Thomas Pynchon bibliography

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The bibliography of the American novelist Thomas Pynchon (b. 1937) includes both fiction and nonfiction works.




Year Title Format Pages Publisher Unique identifiers Ref.
1963 V. Novel 492 Lippincourt (Philadelphia)
  • LCCN   63-8634
  • OCLC   288349
1966 The Crying of Lot 49 Novella [note 1] 183 Lippincourt (Philadelphia) [3]
1973 Gravity's Rainbow Novel 760 Viking Press (New York) [4]
1984 Slow Learner Short story collection 193 Little, Brown (Boston) [5]
1990 Vineland Novel 385 Little, Brown (Boston) [6]
1997 Mason & Dixon Novel 773 Henry Holt (New York) [6]
2006 Against the Day Novel 1,085 Penguin Books (New York) [6]
2009 Inherent Vice Novel 369 Penguin Books (New York) [6]
2013 Bleeding Edge Novel 477 Penguin Books (New York) [6]

Short stories

Six short stories by Pynchon were published in various magazines between 1959 and 1964. Five of his stories were republished in the 1984 collection Slow Learner .

Date Title Publication Included in
Slow Learner
"The Small Rain"Cornell Writer(Vol. 6, No. 2)Yes [7]
"Mortality and Mercy in Vienna" Epoch (Vol. 9, No. 4)No [7]
1960 "Low-lands" New World Writing 16 Yes [7]
"Entropy" Kenyon Review (Vol. 22, No. 2)Yes [8]
1961 "Under the Rose" [note 2] Noble Savage 3 Yes [10]
Dec 19–26
"The Secret Integration" The Saturday Evening Post Yes [10]


This section includes excerpts published prior to the excerpted work. It does not include excerpts reprinted after the publication of the excerpted work.

Date Title of excerpt Excerpted work Publication Ref.
1965 "In Which Esther Gets a Nose Job" V. Black Humor [note 3] [10]
"The World (This One), the Flesh (Mrs. Oedipa Maas), and the Testament of Pierce Inverarity" The Crying of Lot 49 Esquire [10]
"The Shrink Flips" The Crying of Lot 49 Cavalier [11]


Pynchon's juvenilia includes several short stories published in his high school student publication Purple and Gold, of which he was also an editor. As an undergraduate at Cornell University, he also co-wrote an unfinished, unpublished libretto for a dystopian musical with fellow student Kirkpatrick Sale.

Date Title Publication Notes Ref.
Nov 13,
"Voice of the Hamster" [Part 1]Purple and GoldVol. 9, No. 2Purple and Gold was a student publication at Oyster Bay High School. These stories were republished in an appendix of Chris Mead's 1989 bibliography of Pynchon's works; see Mead 1989 , pp. 155–167. [12]
Dec 18,
"Voice of the Hamster" [Part 2]Purple and GoldVol. 9, No. 3 [13]
Jan 22,
"Voice of the Hamster" [Part 3]Purple and GoldVol. 9, No. 4 [14]
Feb 19,
"Voice of the Hamster" [Part 4]Purple and GoldVol. 9, No. 5 [15]
Mar 19,
"Ye Legend of Sir Stupid and the Purple Knight"Purple and GoldVol. 9, No. 6 [16]
"The Boys" [17]
1958 Minstrel IslandUnpublished Unpublished, unfinished manuscript co-written with Kirkpatrick Sale. Minstrel Island is a draft of the libretto for a dystopian sci-fi musical. The plot—in which technology corporation IBM has taken over the world and seeks to eradicate the last refuge of artists on "Minstrel Island"—evinces thematic concerns and subject matter that became hallmarks of Pynchon's literary works. Although the first act is reasonably complete, acts two and three exist only as notes, and there is significant hand-written marginalia throughout. The manuscript is held by the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin. [18]


Date Title Genre Publication Publisher Notes Ref.
Autobiographical Sketch/Proposal to the Ford FoundationProposal Proposal for Ford Foundation Fellowship Unpublished Part of an unsuccessful proposal for a Ford Foundation fellowship, likely written in June or July of 1959. In 1989 a Foundation archivist made this document available to several researchers, including Steven Weisenburger, who describes (but does not quote from) it. Late in 1989, at Pynchon's request, the Ford Foundation closed the author's file for the next 50 years, making this manuscript generally unavailable until 2039. [19]
Wikisource-logo.svg "Togetherness"Technical writing Aerospace SafetyVol. 16, No. 12 United States Air Force Written during Pynchon's employment at Boeing. The byline gives his name as "Thomas H. [ sic ] Pynchon", which is considered an error. [20] Pynchon's middle name is "Ruggles". [21] [22]
[Various uncredited articles]Technical writing Bomarc Service News Boeing See section below . [23]
"A Gift of Books"Review Holiday Vol. 38, No. 6 Curtis Publishing Company Review of the 1958 Western novel Warlock by American author Oakley Hall (1920–2008). [24] [10]
Jun 12,
"A Journey into the Mind of Watts"Essay The New York Times Magazine The New York Times Essay on the Watts riots of August 11–16, 1965, and their aftermath in the neighborhood of Watts, Los Angeles, California. [25] [26]
1983 Introduction to Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up to Me Foreword Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up to Me (3rd ed.) Penguin Books Introduction to the 1966 novel by American author Richard Fariña (1937–1966), who had been Pynchon's friend and schoolmate at Cornell. [27]
1984 Introduction to Slow Learner Preface Slow Learner (1st ed.) Little, Brown An introduction to the collection of Pynchon's own early, previously published short stories. [5] In the 20-page preface, Pynchon reflects on the development of his writing, with autobiographical details that have made it a rare source of information about his life. [28] Though almost universally accepted as a work of nonfiction, the introduction has also been scrutinized as if it were a short story or a genre-ambiguous piece that may include elements of fiction. [29] [30]
Oct 28,
"Is It O.K. to Be a Luddite?"Essay The New York Times Book Review The New York Times Essay advocating for neo-Luddism. [31] [27]
Apr 10,
"The Heart's Eternal Vow"Review The New York Times Book Review The New York Times Review of the 1988 English-language translation of the novel Love in the Time of Cholera by Colombian author Gabriel García Márquez (1927–2014). [27]
1992 Introduction to The Teachings of Don B.Foreword The Teachings of Don B. (1st ed.)Turtle Bay Introduction to a collection of writings by American author Donald Barthelme (1931–1989) edited by Kim Herzinger. [30]
Jun 6,
"Nearer, My Couch, to Thee"Essay The New York Times Book Review The New York Times Essay on sloth in America. First entry in a summer-long series about the seven deadly sins by Pynchon, Mary Gordon, John Updike, William Trevor, Gore Vidal, Richard Howard and A. S. Byatt. These, along with an eighth essay by Joyce Carol Oates, became the book Deadly Sins ( ISBN   9780688136901). [30]
Spiked! The Music of Spike JonesLiner notes Spiked! The Music of Spike Jones (CD compilation album) Catalyst/BMG Essay introducing the music of American bandleader Spike Jones (1911–1965), known for his satirical swing compositions and complex novelty arrangements. [32]
[note 4]
Nobody's CoolLiner notes Nobody's Cool (studio album) by Lotion SpinART Records Essay introducing the album by the American alternative rock band Lotion. [30]
"Lunch with Lotion"Interview Esquire Vol. 125, No. 6 Hearst Communications Pynchon interviews the members of American alternative rock band Lotion. [35]
1997 Introduction to Stone JunctionForeword Stone Junction: An Alchemical Potboiler (1st. pbk. ed.) Rebel Inc. (Edinburgh) Introduction to the first UK paperback edition of the 1990 novel by American author Jim Dodge (1945–). Pynchon had written a blurb for the dust jacket of the novel's hardcover first edition. [36] The following year, a US paperback edition with Pynchon's introduction was published by Grove Press (New York). [37] [38]
"Hallowe'en? Over Already?"Essay Cathedral School Newsletter The Cathedral School of St. John the Divine, ManhattanWritten when Pynchon's son, Jackson, was a second-grade student at the Cathedral School. The essay describes activities at the school during the fall of 1998, including a guided tour of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine. [39] [30]
2003 Introduction to Nineteen Eighty-Four Foreword Nineteen Eighty-Four (Centennial Edition) Plume Introduction to a new edition of the 1949 novel by English author George Orwell (1903–1950) marking the centenary of Orwell's birth. The edition also includes a 1961 afterword by German-American writer Erich Fromm (1900–1980). [40]
Nov 16,
"The Evolution of The Daily Show "Essay The Daily Show: Ten Fu@#ing Years (The Concert) Irving Plaza (New York) Essay for the program of The Daily Show's Ten-Year Anniversary Concert at Irving Plaza on November 16, 2006. [30]

Technical writing for Boeing

Aerospace Safety (1960-12 - Vol 16 No 12).pdf
Cover of Aerospace Safety
December 1960
Aerospace Safety (1960-12 - Vol 16 No 12).pdf
Thomas H. [ sic ] Pynchon
"Togetherness" is the only published article with a confirmed attribution to Pynchon during his employment as a technical writer for Boeing. [20]

Between February 22, 1960 and to September 13, 1962, Pynchon was employed as a technical writer for the corporation Boeing, a major aerospace manufacturer and defense contractor. [41] During that time, only one technical article with Pynchon's byline appeared in print: the feature "Togetherness" in Aerospace Safety, a periodical published by the US Air Force rather than Boeing. While "Togetherness" is the only technical article that can be attributed to Pynchon with absolute certainty, it is considered extremely unlikely that he would have produced only one article during more than two years on the job. [42] As such, scholars have conducted research to identify articles that can plausibly be attributed to Pynchon.

Pynchon is known to have worked primarily as a staff writer for Boeing's Bomarc Service News, an in-house periodical related to development of the CIM-10 Bomarc surface-to-air missile. [note 5] It remains possible, albeit uncertain and unlikely, that Pynchon contributed to other publications as part of his work at Boeing. [note 6] Definitive attribution of any Bomarc Service News articles to Pynchon is impossible because the publication never used bylines. Nonetheless, at least two scholars have used textual analysis in an attempt to identify likely Pynchon pieces:

  1. In a 2000 article for Pynchon Notes, Adrian Wisnicki compiled a list of 24 "probable" and 10 "possible" examples of Pynchon's writing in Bomarc Service News based on stylistic and thematic similarities to known works. [48]
  2. In a 2019 article in the journal Textual Practice , Katie Muth used a stylometry-based authorship algorithm to identify eight Bomarc Service articles that were "closely correlated" with Pynchon's contemporaneous writing, as well as four that she determined were not correlated. [49] Muth later claimed that, from the "handful" of Bomarc articles that could be reasonably attributed to Pynchon, two were "particularly" likely matches: "Torquing" (June 1960) and "The Mad Hatter and the Mercury Wetted Relays" (February 1962). [50]

The following are Bomarc Service News articles assessed as potential Pynchon articles by Wisnicki, Muth, or both.

Articles Pynchon may have written for Bomarc Service News
Date Title Probability of Pynchon's authorship,
according to...
Wisnicki 2000–2001 Muth 2019a/2019b
Mar 1960 "Vibration Testing" Probable "Closely correlated" [51]
Apr 1960 "Weight Control" Probable N/A [52]
May 1960 "Missile Mockups" Probable N/A [52]
Jun 1960 "Torquing" Probable "Closely correlated" +
"particularly" likely
Jul 1960 "SCE Calibration" Probable N/A [52]
Sep 1960 "Package Handling" Probable N/A [52]
Oct 1960 "Analog Simulations" Probable Not correlated [54]
Oct 1960 "ANFA Hazard" Probable N/A [55]
Nov 1960 "1,000,000,000 = One Gigamile" Probable N/A [55]
Nov 1960 "Telemetering: Recovery, Recording, Reduction" Possible Not correlated [56]
Dec 1960 "Missile Sealants" Possible N/A [57]
Jan 1961 "Blame It on Osmosis" Possible N/A [57]
Mar 1961 "Separation Diaphragms" Probable N/A [55]
Apr 1961 "Maintainability, Part 2" Probable Not correlated [58]
Jun 1961 "Maintainability, Part 3" Probable N/A [55]
Jul 1961 "Of Astronauts and Acid" Possible N/A [57]
Jul 1961 "Records Prove Valuable" Possible N/A [57]
Aug 1961 "Soldering" Probable "Closely correlated" [59]
Sep 1961 "Maintainability, Part 4" Probable N/A [60]
Oct 1961 "Transporter-Loader Hoist Safety" Possible N/A [57]
Jan 1962 "Attention to Detail" Probable N/A [60]
Jan 1962 "IM-99B Flyaway Kits" Possible N/A [57]
Feb 1962 "'Teflon' in Depth" Probable Not correlated [59]
Feb 1962 "The Mad Hatter and the Mercury Wetted Relays" Probable "Closely correlated" +
"particularly" likely
Mar 1962 "A Blinding Flash" Possible N/A [57]
Mar 1962 "Vent Those Tanks!" Possible N/A [57]
Apr 1962 "MIU Plug Problems" Probable "Closely correlated" [56]
Jul 1962 "Environmental Protection" Probable "Closely correlated" [56]
Aug 1962 "The Trouble with Safety Is... People!" Probable "Closely correlated" [56]
Sep 1962 "Hydrazine Tank Cartridge Replacement" Probable "Closely correlated" [56]
Oct 1962 "Bomarc Reliability and You" Probable N/A [62]
Oct 1962 "Safety Devices?" Possible N/A [57]


Date Title Genre Publication Publisher Notes Ref.
Letters to Candida Donadio Letters Unpublished, except for brief excerpts quoted in an article from The New York Times . [63] Donadio was Pynchon's literary agent from 1963–1982. In 1984, she sold a collection of Pynchon's correspondence to her: 120 letters dated between March 4, 1963 and January 5, 1982. The buyer was Carter Burden, a collector of rare American literature. After Burden's death, his family arranged in 1998 to donate his literary collection to the Pierpont Morgan Library in Manhattan. The library initially intended to make the letters available to scholars by the end of the year. It also provided access to The New York Times , which published excerpts from some of the letters. [64] However, following expressions of disapproval from Pynchon's agent and his attorney, the library and Burden family walked back their plan to provide scholarly access. Instead, the library announced that the letters will remain private during Pynchon's lifetime. [65] [63]
Letter to Jules Siegel Letter Cavalier Vol. 15, No. 146, p. 16 Fawcett Publications Several paragraphs from the letter—totaling 228 words—were quoted in "The Dark Triumvirate", an article in Cavalier magazine by Siegel (1935–2012) about the "black humor" of Pynchon, Bruce Jay Friedman, and Joseph Heller. [66] Siegel indicated that the letter had been addressed to "a suicidal writer friend" but did not refer to its recipient by name. [67] Others have surmised that it had been addressed to Siegel himself. [28] Pynchon recommended the article to a friend, the folk etymologist Peter Tamony, indicating that he did not object to Siegel's extensive quotation from a private letter. [68] In 1984, Steven Moore reprinted the quoted portion of the letter in the Fall 1984 issue of Pynchon Notes. [69] [69]
Jul 17,
"Pros and Cohns"Letter to the editor The New York Times Book Review The New York Times Response to an accusation of plagiarism directed at Pynchon by the French author Romain Gary, who asserted that Pynchon had stolen "Genghis Cohen"—the name of a character in The Crying of Lot 49—from the titular character of Gary's 1967 novel The Dance of Genghis Cohn (La danse de Gengis Cohn). Pynchon denied the allegation, said he had never heard of Gary or his works, and claimed that their independent invention of a "trivial" pun on the name Genghis Khan was purely coincidental. [70] [71]
1976 Letter to Richard Wilbur Letter Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Letters and the National Institute of Arts and Letters, 2nd series, Vol. 26, pp. 43–46: "Presentation to Thomas Pynchon of the Howells Medal for Fiction of the Academy by William Styron" American Academy of Arts and Letters The letter declined the William Dean Howells Medal for Fiction, which Pynchon had been awarded by the American Academy of Arts and Letterss for Gravity's Rainbow. At the time, Wilbur was president of the Academy. [72] [73]
Apr 28,
Letter to John Calvin Batchelor Letter to the editor The SoHo Weekly News Vol. 4, No. 30 (quoted in "The Ghost of Richard Fariña" by Batchelor)Michael GoldsteinIn an article published by the SoHo Weekly News on April 24, 1976, Batchelor alleged that there was no such person as Thomas Pynchon. Instead, Batchelor posited, the name was merely a pseudonym of J. D. Salinger, who had withdrawn from public life and stopped publishing fiction just before Pynchon's career began. [74] In a letter written on MGM stationery, Pynchon replied: "Not bad. Keep trying." [75] Batchelor quoted the letter in a follow-up piece, in which he conceded Pynchon's existence as a real person but maintained that Salinger had written most of Pynchon's works, while suggesting that others may have also contributed to the Pynchon oeuvre, including Donald Barthelme or even Pynchon himself. [76] Later, Batchelor accepted Pynchon's sole authorship of his works. [77] [78]
1988 Letter to Thomas F. HirschLetter The Fictional Labyrinths of Thomas Pynchon by David Seed Macmillan Press Hirsch, a graduate student, wrote to Pynchon about material in chapter 9 of V. related to historical South West Africa. [79] Pynchon replied to Hirsch in a letter dated January 8, 1969, which was published in 1988 as an appendix to The Fictional Labyrinths of Thomas Pynchon. [80] [81]
Mar 12,
"Words for Salman Rushdie"Letter The New York Times Book Review The New York Times "Words for Salman Rushdie" is a collection of open letters by "28 distinguished writers born in 21 countries" offering support to the British Indian author Salman Rushdie during the controversy against Rushdie's novel The Satanic Verses (1988). The New York Times Book Review published the letters less than a month after Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for the deaths of Rushdie and his publishers. [82] At 68 words, Pynchon's letter for Rushdie was one of his briefest published works. [83] [30]
1990 Letters to Corlies SmithLetter Of a Fond GhoulThe Blown Litter PressCorlies Smith (1929–2004) was the editor of Pynchon's first two novels at Lippincott. [84] In 1990, seven of Pynchon's letters to Smith—dated between August 31, 1961, and June 2, 1962—were published without permission in the book Of a Fond Ghoul. [85] These letters concern the editing process readying V. for publication. [86] The original copies were stolen from the offices of Harper & Row. [87] [88]
Dec 5,
Letter to Dan Franklin at Jonathan Cape Letter The Daily Telegraph Telegraph Media Group Dan Franklin, then-director of the London publishing firm Jonathan Cape, solicited letters of support for English author Ian McEwan from prominent authors of historical fiction. McEwan had been accused of plagiarizing historical texts in his 2001 novel Atonement . Pynchon's letter was quoted in "The borrowers: 'why McEwan is no plagiarist'", an article by Nigel Reynolds in The Daily Telegraph. [89] Other authors who made statements in McEwan's defense included Martin Amis, Margaret Atwood, Thomas Keneally, Zadie Smith, and John Updike. [90] [91]

Misattributed and disputed works

The following are written works for which there has been some claim or question of Pynchon's authorship. These were either works attributed to Pynchon upon publication—albeit dubiously—or works that attracted claims of being written by Pynchon under a pseudonym. None of these are generally accepted as authentic Pynchon writings, and in some cases the possibility of his authorship has been ruled out.

Date Title Notes
1983–1988 Wanda Tinasky letters to the editor In 1990, Bruce Anderson, the editor of the Anderson Valley Advertiser , claimed that Thomas Pynchon authored letters sent to the Mendocino Commentary and AVA between 1983 and 1988 under the name Wanda Tinasky. In 1994 this was followed by Fred Gardner research and then, in 1996, by a book by TR Factor entitled The Letters of Wanda Tinasky, supporting the claim of Pynchon authorship. The Pynchon connection was denied by Pynchon's agent, Melanie Jackson. In 1998 Don Foster named an obscure Beat poet and writer, Tom Hawkins, as the author of the letters. This led to further research by Factor proving that Hawkins had authored the Tinasky letters.
1990 Barefoot in the Head liner notes Pynchon's name was signed to the liner notes of Barefoot in the Head, a 1990 studio album by noise musicians Jim Sauter, Don Dietrich, and Thurston Moore. Pynchon's agent denied his authorship. [92] The misattribution was a prank. [93] The true author is unknown. Tim Ware, a musician and Pynchon enthusiast, suggested that the notes had mostly likely been written by Byron Coley, a music critic affiliated with Moore's band Sonic Youth. [92]
[note 7]
Interview in Playboy Japan In January 2002, [note 7] Playboy Japan published a purported interview with Pynchon conducted by Japanese journalist Motokazu Ohno. If authentic, it represents Pynchon's first and only sustained interview with the press, breaking four decades of media silence. In the interview, Pynchon expressed doubt about the existence of Osama bin Laden (more specifically, Pynchon said bin Laden was "someone's clown for a rodeo" and should be understood "as a symbol rather than a man"), criticized American media coverage of the September 11 attacks, and sarcastically recommended investing in the tobacco industry due to the national mood of heightened anxiety. [96]

Pynchon's agent "disavowed" the interview. [24] Its authenticity is generally regarded as dubious. [97] Literary scholar Paolo Simonetti labeled the interview "unreliable" and "probably fake", noting that although the questioning of bin Laden's existence was "typically Pynchonian" in style and substance, it remained "unlikely that the author would have expressed it plainly in an interview." [98] Pynchon later incorporated the topic of 9/11 conspiracy theories into the plot of his 2013 novel Bleeding Edge. [99]

2015 Cow Country Rumors that Pynchon had secretly written the 2015 novel Cow Country—published by a small press under the pseudonym Adrian Jones Pearson—led to a significant increase in the book's sales. [100] Art Winslow, a critic and former editor at The Nation , pitched the theory of Pynchon's authorship five months after the novel's release in Harper's Magazine . [101] It was denied by Pynchon's agent and his publisher, Penguin Books. Steven Moore, a critic who had blurbed Cow Country after becoming acquainted with its real author, also denied Pynchon's involvement. Several Pynchon scholars criticized Winslow's analysis as implausible. [102] According to an investigation by journalist Alex Shephard, the true author of Cow Country is probably a writer named A. J. Perry. [100]


  1. In the introduction to Slow Learner, Pynchon set the title as "The Crying of Lot 49"—within double quotation marks, rather than italics—and described it as a "story" that had been "marketed as a 'novel'". [2]
  2. A modified adaptation of "Under the Rose" became the third chapter of V. Critics have variously treated "Under the Rose" as a "pre- or meta-text" to V., or as a distinct work with an intertextual relationship to the novel. [9]
  3. Black Humor was an anthology edited by Bruce Jay Friedman and published by Bantam. [10]
  4. According to some sources, Nobody's Cool was released in 1995. [33] While the copyright registration for the album was dated 1995, it was not actually released until March 1996. [34]
  5. Pynchon's connection to Bomarc Service News became known through the notice taken by other Boeing employees of his later fame as an author. When Pynchon won the William Faulkner Foundation Award for V., Kenneth Calkins—editor of the internal newsletter Boeing News—noted Pynchon had written for Bomarc Service News. [43] E. A. Hixson, a former editor of Bomarc Service News, later confirmed that Pynchon had been on the publication's staff during his editorship. [44]
  6. Two other in-house Boeing publications have been ruled out. A co-worker who personally knew the author recalled, years after the fact, that Pynchon had contributed to "the Minuteman Field Service News". [45] However, the company's support publication for the LGM-30 Minuteman—actually called the Minuteman Service News—launched two months after Pynchon is believed to have departed Boeing. [46] It is almost certain Pynchon did not contribute to The Boeing Magazine, as that publication included bylines on every article and never ran his name. [47]
  7. 1 2 Citations to the Playboy Japan interview are sometimes dated December 2001, or inconsistently dated either December 2001 or January 2002. [94] According to the cumulative bibliography maintained by the journal Pynchon Notes, the correct date of the Playboy Japan interview is January 2002. [95]

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chief of the Royal Danish Army</span>

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mozambican nationality law</span>

Mozambican nationality law is regulated by the Constitution of Mozambique, as amended; the Nationality Law and Nationality Regulation, and their revisions; and various international agreements to which the country is a signatory. These laws determine who is, or is eligible to be, a national of Mozambique. The legal means to acquire nationality, formal legal membership in a nation, differ from the domestic relationship of rights and obligations between a national and the nation, known as citizenship. Nationality describes the relationship of an individual to the state under international law, whereas citizenship is the domestic relationship of an individual within the nation. Mozambican nationality is typically obtained under the principle of jus soli, i.e. by birth in the territory, or jus sanguinis, i.e. by birth in Mozambique or abroad to parents with Mozambican nationality. It can be granted to persons with an affiliation to the country, or to a permanent resident who has lived in the country for a given period of time through naturalization.

Lucy Olcott (1877–1922) was an American art historian and dealer who specialized in the art of Siena as well as Egyptian antiquities, working for both the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Cleveland Museum of Art. She was co-author of the widely-read Guide to Siena, published in 1903.



  1. Mead 1989, p. 5.
  2. Pynchon 1984, p. 22.
  3. Mead 1989, p. 9.
  4. Mead 1989, p. 13.
  5. 1 2 Mead 1989, p. 15.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Freer 2019, p. vii.
  7. 1 2 3 Mead 1989, p. 19.
  8. Mead 1989, p. 21.
  9. Amian 2008, pp. 82–83.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mead 1989, p. 23.
  11. Mead 1989, p. 25.
  12. Mead 1989, pp. 19, 157–158.
  13. Mead 1989, pp. 19, 158–160.
  14. Mead 1989, pp. 19, 160–161.
  15. Mead 1989, pp. 19, 163.
  16. Mead 1989, pp. 19, 163–166.
  17. Mead 1989, pp. 19, 166–167.
  18. Gibbs 2004; Harle 2019 , pp. 16–18.
  19. Weisenburger 1990, p. 692.
  20. 1 2 Wisnicki 2000–2001, p. 10.
  21. Duyfhuizen & Krafft 1996, p. 178.
  22. Mead 1989 , pp. 22–23; Wisnicki 2000–2001 , pp. 10–12.
  23. Wisnicki 2000–2001, pp. 14, 25–29.
  24. 1 2 Krafft 2019, p. 10.
  25. Dunlap 2015.
  26. Mead 1989, pp. 25–26.
  27. 1 2 3 Mead 1989, p. 27.
  28. 1 2 Weisenburger 1990, p. 693 (fn. 3).
  29. McHoul & Wills 1990 , pp. 133–135; Krafft 2019 , p. 9 ("Many reviewers celebrated this introduction for being surprisingly forthcoming, but other readers see it as a carefully guarded performance, almost as if it were another short story"); Kolbuszewska 2019 , pp. 281, 286 (fn. 1, citing McHoul & Wills 1990).
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dalsgaard 2019, p. 362.
  31. Jones 2006, p. 207.
  32. Dryden n.d.; Dalsgaard 2019 , p. 362.
  33. See, e.g., Strong 1999, p. 375; Duyfhuizen & Krafft 1996, p. 177.
  34. Pynchon 1996, p. 86 ("releasing ... their second CD, Nobody's Cool, in March '96"); Dalsgaard 2019, p. 362 (noting the 1995 copyright but 1996 release).
  35. Duyfhuizen & Krafft 1996 , pp. 178, 200; Pynchon 1996 , pp. 84–88, 90.
  36. Padgett et al. 1995–1997.
  37. Cowart 2011, p. 233.
  38. Dalsgaard, Herman & McHale 2012, p. 178.
  39. Rolls 2013, p. 1.
  40. Deery 2005, p. 122.
  41. Muth 2019b, p. 474.
  42. Wisnicki 2000–2001, pp. 10–12.
  43. Muth 2019a, pp. 473–474.
  44. Wisnicki 2000–2001, p. 14.
  45. Cowart 1980, pp. 96–97.
  46. Wisnicki 2000–2001, pp. 12–14.
  47. Wisnicki 2000–2001, p. 12.
  48. Wisnicki 2000–2001, pp. 25–29.
  49. Muth 2019a, pp. 480, 490 (fn. 29), 492–493.
  50. Muth 2019b, p. 29 (fn. 25).
  51. Wisnicki 2000–2001 , p. 25; Muth 2019a , p. 480.
  52. 1 2 3 4 Wisnicki 2000–2001, p. 25.
  53. Wisnicki 2000–2001 , p. 25; Muth 2019a , p. 480; Muth 2019b , p. 25 (fn. 29).
  54. Wisnicki 2000–2001 , pp. 25–26; Muth 2019a , p. 480.
  55. 1 2 3 4 Wisnicki 2000–2001, p. 26.
  56. 1 2 3 4 5 Wisnicki 2000–2001 , p. 28; Muth 2019a , p. 480.
  57. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Wisnicki 2000–2001, p. 29.
  58. Wisnicki 2000–2001 , p. 26; Muth 2019a , p. 480.
  59. 1 2 Wisnicki 2000–2001 , p. 27; Muth 2019a , p. 480.
  60. 1 2 Wisnicki 2000–2001, p. 27.
  61. Wisnicki 2000–2001 , pp. 27–28; Muth 2019a , p. 480; Muth 2019b , p. 25 (fn. 29).
  62. Wisnicki 2000–2001, p. 28.
  63. 1 2 Gussow 1998a.
  64. Gussow 1998a; Baughman et al. 2009.
  65. Gussow 1998b.
  66. Muth 2019b, pp. 23, 28 (fn. 1).
  67. Moore 1984, p. 84.
  68. Rolls 2019, pp. 16, 21 (fn. 7).
  69. 1 2 Moore 1984 , pp. 84–85; Mead 1989 , p. 23.
  70. Balint 2018, p. 24.
  71. Mead 1989 , p. 25; Balint 2018 , p. 24.
  72. Rolls 2019, p. 15.
  73. Mead 1989 , p. 25; Rolls 2019 , pp. 15, 21 (fn. 2).
  74. Alexander 1999, p. 254.
  75. Tanner 1982 , p. 18; Alexander 1999 , pp. 254–255.
  76. Alexander 1999, p. 255.
  77. Alexander 1999, pp. 255–256.
  78. Mead 1989, pp. 25, 27.
  79. Seed 1988, p. 240.
  80. Seed 1988, pp. 240–243.
  81. Seed 1988 , pp. 240–243; Mead 1989 , p. 27
  82. Perchard 2016, p. 476.
  83. Muth 2019b, p. 23.
  84. McGrath 2004.
  85. Herman & Krafft 2006 , p. 261 (fn. 1) (noting that Of a Fond Ghoul was "unauthorized"); Dalsgaard 2019 , pp. 362–363 (providing the number and dates of the letters in Of a Fond Ghoul).
  86. Rolls 2019, pp. 19, 22 (fn. 20).
  87. Herman & Krafft 2006, p. 261 (fn. 1).
  88. Dalsgaard 2019, pp. 362–363.
  89. Dalsgaard 2019, p. 364.
  90. Reynolds 2006.
  91. Reynolds 2006; Dalsgaard 2019 , p. 364.
  92. 1 2 Ware 2018.
  93. Masters 2013.
  94. See, e.g., Simonetti 2011, pp. 37 (fn. 1), 40 (using both dates within the same article); compare Krafft 2019 and Muth 2019b (using inconsistent dates in different chapters of the same book).
  95. Krafft 2000–2001, p. 275.
  96. Simonetti 2011 , p. 37 (fn. 1); Krafft 2019 , p. 10.
  97. Simonetti 2011 , pp. 27, 37 (fn. 1); Konstantinou 2013–2014 , p. 171.
  98. Simonetti 2011, pp. 27, 37 (fn. 1).
  99. Konstantinou 2013–2014, p. 171.
  100. 1 2 Shephard 2015.
  101. Winslow 2015.
  102. Alter 2015.