Thomisus onustus

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Thomisus onustus
Crab spider (Thomisus onustus) with prey nettle tree butterfly (Libythea celtis).jpg
with prey nettle tree butterfly (Libythea celtis) on spearmint (Mentha spicata), Pirin National Park, Bulgaria
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Family: Thomisidae
Genus: Thomisus
Species:
T. onustus
Binomial name
Thomisus onustus
Walckenaer, 1805 [1]
Subspecies [2]

T. o. meridionalisStrand, 1907

Thomisus onustus is a crab spider species in the genus Thomisus belonging to the family Thomisidae.

Contents

Description

Purple camouflage. Thomisidae - Thomisus onustus.JPG
Purple camouflage.

This species shows sexual dimorphism both in size and coloration. The adult males reach a body length of only 2–4 millimetres (0.079–0.157 in), while females are 6–7 millimetres (0.24–0.28 in) long. In males, the basic colour of the prosoma varies from yellow brown to dark brown, the opisthosoma may be yellow and green or brown. Females are very variable in colour, their basic colour can be white, yellow pale brown or pink, sometimes with additional shades of red. This species is characterized by the prominent rear corners of the opisthosoma.

Prey

Like other species of the family Thomisidae these crab spiders do not make a web, but wait in ambush for their prey on flowers. The spiders are disguised by assuming the same colour as the flower, fooling both insect and bird predators. The prey consists of flower-visiting insects of all species, such as hover flies, bees, wasps, butterflies or beetles, which are often several times larger than the spider. They take their prey with two powerful and highly enlarged front leg pairs and usually kill them by biting on the back of their neck. Emerging spiderlings of Thomisus onustus may feed on pollen or nectar when insect prey is lacking.

Reproduction

Mating takes place mainly in June. The male climbs onto the back of the female to copulate. Finally, the male leaves the female. The female during the entire mating is completely passive and does not show any aggressive behaviour.

Distribution and habitat

Thomisus Onustus in Behbahan, Iran Thomisus Onustus in Behbahan, Iran.jpg
Thomisus Onustus in Behbahan, Iran

It has a Palearctic distribution, being found from Great Britain and Portugal in the west to Japan in the east. [1] It is present in most countries of Europe, but is absent in Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Denmark and Finland, and it has also been seen in Iraq.[ citation needed ] Its north–south distribution extends from Sweden to South Africa and from Siberia to Central Java, including temperate and tropical ecozones.[ citation needed ] These spiders prefer warm temperatures, frost-free areas, dry and sandy habitats with high solar radiation and dry grasslands.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

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<i>Misumenoides formosipes</i> species of arachnid

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<i>Synema globosum</i> species of arachnid

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<i>Rabidosa rabida</i> species of arachnid

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<i>Xysticus cristatus</i> species of arachnid

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<i>Ebrechtella tricuspidata</i> species of arachnid

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<i>Thomisus spectabilis</i> species of arachnid

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<i>Australomisidia cruentata</i> species of arachnid

Australomisidia cruentata, one of the crab spiders, is a small spider found in Australia. The body length of the female is up to 5 mm, the male 3 mm. An ambush predator, often seen on flowers in the Pultenaea group of egg and bacon plants, belonging to the pea family. The egg sac is also laid on the flowers. Petals being fastened with silk in a chamber. The spider stays with the eggs, probably still hunting from the entrance of the retreat, with the egg sac nearby. Prey is small flying insects. The genus Australomisidia was created in 2014, the word being a combination of Australia and Thomisidae, the crab spiders.

References

  1. 1 2 "Taxon details Thomisus onustus Walckenaer, 1805", World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2017-06-29
  2. "Taxon details Thomisus onustus meridionalis Strand, 1907", World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2017-06-29