An Otto cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a typical spark ignition piston engine. It is the thermodynamic cycle most commonly found in automobile engines.
The Otto cycle is a description of what happens to a gas as it is subjected to changes of pressure, temperature, volume, addition of heat, and removal of heat. The gas that is subjected to those changes is called the system. The system, in this case, is defined to be the fluid (gas) within the cylinder. By describing the changes that take place within the system, it will also describe in inverse, the system's effect on the environment. In the case of the Otto cycle, the effect will be to produce enough net work from the system so as to propel an automobile and its occupants in the environment.
The Otto cycle is constructed from:
The isentropic process of compression or expansion implies that there will be no inefficiency (loss of mechanical energy), and there be no transfer of heat into or out of the system during that process. The cylinder and piston are assumed to be impermeable to heat during that time. Work is performed on the system during the lower isentropic compression process. Heat flows into the Otto cycle through the left pressurizing process and some of it flows back out through the right depressurizing process. The summation of the work added to the system plus the heat added minus the heat removed yields the net mechanical work generated by the system.
The processes are described by: [ page needed ]
The Otto cycle consists of isentropic compression, heat addition at constant volume, isentropic expansion, and rejection of heat at constant volume. In the case of a four-stroke Otto cycle, technically there are two additional processes: one for the exhaust of waste heat and combustion products at constant pressure (isobaric), and one for the intake of cool oxygen-rich air also at constant pressure; however, these are often omitted in a simplified analysis. Even though those two processes are critical to the functioning of a real engine, wherein the details of heat transfer and combustion chemistry are relevant, for the simplified analysis of the thermodynamic cycle, it is more convenient to assume that all of the waste-heat is removed during a single volume change.
The four-stroke engine was first patented by Alphonse Beau de Rochas in 1861.Before, in about 1854–57, two Italians (Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci) invented an engine that was rumored to be very similar, but the patent was lost.
The first person to build a working four-stroke engine, a stationary engine using a coal gas-air mixture for fuel (a gas engine), was German engineer Nicolaus Otto.This is why the four-stroke principle today is commonly known as the Otto cycle and four-stroke engines using spark plugs often are called Otto engines.
The system is defined to be the mass of air that's drawn from the atmosphere into the cylinder, compressed by the piston, heated by the spark ignition of the added fuel, allowed to expand as it pushes on the piston, and finally exhausted back into the atmosphere. The mass of air is followed as its volume, pressure and temperature change during the various thermodynamic steps. As the piston is capable of moving along the cylinder, the volume of the air changes with its position in the cylinder. The compression and expansion processes induced on the gas by the movement of the piston are idealised as reversible, i.e., no useful work is lost through turbulence or friction and no heat is transferred to or from the gas during those two processes. Energy is added to the air by the combustion of fuel. Useful work is extracted by the expansion of the gas in the cylinder. After the expansion is completed in the cylinder, the remaining heat is extracted and finally the gas is exhausted to the environment. Useful mechanical work is produced during the expansion process and some of that used to compress the air mass of the next cycle. The useful mechanical work produced minus that used for the compression process is the net work gained and that can be used for propulsion or for driving other machines. Alternatively the useful work gained is the difference between the heat added and the heat removed.
A mass of air (working fluid) is drawn into the cylinder, from 0 to 1, at atmospheric pressure (constant pressure) through the open intake valve, while the exhaust valve is closed during this process. The intake valve closes at point 1.
Piston moves from crank end (BDC, bottom dead centre and maximum volume) to cylinder head end (TDC, top dead centre and minimum volume) as the working gas with initial state 1 is compressed isentropically to state point 2, through compression ratio (V1/V2). Mechanically this is the isentropic compression of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder, also known as the compression stroke. This isentropic process assumes that no mechanical energy is lost due to friction and no heat is transferred to or from the gas, hence the process is reversible. The compression process requires that mechanical work be added to the working gas. Generally the compression ratio is around 9–10:1 (V1:V2) for a typical engine.
The piston is momentarily at rest at TDC. During this instant, which is known as the ignition phase, the air/fuel mixture remains in a small volume at the top of the compression stroke. Heat is added to the working fluid by the combustion of the injected fuel, with the volume essentially being held constant. The pressure rises and the ratio is called the "explosion ratio".
The increased high pressure exerts a force on the piston and pushes it towards the BDC. Expansion of working fluid takes place isentropically and work is done by the system on the piston. The volume ratio is called the "isentropic expansion ratio". (For the Otto cycle is the same as the compression ratio ). Mechanically this is the expansion of the hot gaseous mixture in the cylinder known as expansion (power) stroke.
The piston is momentarily at rest at BDC. The working gas pressure drops instantaneously from point 4 to point 1 during a constant volume process as heat is removed to an idealized external sink that is brought into contact with the cylinder head. In modern internal combustion engines, the heat-sink may be surrounding air (for low powered engines), or a circulating fluid, such as coolant. The gas has returned to state 1.
The exhaust valve opens at point 1. As the piston moves from "BDC" (point 1) to "TDC" (point 0) with the exhaust valve opened, the gaseous mixture is vented to the atmosphere and the process starts anew.
In the process 1–2 the piston does work on the gas and in process 3–4 the gas does work on the piston during those isentropic compression and expansion processes, respectively. Processes 2–3 and 4–1 are isochoric processes; heat is transferred into the system from 2—3 and out of the system from 4—1 but no work is done on the system or extracted from the system during those processes. No work is done during an isochoric (constant volume) process because addition or removal of work from a system requires the movement of the boundaries of the system; hence, as the cylinder volume does not change, no shaft work is added to or removed from the system.
Four different equations are used to describe those four processes. A simplification is made by assuming changes of the kinetic and potential energy that take place in the system (mass of gas) can be neglected and then applying the first law of thermodynamics (energy conservation) to the mass of gas as it changes state as characterized by the gas's temperature, pressure, and volume. [ page needed ] [ page needed ]
During a complete cycle, the gas returns to its original state of temperature, pressure and volume, hence the net internal energy change of the system (gas) is zero. As a result, the energy (heat or work) added to the system must be offset by energy (heat or work) that leaves the system. In the analysis of thermodynamic systems, the convention is to account energy that enters the system as positive and energy that leaves the system is accounted as negative.
During a complete cycle, the net change of energy of the system is zero:
The above states that the system (the mass of gas) returns to the original thermodynamic state it was in at the start of the cycle.
Where is energy added to the system from 1–2–3 and is energy removed from the system from 3–4–1. In terms of work and heat added to the system
Each term of the equation can be expressed in terms of the internal energy of the gas at each point in the process:
The energy balance Equation 1b becomes
To illustrate the example we choose [ dubious ] some values to the points in the illustration:
These values are arbitrarily but rationally [ dubious ] selected. The work and heat terms can then be calculated.
The energy added to the system as work during the compression from 1 to 2 is
The energy added to the system as heat from point 2 to 3 is
The energy removed from the system as work during the expansion from 3 to 4 is
The energy removed from the system as heat from point 4 to 1 is
The energy balance is
Note that energy added to the system is counted as positive and energy leaving the system is counted as negative and the summation is zero as expected for a complete cycle that returns the system to its original state.
From the energy balance the work out of the system is:
The net energy out of the system as work is -1, meaning the system has produced one net unit of energy that leaves the system in the form of work.
The net heat out of the system is:
As energy added to the system as heat is positive. From the above it appears as if the system gained one unit of heat. This matches the energy produced by the system as work out of the system.
Thermal efficiency is the quotient of the net work from the system, to the heat added to system. Equation 2:
Alternatively, thermal efficiency can be derived by strictly heat added and heat rejected.
Supplying the fictitious values
In the Otto cycle, there is no heat transfer during the process 1–2 and 3–4 as they are isentropic processes. Heat is supplied only during the constant volume processes 2–3 and heat is rejected only during the constant volume processes 4–1.
The above values are absolute values that might, for instance [ dubious ] , have units of joules (assuming the MKS system of units are to be used) and would be of use for a particular engine with particular dimensions. In the study of thermodynamic systems the extensive quantities such as energy, volume, or entropy (versus intensive quantities of temperature and pressure) are placed on a unit mass basis, and so too are the calculations, making those more general and therefore of more general use. Hence, each term involving an extensive quantity could be divided by the mass, giving the terms units of joules/kg (specific energy), meters3/kg (specific volume), or joules/(kelvin·kg) (specific entropy, heat capacity) etc. and would be represented using lower case letters, u, v, s, etc.
Equation 1 can now be related to the specific heat equation for constant volume. The specific heats are particularly useful for thermodynamic calculations involving the ideal gas model.
Inserting the specific heat equation into the thermal efficiency equation (Equation 2) yields.
Next, noting from the diagrams (see isentropic relations for an ideal gas), thus both of these can be omitted. The equation then reduces to:
Since the Otto cycle uses isentropic processes during the compression (process 1 to 2) and expansion (process 3 to 4) the isentropic equations of ideal gases and the constant pressure/volume relations can be used to yield Equations 3 & 4.
Further simplifying Equation 4, where is the compression ratio :
From inverting Equation 4 and inserting it into Equation 2 the final thermal efficiency can be expressed as:[ page needed ] [ page needed ]
From analyzing equation 6 it is evident that the Otto cycle efficiency depends directly upon the compression ratio . Since the for air is 1.4, an increase in will produce an increase in . However, the for combustion products of the fuel/air mixture is often taken at approximately 1.3. The foregoing discussion implies that it is more efficient to have a high compression ratio. The standard ratio is approximately 10:1 for typical automobiles. Usually this does not increase much because of the possibility of autoignition, or "knock", which places an upper limit on the compression ratio. [ page needed ] During the compression process 1–2 the temperature rises, therefore an increase in the compression ratio causes an increase in temperature. Autoignition occurs when the temperature of the fuel/air mixture becomes too high before it is ignited by the flame front. The compression stroke is intended to compress the products before the flame ignites the mixture. If the compression ratio is increased, the mixture may auto-ignite before the compression stroke is complete, leading to "engine knocking". This can damage engine components and will decrease the brake horsepower of the engine.
The power produced by the Otto cycle is an energy developed per unit of time. The Otto engines are called four-stroke engines. The intake stroke and compression stroke require one rotation of the engine crankshaft. The power stroke and exhaust stroke require another rotation. For two rotations there is one work generating stroke..
From the above cycle analysis the net work produced by the system :
(again, using the sign convention, the minus sign implies energy is leaving the system as work)
If the units used were MKS the cycle would have produced one joule of energy in the form of work. For an engine of a particular displacement, such as one liter, the mass of gas of the system can be calculated assuming the engine is operating at standard temperature (20 °C) and pressure (1 atm). Using the Universal Gas Law the mass of one liter of gas is at room temperature and sea level pressure:
At an engine speed of 3000 RPM there are 1500 work-strokes/minute or 25 work-strokes/second.
Power is 25 times that since there are 25 work-strokes/second
If the engine uses multiple cylinders with the same displacement, the result would be multiplied by the number of cylinders. These results are the product of the values of the internal energy that were assumed for the four states of the system at the end each of the four strokes (two rotations). They were selected only for the sake of illustration, and are obviously of low value. Substitution of actual values from an actual engine would produce results closer to that of the engine. Whose results would be higher than the actual engine as there are many simplifying assumptions made in the analysis that overlook inefficiencies. Such results would overestimate the power output.
The difference between the exhaust and intake pressures and temperatures means that some increase in efficiency can be gained by use of a turbocharger, removing from the exhaust flow some part of the remaining energy and transferring that to the intake flow to increase the intake pressure. A gas turbine can extract useful work energy from the exhaust stream and that can then be used to pressurize the intake air. The pressure and temperature of the exhausting gases would be reduced as they expand through the gas turbine and that work is then applied to the intake gas stream, increasing its pressure and temperature. The transfer of energy amounts to an efficiency improvement and the resulting power density of the engine is also improved. The intake air is typically cooled so as to reduce its volume as the work produced per stroke is a direct function of the amount of mass taken into the cylinder; denser air will produce more work per cycle. Practically speaking the intake air mass temperature must also be reduced to prevent premature ignition in a petrol fueled engine; hence, an intercooler is used to remove some energy as heat and so reduce the intake temperature. Such a scheme both increases the engine's efficiency and power.
The application of a supercharger driven by the crankshaft does increase the power output (power density) but does not increase efficiency as it uses some of the net work produced by the engine to pressurize the intake air and fails to extract otherwise wasted energy associated with the flow of exhaust at high temperature and a pressure to the ambient.
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is a type of thermodynamic process that occurs without transferring heat or mass between the thermodynamic system and its environment. Unlike an isothermal process, an adiabatic process transfers energy to the surroundings only as work. As a key concept in thermodynamics, the adiabatic process supports the theory that explains the first law of thermodynamics.
A Carnot heat engine is a heat engine that operates on the Carnot cycle. The basic model for this engine was developed by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in 1824. The Carnot engine model was graphically expanded by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834 and mathematically explored by Rudolf Clausius in 1857, work that led to the fundamental thermodynamic concept of entropy. The Carnot engine is the most efficient heat engine which is theoretically possible. The efficiency depends only upon the absolute temperatures of the hot and cold heat reservoirs between which it operates.
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In thermodynamics and engineering, a heat engine is a system that converts heat to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work. It does this by bringing a working substance from a higher state temperature to a lower state temperature. A heat source generates thermal energy that brings the working substance to the higher temperature state. The working substance generates work in the working body of the engine while transferring heat to the colder sink until it reaches a lower temperature state. During this process some of the thermal energy is converted into work by exploiting the properties of the working substance. The working substance can be any system with a non-zero heat capacity, but it usually is a gas or liquid. During this process, some heat is normally lost to the surroundings and is not converted to work. Also, some energy is unusable because of friction and drag.
The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation of the behavior of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations. It was first stated by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of the empirical Boyle's law, Charles's law, Avogadro's law, and Gay-Lussac's law. The ideal gas law is often written in an empirical form:
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In thermodynamics, an isothermal process is a type of thermodynamic process in which the temperature T of a system remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an outside thermal reservoir, and a change in the system occurs slowly enough to allow the system to be continuously adjusted to the temperature of the reservoir through heat exchange. In contrast, an adiabatic process is where a system exchanges no heat with its surroundings (Q = 0).
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In thermodynamics, an isobaric process is a type of thermodynamic process in which the pressure of the system stays constant: ΔP = 0. The heat transferred to the system does work, but also changes the internal energy (U) of the system. This article uses the physics sign convention for work, where positive work is work done by the system. Using this convention, by the first law of thermodynamics,
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In thermal physics and thermodynamics, the heat capacity ratio, also known as the adiabatic index, the ratio of specific heats, or Laplace's coefficient, is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure to heat capacity at constant volume. It is sometimes also known as the isentropic expansion factor and is denoted by γ (gamma) for an ideal gas or κ (kappa), the isentropic exponent for a real gas. The symbol γ is used by aerospace and chemical engineers.
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In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, steam turbine, steam engine, boiler, furnace, refrigerator, ACs etc.
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A Carnot cycle is an ideal thermodynamic cycle proposed by French physicist Sadi Carnot in 1824 and expanded upon by others in the 1830s and 1840s. By Carnot's theorem, it provides an upper limit on the efficiency of any classical thermodynamic engine during the conversion of heat into work, or conversely, the efficiency of a refrigeration system in creating a temperature difference through the application of work to the system.
Thermodynamic heat pump cycles or refrigeration cycles are the conceptual and mathematical models for heat pump, air conditioning and refrigeration systems. A heat pump is a mechanical system that allows for the transmission of heat from one location at a lower temperature to another location at a higher temperature. Thus a heat pump may be thought of as a "heater" if the objective is to warm the heat sink, or a "refrigerator" or “cooler” if the objective is to cool the heat source. In either case, the operating principles are similar. Heat is moved from a cold place to a warm place.
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