Threadfin

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Threadfin
Atlantic threadfin ( Polydactylus octonemus ).jpg
Atlantic threadfin, Polydactylus octonemus
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Polynemidae
Rafinesque, 1815 [1]
Genera

See text

Threadfins are silvery grey perciform fish of the family Polynemidae. Found in tropical to subtropical waters throughout the world, the threadfin family contains eight genera and about 40 species. [2] An unrelated species sometimes known by the name threadfin, Alectis indicus, is properly the Indian threadfish (family Carangidae).

Contents

Ranging in length from 11 cm (4.5 in) in the dwarf threadfin (Parapolynemus verekeri) to 2 m (6.6 ft) in fourfinger threadfin (Eleutheronema tetradactylum) and giant African threadfin (Polydactylus quadrifilis), threadfins are both important to commercial fisheries as a food fish, and popular among anglers. Their habit of forming large schools makes the threadfins a reliable and economic catch.

Description

Their bodies are elongated and fusiform, with spinous and soft dorsal fins widely separated. Their tail fins are large and deeply forked; indicating speed and agility. The mouth is large and inferior; a blunt snout projects far ahead. The jaws and palate possess bands of villiform (fibrous) teeth. Their most distinguishing feature is their pectoral fins: they are composed of two distinct sections, the lower of which consists of three to seven long, thread-like independent rays. Polynemus species may have up to 15 of these modified rays.

Polydactylus sexfilis or moi (sixfinger threadfins), were reserved for Hawaiian royalty or the ali`i. Sixfinger threadfin school.jpg
Polydactylus sexfilis or moi (sixfinger threadfins), were reserved for Hawaiian royalty or the aliʻi.

In some species, such as the royal threadfin ( Pentanemus quinquarius ), the thread-like rays may extend well past the tail fin. This feature explains both the common name threadfin and the family name Polynemidae, from the Greek poly meaning "many" and nema meaning "filament". Similar species, such as the mullets (family Mugilidae) and milkfish (family Chanidae) can be easily distinguished from threadfins by their lack of filamentous pectoral rays.

Distribution and habitat

Threadfins frequent open, shallow water in areas with muddy, sandy, or silty bottoms; they are rarely seen at reefs. Their pectoral rays are thought to serve as tactile structures, helping to find prey within the sediments. Noted for being euryhaline, threadfins are able to tolerate a wide range of salinity levels. This attribute allows threadfins to enter estuaries and even rivers. They feed primarily on crustaceans and smaller fish.

Reproduction

Presumed to be pelagic spawners, threadfins probably release many tiny, buoyant eggs into the water column, which then become part of the plankton. The eggs float freely with the currents until hatching.

Cuisine

Threadfin has been used as an ingredient in creating crab stick.

Mariculture

In Hawaii, sixfinger threadfins are the subject of commercial open-ocean cage mariculture. [5] [6]

Genera and species

Fourfinger threadfin (Eleutheronema tetradactylum) Eleutheronema tetradactylum(Shaw, 1804).jpg
Fourfinger threadfin (Eleutheronema tetradactylum)
Sevenfinger threadfin (Filimanus heptadactyla) Filimanus heptadactyla.png
Sevenfinger threadfin (Filimanus heptadactyla)
Elegant paradise fish (Polynemus multifilis) Elegant paradiseus fish Polynemus multifilis.jpg
Elegant paradise fish (Polynemus multifilis)

The species in eight genera are:

Timeline of genera

QuaternaryNeogenePaleogeneHolocenePleist.Plio.MioceneOligoceneEocenePaleocenePolydactylusPentanemusQuaternaryNeogenePaleogeneHolocenePleist.Plio.MioceneOligoceneEocenePaleoceneThreadfin

Related Research Articles

Sparidae Family of fishes

The Sparidae are a family of fish in the order Perciformes, commonly called sea breams and porgies. The sheepshead, scup, and red seabream are species in this family. Most sparids are deep-bodied compressed fish with a small mouth separated by a broad space from the eye, a single dorsal fin with strong spines and soft rays, a short anal fin, long pointed pectoral fins and rather large firmly attached scales. They are found in shallow temperate and tropical waters and are bottom-dwelling carnivores.

Atlantic threadfin Species of fish

The Atlantic threadfin is a species of ray-finned fish a threadfin from the family Polynemidae which is native to subtropical and temperate waters of the western Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

<i>Sardinella</i> Genus of fishes

Sardinella is a genus of fish in the family Clupeidae found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean. They are abundant in warmer waters of the tropical and subtropical oceans. Adults are generally coastal, schooling, marine fish but juveniles are often found in lagoons and estuaries. These species are distinguished by their ranges and by specific body features, but they are often confused with one another. Fish of the genus have seven to 14 striped markings along the scales of the top of the head. The paddle-shaped supramaxilla bones are characteristic; they separate Sardinella from other genera and their shapes help distinguish species. They have paired predorsal scales and enlarged fin rays.

<i>Polydactylus</i> Genus of fishes

Polydactylus is a genus of threadfin that mainly are native to the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, especially in coastal or brackish waters. Some may even enter rivers and a single, P. macrophthalmus, is a freshwater fish from rivers in Borneo.

<i>Eleutheronema tetradactylum</i> Species of fish

Eleutheronema tetradactylum, the fourfinger threadfin, is a species of marine ray-finned fish, a threadfin from the family Polynemidae which occurs in the Indian and western Pacific Ocean.

<i>Lutjanus</i> Genus of fishes

Lutjanus is a genus of marine ray-finned fish, snappers belonging to the family Lutjanidae. They are found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. They are predatory fish usually found in tropical and subtropical reefs, and mangrove forests. This genus also includes two species that only occur in fresh and brackish waters.

Giant African threadfin Species of fish

The giant African threadfin is a species of ray-finned fish from the threadfin family Polynemidae. It is found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean off the west coast of Africa.

<i>Polydactylus sexfilis</i> Species of fish

Polydactylus sexfilis, the six-finger threadfin or yellowthread threadfin, is a species of marine ray-finned fish, a threadfin from the family Polynemidae which is found in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

King threadfin Species of fish

The King threadfin, also known as the blind salmon, blink tassel-fish, burnett salmon, gold threadfin, king salmon, kingfish, Sheridan threadfin, triped tassel fish, or threadfin salmon, is a species of marine ray-finned fish, a threadfin from the family Polynemidae which is found in southern New Guinea and northern Australia.

Indian threadfin Species of fish

The Indian threadfin is a species of marine ray-finned fish from the family Polynemidae, the threadfins. It is a coastal species from south-east Asia which has been recorded in Papua New Guinea.

<i>Pentapodus</i> Genus of fishes

Pentapodus is a genus of threadfin breams native to the eastern Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean.

<i>Polynemus multifilis</i> Species of fish

Polynemus multifilis, the elegant paradise fish is a species of ray-finned fish, a threadfin from the family Polynemidae which is found in rivers in southeast Asia.

Polynemus aquilonaris, commonly known as the northern paradise fish, is a fish of the threadfin family Polynemidae. It is native to the large rivers of mainland Southeast Asia.

<i>Polydactylus sextarius</i> Species of fish

Polydactylus sextarius, the blackspot threadfin, is a species of marine ray-finned fish, a threadfin from the family Polynemidae which is native to the western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans.

The dwarf paradise fish, also known as the streamer threadfin or streamered tasselfish, is a species of ray-finned fish from a family Polynemidae, the threadfins. It is the only species in the genus Parapolynemus and it is found in Australia and New Guinea.

<i>Polynemus</i> Genus of fishes

Polynemus is a genus of threadfins. They are native to South and Southeast Asia and, depending on the species, occur in freshwater, brackish, and/or marine environments.

Paradise threadfin Species of fish

The paradise threadfin is a species of catadromous ray-finned fish, a threadfin from the family Polynemidae which is found in south and southeast Asia in freshwater rivers where it is a valued food fish.

<i>Filimanus</i> Genus of fishes

Filimanus is a genus of marine ray-finned fishes, threadfins from the family Polynemidae.

Royal threadfin Species of fish

The royal threadfin is a species of ray-finned fish, a threadfin from the family Polynemidae, the threadfins. It is found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean along the western coast of Africa.

References

  1. Richard van der Laan; William N. Eschmeyer & Ronald Fricke (2014). "Family-group names of Recent fishes". Zootaxa. 3882 (2): 001–230. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3882.1.1 . PMID   25543675.
  2. "Inserts for pages 437-441" (PDF). John Wiley & Sons Limited. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  3. Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2019). "Polydactylus sexfilis" in FishBase . August 2019 version.
  4. Suryanata, Krisnawati; Umemoto, Karen N. (2005). "Tension at the nexus of the global and local: culture, property, and marine aquaculture in Hawai'i". Environment and Planning A. 35 (2): 199, 206. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.456.680 . doi:10.1068/a35116. S2CID   143928957.
  5. Lin, DT; Bailey-Brock, JH (2008). "Partial recovery of infaunal communities during a fallow period at an open-ocean aquaculture". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 371: 65–72. Bibcode:2008MEPS..371...65L. doi:10.3354/meps07675.
  6. Lee, HW; Bailey-Brock, JH; McGurr, MM (2006). "Temporal changes in the polychaete infaunal community surrounding a Hawaiian mariculture operation". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 307: 175–185. Bibcode:2006MEPS..307..175L. doi:10.3354/meps307175.
  7. Girard, Matthew G.; Davis, Matthew P.; Baldwin, Carole C.; Dettaï, Agnès; Martin, Rene P.; Smith, W. Leo (2022). "Molecular phylogeny of the threadfin fishes (Polynemidae) using ultraconserved elements". Journal of Fish Biology. 100 (3): 793–810. doi:10.1111/jfb.14997. ISSN   1095-8649. PMID   35137410. S2CID   246678758.