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|Secretary of State for Canada|
|Member of||Cabinet of Canada|
|Formation||July 1, 1867|
|First holder||Hector-Louis Langevin|
|Final holder||Lucienne Robillard|
|Abolished||July 12, 1996|
The Secretary of State for Canada was a Canadian Cabinet position with a corresponding department. It was established in 1867 as the official channel of communication between Canada and the Imperial government in London. As Canada became increasingly independent after World War I and particularly with the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 this role fell into disuse.
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra. Consequently, its population is highly urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
The department was maintained, however, and was used to administer various aspects of government which did not have their own ministry. As well, the Secretary of State for Canada was Registrar General of Canada, responsible as such for the Great Seal of Canada and various functions of state associated with it.
The Registrar General of Canada is responsible for registering all letters patent, commissions, instruments, proclamations, and any other documents that may, from time to time, be issued under the Great Seal of Canada or the Privy Seal of Canada. The current Registrar General is Navdeep Bains.
The Great Seal of Canada is a governmental seal used for purposes of state in Canada, being set on letters patent, proclamations and commissions, both to representatives of the Queen and for the appointment of cabinet ministers, senators, and judges. Many other officials, such as officers in the Canadian Armed Forces, receive commissions affixed with the Privy Seal, not the great seal. It is not for sealing up a document as letters close.
At various times the Secretary of State for Canada was responsible for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the civil service, the Queen's Printer for Canada, administration of Crown lands, governance of Canadian Indians (as they were called) as well as various ceremonial and state duties. Generally, any government role and responsibility which was not specifically assigned to a cabinet minister would be the de facto responsibility of the Secretary of State.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is the federal and national police force of Canada. The RCMP provides law enforcement at the federal level. It also provides provincial policing in eight of Canada's provinces and local policing on contract basis in the three territories and more than 150 municipalities, 600 aboriginal communities, and three international airports. The RCMP does not provide provincial or municipal policing in Ontario or Quebec.
The civil service is independent of government and is also composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership. A civil servant or public servant is a person employed in the public sector on behalf of a government department or agency. A civil servant or public servant's first priority is to represent the interests of citizens. The extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not.
Crown land, also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown. It is the equivalent of an entailed estate and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in Commonwealth realms such as Canada and Australia, crown land is considered public land and is apart from the monarch's private estate.
The department was eliminated in 1993 when the government was reorganized. The position of Secretary of State for Canada was not legally eliminated until 1996 when its remaining responsibilities were assigned to other cabinet positions and departments, particularly the newly created position of Minister of Canadian Heritage.
The Minister of Canadian Heritage is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who heads the Department of Canadian Heritage, the federal government department responsible for culture, media, sports, and the arts in Canada.
The position of Secretary of State for Canada had no relation to that of Secretary of State for External Affairs except for the period from 1909 until 1912 when the Secretary of State for Canada (Charles Murphy under Sir Wilfrid Laurier and William James Roche under Sir Robert Borden) was responsible for the newly created Department of External Affairs.
Charles Murphy, was a Canadian politician and Liberal MP for Russell (Ontario) in the House of Commons of Canada from 1908 to 1925. He was appointed to the Senate of Canada in 1925.
Sir Henri Charles Wilfrid Laurier was the seventh prime minister of Canada, in office from 11 July 1896 to 6 October 1911.
William James Roche, was a Canadian politician and Conservative Member of Parliament for the Manitoba riding of Marquette in the House of Commons of Canada from 1896 to 1917.
|No.||Portrait||Name||Term of office||Political party||Ministry|
|1||Sir Hector-Louis Langevin||July 1, 1867||December 8, 1869||Liberal-Conservative||1 (Macdonald)|
|2||James Cox Aikins||December 8, 1869||November 5, 1873||Liberal-Conservative|
|3||David Christie||November 7, 1873||January 8, 1874||Liberal||2 (Mackenzie)|
|4||Sir Richard William Scott||January 9, 1874||October 8, 1878||Liberal|
|(2)|| James Cox Aikins |
|October 19, 1878||November 7, 1880||Conservative||3 (Macdonald)|
|5||John O'Connor||November 8, 1880||May 19, 1881||Conservative|
|6||Joseph-Alfred Mousseau||May 20, 1881||July 28, 1882||Conservative|
|7||Sir Joseph-Adolphe Chapleau||July 29, 1882||June 6, 1891||Conservative|
|June 16, 1891||January 24, 1892||4 (Abbott)|
|8||James Colebrooke Patterson||January 25, 1892||November 24, 1892||Conservative|
|9||John Costigan||December 5, 1892||December 12, 1894||Conservative||5 (Thompson)|
|10||Arthur Rupert Dickey||December 21, 1894||March 25, 1895||Conservative||6 (Bowell)|
|11||Walter Humphries Montague||March 26, 1895||December 20, 1895||Conservative|
|–|| Joseph-Aldric Ouimet |
|December 21, 1895||January 5, 1896||Conservative|
|–|| Thomas Mayne Daly |
|January 6, 1896||January 14, 1896||Conservative|
|12||Sir Charles Tupper||January 15, 1896||April 27, 1896||Conservative|
|May 1, 1896||July 8, 1896||7 (Tupper)|
|(4)||Sir Richard William Scott |
|July 13, 1896||October 8, 1908||Liberal||8 (Laurier)|
|13||Charles Murphy||October 9, 1908||October 6, 1911||Liberal|
|14||William James Roche||October 10, 1911||October 28, 1912||Conservative||9 (Borden)|
|15||Louis Coderre||October 29, 1912||October 5, 1915||Conservative|
|16||Pierre Édouard Blondin||October 6, 1915||January 7, 1917||Conservative|
|17||Esioff-Léon Patenaude||January 8, 1917||June 12, 1917||Conservative|
|–|| Albert Sévigny |
|June 13, 1917||August 24, 1917||Conservative|
|18||Arthur Meighen||August 25, 1917||October 12, 1917||Conservative|
|19||Martin Burrell||October 12, 1917||December 30, 1919||Unionist||10 (Borden)|
|20||Arthur Sifton||December 31, 1919||July 10, 1920||Unionist|
|July 10, 1920||January 21, 1921||National Liberal and Conservative||11 (Meighen)|
|21||Sir Henry Lumley Drayton||January 24, 1921||September 20, 1921||National Liberal and Conservative|
|22||Rodolphe Monty||September 21, 1921||December 29, 1921||National Liberal and Conservative|
|23||Arthur Bliss Copp||December 29, 1921||September 24, 1921||Liberal||12 (King)|
|24||Walter Edward Foster||September 26, 1925||November 12, 1925||Liberal|
|–|| Charles Murphy |
|November 13, 1925||March 23, 1926||Liberal|
|–|| Ernest Lapointe |
|March 24, 1926||June 28, 1926||Liberal|
|25||Guillaume-André Fauteux||August 23, 1926||September 25, 1926||Conservative||13 (Meighen)|
|26||Fernand Rinfret||September 25, 1926||August 7, 1930||Liberal||14 (King)|
|27||Charles Cahan||August 7, 1930||October 23, 1935||Conservative||15 (Bennett)|
|(26)|| Fernand Rinfret |
|October 23, 1935||July 12, 1939||Liberal||16 (King)|
|–|| Ernest Lapointe |
(Acting - Second time)
|July 26, 1939||May 8, 1940||Liberal|
|28||Pierre-François Casgrain||May 9, 1940||December 14, 1941||Liberal|
|29||Norman Alexander McLarty||December 15, 1941||April 17, 1945||Liberal|
|30||Paul Martin Sr.||April 18, 1945||December 11, 1946||Liberal|
|31||Colin W. G. Gibson||December 12, 1946||November 15, 1948||Liberal|
|November 15, 1948||March 31, 1949||17 (St. Laurent)|
|32||Frederick Gordon Bradley||March 31, 1949||June 11, 1953||Liberal|
|33||Jack Pickersgill||June 11, 1953||June 30, 1954||Liberal|
|34||Roch Pinard||July 1, 1954||June 21, 1957||Liberal|
|35||Ellen Fairclough||June 21, 1957||May 11, 1958||Progressive Conservative||18 (Diefenbaker)|
|36||Henri Courtemanche||May 12, 1958||June 19, 1960||Progressive Conservative|
|–|| Léon Balcer |
|June 21, 1960||October 10, 1960||Progressive Conservative|
|37||Noël Dorion||October 11, 1960||July 5, 1962||Progressive Conservative|
|–|| Léon Balcer |
(Acting - Second time)
|July 11, 1962||August 8, 1962||Progressive Conservative|
|38||Ernest Halpenny||August 9, 1962||April 22, 1963||Progressive Conservative|
|(33)|| Jack Pickersgill |
|April 22, 1963||February 2, 1964||Liberal||19 (Pearson)|
|39||Maurice Lamontagne||February 2, 1964||December 17, 1965||Liberal|
|40||Judy LaMarsh||December 17, 1965||April 9, 1968||Liberal|
|–|| John Joseph Connolly |
|April 10, 1968||April 20, 1968||Liberal|
|41||Jean Marchand||April 20, 1968||July 5, 1968||Liberal||20 (P. E. Trudeau)|
|42||Gérard Pelletier||July 5, 1968||November 26, 1972||Liberal|
|43||Hugh Faulkner||November 27, 1972||September 13, 1976||Liberal|
|44||John Roberts||September 14, 1976||June 3, 1979||Liberal|
|45||David MacDonald||June 4, 1979||March 2, 1980||Progressive Conservative||21 (Clark)|
|46||Francis Fox||March 3, 1980||September 21, 1981||Liberal||22 (P. E. Trudeau)|
|47||Gerald Regan||September 22, 1981||October 5, 1982||Liberal|
|48||Serge Joyal||October 6, 1982||June 29, 1984||Liberal|
|June 30, 1984||September 16, 1984||23 (Turner)|
|49||Walter McLean||September 17, 1984||April 19, 1985||Progressive Conservative||24 (Mulroney)|
|50||Benoît Bouchard||April 20, 1985||June 29, 1986||Progressive Conservative|
|51||David Crombie||June 30, 1986||March 30, 1988||Progressive Conservative|
|52||Lucien Bouchard||March 31, 1988||January 29, 1989||Progressive Conservative|
|53||Gerry Weiner||January 30, 1989||April 20, 1991||Progressive Conservative|
|54||Robert de Cotret||April 21, 1991||January 3, 1993||Progressive Conservative|
|55||Monique Landry||January 4, 1993||June 24, 1993||Progressive Conservative|
|June 24, 1993||November 3, 1993||25 (Campbell)|
|56||Sergio Marchi||November 4, 1993||January 24, 1996||Liberal||26 (Chrétien)|
|57||Lucienne Robillard||January 25, 1996||July 12, 1996||Liberal|
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