xplorer

The Outback Xplorer is an Australian passenger train operated by NSW TrainLink between Sydney and Broken Hill via the Main Western line.

Situated on the western edge of town is the Kinchega National Park.

Water supply

A weir on the Darling River near Menindee diverts water from the river into a series of shallow, otherwise dry, overflow lakes. The Menindee Lakes, also known as the Menindee Water Storage Scheme, regulate the river flow for irrigation downstream into South Australia.

Menindee residents have complained about the town's "putrid" water quality and claim that cotton growers are removing water from the river during the current drought. [7] Generally the health of river systems is reliant on summer rains. Some locals have already started carting water from other sources. The WaterNSW advised property owners not to water their stock from the Darling.

The river is subject to blooms of blue green algae in summer. Richard Kingsford, Director of the Centre for Ecosystem Science at the University of NSW said the Menindee Lakes had been drained more often than in the past. In July 2018, 23 gigalitres of environmental water was delivered to the Darling River which reconnected parts of the river and flushed out algae.

In early 2019, up to one million native fish were found dead along a 40-kilometre stretch of the river in Menindee, including the large and critically endangered Murray cod. The apparent trigger for these deaths was a sudden drop in temperature, causing much of the algae bloom to decompose. Dissolved oxygen then fell below the levels required by the fish.

Climate

Menindee has a desert climate with an annual average rainfall of just 245.8 mm (9.6 in), however rainfall varies significantly from year to year, with the town often going without rainfall for months on end, but occasional severe rainstorms can cause falls of over 100 mm in a day, the last time this happened being January 2011. Menindee is tied with Bourke in recording the hottest temperature in New South Wales, with a temperature of 49.7 °C (121.5 °F) recorded on 10 January 1939.


Climate data for Menindee (1876-2012)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)49.7
(121.5)
47.2
(117.0)
43.4
(110.1)
41.7
(107.1)
33.3
(91.9)
28.9
(84.0)
28.9
(84.0)
32.3
(90.1)
39.5
(103.1)
42.8
(109.0)
45.4
(113.7)
48.9
(120.0)
49.7
(121.5)
Average high °C (°F)34.4
(93.9)
33.8
(92.8)
30.7
(87.3)
25.6
(78.1)
20.7
(69.3)
17.3
(63.1)
17.0
(62.6)
19.3
(66.7)
22.9
(73.2)
26.5
(79.7)
30.0
(86.0)
32.8
(91.0)
25.9
(78.6)
Average low °C (°F)18.5
(65.3)
18.2
(64.8)
15.2
(59.4)
10.9
(51.6)
7.5
(45.5)
5.0
(41.0)
4.1
(39.4)
5.3
(41.5)
8.0
(46.4)
11.3
(52.3)
14.6
(58.3)
16.8
(62.2)
11.3
(52.3)
Record low °C (°F)7.0
(44.6)
6.4
(43.5)
3.9
(39.0)
2.0
(35.6)
−1.6
(29.1)
−2.8
(27.0)
−3.5
(25.7)
−2.0
(28.4)
0.2
(32.4)
1.0
(33.8)
1.7
(35.1)
6.0
(42.8)
−3.5
(25.7)
Average rainfall mm (inches)24.0
(0.94)
21.7
(0.85)
18.8
(0.74)
16.8
(0.66)
22.7
(0.89)
21.4
(0.84)
18.3
(0.72)
17.9
(0.70)
18.4
(0.72)
22.8
(0.90)
21.2
(0.83)
21.8
(0.86)
245.8
(9.65)
Average precipitation days2.52.62.52.84.14.85.04.93.93.93.32.843.1
Source: Bureau of Meteorology [8]


Transport

Menindee railway station is served by the Outback Xplorer NSW TrainLink service between Sydney and Broken Hill with one train in each direction weekly. [9] No major highway runs through Menindee but the Barrier Highway between Adelaide and Nyngan runs nearby to the north through Broken Hill.

Related Research Articles

Kinchega National Park Protected area in New South Wales, Australia

The Kinchega National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Far West region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 44,259-hectare (109,370-acre) national park is located approximately 840 kilometres (520 mi) west of Sydney and 111 kilometres (69 mi) south-east of Broken Hill. The park adjoins the town of Menindee. The eastern edge of the Kinchega National Park is formed by the Darling River.

Broken Hill Town in New South Wales, Australia

Broken Hill is an inland mining city in the far west of outback New South Wales, Australia. It is near the border with South Australia on the crossing of the Barrier Highway (A32) and the Silver City Highway (B79), in the Barrier Range. It is 315 m (1,033 ft) above sea level, with a hot desert climate, and an average rainfall of 235 mm (9 in). The closest major city is Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, which is more than 500 km (311 mi) to the southwest and linked via route A32.

Silverton, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Silverton is a small village at the far west of New South Wales, Australia, 26 kilometres (16 mi) north-west of Broken Hill. At the 2006 census, Silverton had a population of 89.

Ivanhoe, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Ivanhoe is a very small township on the Cobb Highway between the Lachlan and Darling rivers in New South Wales, Australia. It is located within the Central Darling Shire local government area. Ivanhoe functions as a service centre for the surrounding area. The township is characterised by a particularly wide main street. At the 2016 census, Ivanhoe had a population of 196 people.

Pooncarie Town in New South Wales, Australia

Pooncarie is a village in south-western New South Wales, Australia in Wentworth Shire. It is on the eastern side of the Darling River between Wentworth and Menindee. The surrounding region of Pooncarie is semi-arid with an outback landscape rich in eucalypt woodlands

Broken Hill railway line railway line in New South Wales, Australia

The Broken Hill railway line is now part of the transcontinental railway from Sydney to Perth.

Ludwig Becker (explorer) German-born Australian artist, explorer, naturalist

Ludwig Becker was a German artist, explorer and naturalist. He was born in Rödelheim near Frankfurt am Main. He moved to Australia in 1850, and was a member of the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition. He died at the expedition's camp on the western bank of Koorliatto Waterhole, Bulloo River in 1861.

Condobolin railway station Australian railway station

Condobolin railway station is located on the Broken Hill line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the town of Condobolin.

Broken Hill railway station railway station in New South Wales, Australia

Broken Hill railway station is a heritage-listed railway station located on the Broken Hill line in Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Menindee Lakes

The Menindee Lakes is a chain of shallow ephemeral freshwater lakes connected to the Darling River to form a storage system. The lakes lie in the far west region of New South Wales, Australia, near the town of Menindee.

South West Queensland Region in Queensland, Australia

South West Queensland is a remote region in the Australian state of Queensland which covers 319,808 km2 (123,479 sq mi). The region lies to the south of Central West Queensland and west of the Darling Downs and includes the Maranoa district and parts of the Channel Country. The area is noted for its cattle grazing, cotton farming, opal mining and oil and gas deposits.

Mount Gipps Station

Mount Gipps Station most commonly known as Mount Gipps is a pastoral lease that operates as a sheep station in north west New South Wales.

Ivanhoe railway station, New South Wales

Ivanhoe railway station is located on the Broken Hill line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the town of Ivanhoe.

Euabalong West railway station

Euabalong West railway station is located on the Broken Hill line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the town of Euabalong West.

Parish of Wallandra

Wallandra Parish in Cobar Shire is a civil parish of Rankin County, a Cadastral division of New South Wales. The Parish is on the Darling River upstream of Wilcannia, New South Wales and is located at 30°55′11″S 144°33′51″E. The only town of the parish is Tilpa, New South Wales.

Kinchega Woolshed

Kinchega Woolshed is a heritage-listed former shearing shed located 15km south-west of Menindee township, Central Darling Shire, New South Wales, Australia. It was built from in 1875. The property is owned by the New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Menindee (State Suburb)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 25 January 2018. OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
  2. "Profile of the electoral division of Parkes (NSW)". Australian Electoral Commission. 25 February 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  3. "MENINDEE, NOT MENINDIE". The Barrier Miner . Broken Hill, NSW: National Library of Australia. 12 December 1934. p. 4 Edition: HOME EDITION. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  4. "Kinchega Woolshed". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00995. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  5. "Western timetable". NSW Trainlink. 7 September 2019.
  6. "Indian Pacific timetable". Journey Beyond Rail Expeditions. 1 April 2019.
  7. video shows dead 'century-old fish' SMH 9 January 2019
  8. "MENINDEE POST OFFICE". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  9. "transportnsw.info". transportnsw.info. Retrieved 17 July 2019.