|Linguistic classification|| Northeast Caucasian |
The Tsezic languages (also called Didoic languages) form one of the seven main branches of Northeast Caucasian language family. It branches into Tsez–Hinukh and Bezhta–Hunzib–Khwarshi, according to the latest research. [ citation needed ] The Avar language serves as the literary language for speakers of Tsezic languages.They were formerly classified geographically into East Tsezic (Hinukh, and Bezhta) and West Tsezic (Tsez, Khwarshi, and Hunzib).
Schulze (2009)gives the following family tree for the Tsezic languages:
Figures retrieved from Ethnologue.
Kassian and Testelets (2015) do not consider Tsez and Hinukh to form a distinct subgroup.
The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, is a family of languages spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in Northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe and the Middle East. They are occasionally called Caspian, as opposed to Pontic for the Northwest Caucasian languages.
The North Caucasian languages, sometimes called simply Caucasic, is a proposed language family consisting of a pair of well established language families spoken in the Caucasus, predominantly in the north, consisting of the Northwest Caucasian family and the Northeast Caucasian family.
The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire is a book about the small nations of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and the Russia and some other post-Soviet states of today. It was published in Estonian in 1991 and in English in 2001.
In grammar, lative is a grammatical case which indicates motion to a location. It corresponds to the English prepositions "to" and "into". The lative case belongs to the group of the general local cases together with the locative and separative case. The term derives from the Latin lat-, the participle stem of ferre, "to bring".
The Udi language, spoken by the Udi people, is a member of the Lezgic branch of the Northeast Caucasian language family. It is believed an earlier form of it was the main language of Caucasian Albania, which stretched from south Dagestan to current day Azerbaijan. The Old Udi language is also called the Caucasian Albanian language and possibly corresponds to the "Gargarian" language identified by medieval Armenian historians. Modern Udi is known simply as Udi.
Lak is a Northeast Caucasian language forming its own branch within this family. It is the language of the Lak people from the Russian autonomous republic of Dagestan, where it is one of six standardized languages. It is spoken by about 157,000 people.
The Andic languages are a branch of the Northeast Caucasian language family. They are often grouped together with the Avar language and (formerly) with the Tsezic (Didoic) languages to form an Avar–Andic branch of that family.
The Bezhta language, also known as Kapucha, belongs to the Tsezic group of the North Caucasian language family. It is spoken by about 6,200 people in southern Dagestan, Russia
Hunzib is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 1840 people in southern Dagestan, near the Russian border with Georgia.
The Proto-Dené–Caucasian language is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Basque, Burushaski, North Caucasian, Sino-Tibetan, Yeniseian, Na-Dené and possibly also other languages of Eurasia and North America.
The Hinuq language is a Northeast Caucasian language of the Tsezic subgroup. It is spoken by about 200 to 500 people, the Hinukhs, in the Tsuntinsky District of southwestern Dagestan, mainly in the village of Genukh. Hinukh is very closely related to Tsez, but they are not entirely mutually intelligible.
Khinalug is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 3,000 people in the villages of Khinalug and Gülüstan, Quba in the mountains of Quba Rayon, northern Azerbaijan. It forms its own independent branch within the Northeast Caucasian language family.
The Tsez are a North Caucasian ethnic group. Their unwritten language, also called Tsez or Dido, belongs to the Northeast Caucasian group with some 15,354 speakers. For demographic purposes, today they are classified with the Avars with whom the Tsez share a religion, Sunni Islam, and some cultural traits. They are centered at the Tsunta district of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia. The term “Dido” is sometimes used in a broader sense to refer to the Tsez as well as the Bezhtas, Hinukhs, Khwarshis and Hunzibs, which are also categorized as Avar subgroups. According to the 2002 Russian census, there were 15,256 self-identified Tsez in Russia, notated as an "Avar subgroup", though the real number is probably slightly greater.
The Hinukh are a people of Dagestan living in 2 villages: Genukh, Tsuntinsky District - their 'parent village' and Novomonastyrskoe, Kizlyarsky District - where they settled later and live together with Avars and Dargins and also in the cities of Dagestan. They are being assimilated by the Caucasian Avars.
The Bezhta are an Andi–Dido people living in the Tsuntinsky region in southwestern Dagestan. In the 1930s along with the rest of the Andi-Dido peoples they were classified as Avars. However, some people identified themselves as Bezhta in the 2002 census of Russia. They speak the Bezhta language, but many of them also speak Avar, Russian or other Tsezic languages of their region. They numbered 1,448 in 1926. According to the Russian census in 2002, there were 6184 self-identified "Bezhtins", though the real number is probably higher.
The Lezgic languages are one of seven branches of the Northeast Caucasian language family. Lezgin are literary languages aside from being extant.
The Khwarshi people are a Caucasian people living in Dagestan, in several small settlements. The Khwarshi are originally from the southeastern part of Tsumadinsky District, where seven Khwarshi settlements are located: Upper- and Lower Inkhokwari village (iqqo), Kwantlada village (kʼoλoqo), Santlada village (zoλuho), Khwarshi village (aλʼiqo), Khonokh (honoho) and Khwayni village (ečel). They do not have an ethnonym for themselves as a united people, but instead they refer to themselves according to the settlement they are from. Thus they call themselves the Inkhokwari people (ixizo), the Kwantlada people (kʼoλozo), the Santlada people (zoλozo), the Khwarshi people (aλʼizo), the Khonokh people (honozo) and the Khwayni people (ečezo).
The Intercontinental Dictionary Series is a large database of topical vocabulary lists in various world languages. The general editor of the database is Bernard Comrie of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig. Mary Ritchie Key of the University of California, Irvine is the founding editor. The database has an especially large selection of indigenous South American languages and Northeast Caucasian languages.