Timeline of longest spaceflights

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Cosmonaut Valeriy Polyakov looks out space station Mir's window during his 438-day flight in 1994-1995 Cosmonaut Polyakov Watches Discovery's Rendezvous With Mir - GPN-2002-000078.jpg
Cosmonaut Valeriy Polyakov looks out space station Mir's window during his 438-day flight in 1994–1995

Timeline of longest spaceflights is a chronology of the longest spaceflights. Many of the first flights set records measured in hours and days, the space station missions of the 1970s and 1980s pushed this to weeks and months, and by the 1990s the record was pushed to over a year and has remained there into the 21st century.


A modern long-duration mission was the ISS year long mission (2015–2016) aboard the International Space Station. The most significant issue in such missions is the effects of spaceflight on the human body, due to such factors as zero-g and elevated radiation.

Record setting single-mission human stays

Duration (days)Astronaut/Cosmonaut(s)Mission(s)Mission startFlight upSpace StationFlight downRecord achievedMission endRecord held (days)SourceNotes
437.75 Valery Poliyakov Mir EO-15January 8, 1994 Soyuz TM-18 Mir Soyuz TM-20 January 9, 1995March 22, 199510,567 [1] Current record
365.94 Vladimir Titov
Musa Manarov
Mir EO-3 December 21, 1987 Soyuz TM-4 Mir Soyuz TM-6 November 11, 1988December 21, 19882,250 [2]
326.48 Yuri Romanenko Mir EO-2 February 5, 1987 Soyuz TM-2 Mir Soyuz TM-3 September 30, 1987December 29, 1987408 [3]
236.95 Leonid Kizim
Vladimir Solovyov
Oleg Atkov
Salyut 7 EO-3February 8, 1984 Soyuz T-10 Salyut 7 Soyuz T-11 September 6, 1984October 2, 19841,119 [4]
211.38 Anatoli Berezovoy
Valentin Lebedev
Salyut 7 EO-1May 13, 1982 Soyuz T-5 Salyut 7 Soyuz T-7 November 14, 1982December 10, 1982662 [5]
184.84 Leonid Popov
Valery Ryumin
Salyut 6 EO-4April 9, 1980 Soyuz 35 Salyut 6 Soyuz 37 October 1, 1980October 11, 1980774 [6]
175.02 Vladimir Lyakhov
Valery Ryumin
Salyut 6 EO-3February 25, 1979 Soyuz 32 Salyut 6 Soyuz 34 July 15, 1979September 3, 1979444 [6]
139.62 Vladimir Kovalyonok
Aleksandr Ivanchenkov
Salyut 6 EO-2June 15, 1978 Soyuz 29 Salyut 6 Soyuz 31 September 20, 1978November 2, 1978298 [6]
96.42 Yuri Romanenko
Georgi Grechko
Salyut 6 EO-1 December 10, 1977 Soyuz 26 Salyut 6 Soyuz 27 March 4, 1978March 16, 1978200 [7] [8]
84.05 Gerald P. Carr
Edward G. Gibson
William R. Pogue
Skylab 4 November 16, 1973CSM-118 Skylab CSM-118January 15, 1974February 8, 19741,509 [9]
59.46 Alan L. Bean
Owen K. Garriott
Jack R. Lousma
Skylab 3 July 28, 1973CSM-117 Skylab CSM-117August 25, 1973September 25, 1973143 [10]
28.03 Charles "Pete" Conrad, Jr.
Joseph P. Kerwin
Paul J. Weitz
Skylab 2 May 25, 1973CSM-116 Skylab CSM-116June 17, 1973June 22, 197369 [11] [12]
23.32 Georgy Dobrovolsky
Vladislav Volkov
Viktor Patsayev
Soyuz 11 June 6, 1971 Soyuz 11 Salyut 1 Soyuz 11 June 23, 1971June 29, 1971725 [11] All three crewmembers died on return to Earth. [13] [14]
17.71 Andrian Nikolayev
Vitali Sevastyanov
Soyuz 9 June 1, 1970N/AN/AN/AJune 15, 1970June 19, 1970373 [15] [16] Soyuz 9 continues to hold the record for longest manned flight by a solo spacecraft.
13.77 Frank Borman
Jim Lovell
Gemini 7 December 4, 1965N/AN/AN/ADecember 12, 1965December 18, 19651,646 [15] [17]
7.96 L. Gordon Cooper, Jr.
Charles "Pete" Conrad, Jr.
Gemini 5 August 21, 1965N/AN/AN/AAugust 26, 1965August 29, 1965108 [15] [18] [19]
4.96 Valery Bykovsky Vostok 5 June 14, 1963N/AN/AN/AJune 18, 1963June 19, 1963800 [20] [21]
3.93 Andriyan Nikolayev Vostok 3 August 11, 1962N/AN/AN/AAugust 12, 1962August 15, 1962310 [22] [23]
1.05 Gherman Titov Vostok 2 August 6, 1961N/AN/AN/AAugust 6, 1961August 7, 1961371 [22] [24]
0.075 Yuri Gagarin Vostok 1 April 12, 1961N/AN/AN/AApril 12, 1961April 12, 1961116 [22] [25] First human spaceflight

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Extravehicular activity</span> Activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft

Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut in outer space outside a spacecraft. In the absence of a breathable Earthlike atmosphere, the astronaut is completely reliant on a space suit for environmental support. EVA includes spacewalks and lunar or planetary surface exploration. In a stand-up EVA (SEVA), an astronaut stands through an open hatch but does not fully leave the spacecraft. EVAs have been conducted by the Soviet Union/Russia, the United States, Canada, the European Space Agency and China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Human spaceflight</span> Spaceflight with a crew or passengers

Human spaceflight is spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, often with the spacecraft being operated directly by the onboard human crew. Spacecraft can also be remotely operated from ground stations on Earth, or autonomously, without any direct human involvement. People trained for spaceflight are called astronauts, cosmonauts (Russian), or taikonauts (Chinese); and non-professionals are referred to as spaceflight participants or spacefarers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Space station</span> Habitat and station in outer space

A space station is a spacecraft capable of supporting a human crew in orbit for an extended period of time and is therefore a type of space habitat. It lacks major propulsion or landing systems. An orbital station or an orbital space station is an artificial satellite. Stations must have docking ports to allow other spacecraft to dock to transfer crew and supplies. The purpose of maintaining an orbital outpost varies depending on the program. Space stations have most often been launched for scientific purposes, but military launches have also occurred.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Soyuz programme</span> Human spaceflight programme of the Soviet Union

The Soyuz programme is a human spaceflight programme initiated by the Soviet Union in the early 1960s. The Soyuz spacecraft was originally part of a Moon landing project intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon. It was the third Soviet human spaceflight programme after the Vostok (1961–1963) and Voskhod (1964–1965) programmes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Space Race</span> US–USSR spaceflight capability rivalry

The Space Race was a 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the United States and the Soviet Union, to achieve superior spaceflight capability. It had its origins in the ballistic missile-based nuclear arms race between the two nations following World War II and had its peak with the more particular Moon Race to land on the Moon between the US moonshot and Soviet moonshot programs. The technological advantage demonstrated by spaceflight achievement was seen as necessary for national security and became part of the symbolism and ideology of the time. The Space Race brought pioneering launches of artificial satellites, robotic space probes to the Moon, Venus, and Mars, and human spaceflight in low Earth orbit and ultimately to the Moon.

Human spaceflight programs have been conducted, started, or planned by multiple countries and companies. The age of crewed rocket flight was initiated by Fritz von Opel who piloted the world's first rocket-propelled flight on 30 September 1929. All space flights depend on rocket technology; von Opel was the co-designer and financier of the visionary project. Until the 21st century, human spaceflight programs were sponsored exclusively by governments, through either the military or civilian space agencies. With the launch of the privately funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of human spaceflight programs – commercial human spaceflight – arrived. By the end of 2022, three countries and one private company (SpaceX) had successfully launched humans to Earth orbit, and two private companies had launched humans on a suborbital trajectory.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Skylab 4</span> Third crewed mission to Skylab

Skylab 4 was the third crewed Skylab mission and placed the third and final crew aboard the first American space station.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Space rendezvous</span> Series of orbital maneuvers to bring two spacecraft into the vicinity of each other

A space rendezvous is a set of orbital maneuvers during which two spacecraft, one of which is often a space station, arrive at the same orbit and approach to a very close distance. Rendezvous requires a precise match of the orbital velocities and position vectors of the two spacecraft, allowing them to remain at a constant distance through orbital station-keeping. Rendezvous may or may not be followed by docking or berthing, procedures which bring the spacecraft into physical contact and create a link between them.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Space capsule</span> Type of spacecraft

A space capsule is a spacecraft designed to transport cargo, scientific experiments, and/or astronauts to and from space. Capsules are distinguished from other spacecraft by the ability to survive reentry and return a payload to the Earth's surface from orbit, and are distinguished from other types of recoverable spacecraft by their blunt shape, not having wings and often containing little fuel other than what is necessary for a safe return. Capsule-based crewed spacecraft such as Soyuz or Orion are often supported by a service or adapter module, and sometimes augmented with an extra module for extended space operations. Capsules make up the majority of crewed spacecraft designs, although one crewed spaceplane, the Space Shuttle, has flown in orbit.

Spacecraft call signs are radio call signs used for communication in crewed spaceflight. These are not formalized or regulated to the same degree as other equivalent forms of transportation, like aircraft. The three nations currently launching crewed space missions use different methods to identify the ground and space radio stations; the United States uses either the names given to the space vehicles or else the project name and mission number. Russia traditionally assigns code names as call signs to individual cosmonauts, more in the manner of aviator call signs, rather than to the spacecraft.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Space food</span> Food consumed by astronauts in outer space

Space food is a type of food product created and processed for consumption by astronauts during missions to outer space. Such food has specific requirements to provide a balanced diet and adequate nutrition for individuals working in space while being easy and safe to store, prepare and consume in the machinery-filled weightless environments of crewed spacecraft. Most space food is freeze-dried to ensure long shelf life.

A mission patch is a cloth reproduction of a spaceflight mission emblem worn by astronauts and other personnel affiliated with that mission. It is usually executed as an embroidered patch. The term space patch is mostly applied to an emblem designed for a crewed space mission. Traditionally, the patch is worn on the space suit that astronauts and cosmonauts wear when launched into space. Mission patches have been adopted by the crew and personnel of many other space ventures, public and private.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of spaceflight</span>

Spaceflight began in the 20th century following theoretical and practical breakthroughs by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Robert H. Goddard, and Hermann Oberth. First successful large-scale rocket programs were initiated in the 1920s Germany by Fritz von Opel and Max Valier, and eventually in Nazi Germany by Wernher von Braun. The Soviet Union took the lead in the post-war Space Race, launching the first satellite, the first man and the first woman into orbit. The United States caught up with, and then passed, their Soviet rivals during the mid-1960s, landing the first men on the Moon in 1969. In the same period, France, the United Kingdom, Japan and China were concurrently developing more limited launch capabilities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Skylab B</span> Proposed second US space station similar to Skylab

Skylab B was a proposed second US space station similar to Skylab that was planned to be launched by NASA for different purposes, mostly involving the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, but was canceled due to lack of funding. Two Skylab modules were built in 1970 by McDonnell Douglas for the Skylab program, originally the Apollo Applications Program. The first was launched in 1973 and the other put in storage, while NASA considered how to use the remaining assets from Apollo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Docking and berthing of spacecraft</span> Joining of two or more space vehicles

Docking and berthing of spacecraft is the joining of two space vehicles. This connection can be temporary, or partially permanent such as for space station modules.


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See also