Australian Conservatives

Last updated

Australian Conservatives
Leader Cory Bernardi [lower-alpha 1]
FounderCory Bernardi
Founded7 February 2017;5 years ago (7 February 2017) [lower-alpha 2]
Dissolved25 June 2019
Split from Liberal Party
HeadquartersKing William Street, Kent Town, South Australia 5067
Membership (2017)Increase2.svgc.13,000 [3]
Political position Right-wing [2] [5] [6]
Colours  Light blue
Slogan"...a better way"
House of Representatives
0 / 151
1 / 76
SA Legislative Council
2 / 22
Victorian Legislative Council
1 / 40

The Australian Conservatives was formed in July 2016 as a conservative political activist group in Australia and as a political party in February 2017. It was led by Cory Bernardi, who had been elected to the Senate for the Liberal Party, [7] but resigned citing disagreements with the Liberal/National Coalition, its policies and leadership under Malcolm Turnbull.


The Family First Party and its two state parliamentarians, Dennis Hood and Robert Brokenshire, joined and merged with the Australian Conservatives in April 2017. Brokenshire was not re-elected at the 2018 state election; Hood left the Conservatives to join the Liberal Party on 26 March 2018, [8] leaving Bernardi as the sole remaining member in federal parliament, whose present term in the senate runs until 30 June 2022. In September 2017, the leaders of the Victorian branch of the Australian Christians agreed to merge the Victorian branch with the Conservatives. [9] [10]

On 20 June 2019 Bernardi announced that he would deregister the party following the re-election of the Coalition Morrison Government at the 2019 Australian federal election, citing a lack of political success and poor financial position. [11] The party was deregistered on 25 June 2019. [12]


Activist group

The Australian Conservatives were established by Senator Bernardi as a conservative political activist group on 6 July 2016. [13] The group was announced by Bernardi on his personal blog as a conservative "movement" to "help change politics and to give common sense a united voice". [13] Bernardi cited the results of the 2016 federal election as a motivator for the group's establishment, stating that "over 1.7m votes were cast for right-of-centre or conservative parties rather than the Liberals", and that "the clear mission now is to bring people together for the good of the country." [13] Despite contemporary media speculation when he created the group, [14] following numerous public expressions of disappointment towards the Liberals, its policies, and leader Malcolm Turnbull, [15] [16] he stated that its establishment did not signal any breakaway from the Liberals, of which he was a senator, and that its intent was to "make the Liberals stronger". [17] Within a month, the group's online newsletter reached over 50,000 subscribers. [18] [19]

Queensland Liberal National Party MP George Christensen was one of the first Coalition members of Parliament to support Bernardi and the Australian Conservatives, following his shared dissatisfaction with the election results. [20] [21] Despite this, Bernardi hinted otherwise in the months following, often going against Coalition policy and criticising the government, in particular over the Racial Discrimination Act debate, especially 18C. [22] In late December 2016, Bernardi held controversial meetings with members of the United States presidential campaign of Donald Trump, allegedly in preparation for forming a breakaway party after continued dissatisfaction with the party and its policies, [23] [24] While he refrained from commenting on renewed speculation that he would split, he was met with negative reception from fellow party colleagues, [24] [25] including former Prime Minister and Liberal leader Tony Abbott. [26]

Party foundation

Australian Conservatives founder and leader Cory Bernardi Cory Bernardi crop.jpg
Australian Conservatives founder and leader Cory Bernardi

On 7 February 2017, Bernardi announced his resignation from the Liberals through a speech in the Senate, opting to advance the Australian Conservatives as a political party, and sit on the Senate crossbench as its leader. [27] [28] In his speech, Bernardi claimed that "the level of public disenchantment with the major parties, the lack of confidence in our political process and the concern about the direction of our nation is very, very strong," and rationalised the creation of the Conservatives as a political party with the "need to find a better way". [28] Bernardi also cited the resurgence and rise of conservative parties such as Pauline Hanson's One Nation as proof of such. [29] Although dissatisfaction with the leadership of the Coalition was still shared by many in Parliament, numerous members have since denied any intention to join the Australian Conservatives, [21] with most of them strongly criticising Bernardi—some described his move as a "betrayal". [27] [30] Tony Pasin, in particular, described Bernardi's move as unsurprising, "given the way that conservatives from South Australia are treated by the leadership of the Liberals". [21]

On 7 April 2017, Kirralie Smith—a former candidate for the Australian Liberty Alliance and a member of the Q Society of Australia and Senate candidate for New South Wales in 2016—joined the party. [31] The Australian Liberty Alliance discussed the prospect of merging with the Australian Conservatives, but ultimately declined the offer. [32] Australian Conservatives was registered as a political party with the Australian Electoral Commission on 12 April 2017. [33] Later that month, the party formed a Senate voting bloc with the Liberal Democratic Party Senator David Leyonhjelm. [34] The party issued a policy release in April 2017 urging party members to petition major chocolate companies to oppose Easter Eggs being renamed Holiday Eggs. [35] The release caused confusion on the grounds that there was no evidence any major chocolate company had ever done that in Australia, or that anyone had ever asked them to. [36]

In May 2017, Bernardi met the national and Victorian state leadership of the Australian Christians to discuss a merger between the two parties. [37] On 26 June 2017 it was revealed that Victorian MLC Rachel Carling-Jenkins was leaving the Democratic Labour Party to join the Australian Conservatives. [38] [39] [40] The Democratic Labour Party declined an offer to merge with the Australian Conservatives. [41] On 11 August 2017, former federal Liberal MP Dennis Jensen announced that he was defecting to the Australian Conservatives, and urged Liberal Party members in Western Australia to join him. [42] In September 2017, the Victoria state leadership of the Australian Christians merged between the two parties. [43] [44]

In February 2018, Lyle Shelton resigned from his lobbying position at Australian Christian Lobby to enter party politics, joining the Australian Conservatives as federal communications director. It has been speculated that he will be one of the party's candidates at the next federal election. [45] [46] Later that month, former One Nation Senator Fraser Anning joined the party's voting bloc in the Senate, but remained an independent Senator. [47]

Merger with Family First

On 25 April 2017, it was announced that the Family First Party would merge with the Australian Conservatives, with its two members of the South Australian Legislative Council joining the party. [48] Newly-appointed Family First senator Lucy Gichuhi did not join the Conservatives. [49]

Family First was generally considered to be part of the Christian right.[ citation needed ] Though it had no formal affiliation with any particular religious organisation, Family First was strongly linked to the Pentecostal church in South Australia, and nationally with smaller Christian denominations.[ citation needed ] Family First in South Australia was viewed as an infusion of ex-Liberals via Robert Brokenshire and Bob Day. The party advocated a moral and family values agenda, but Day, who would become Family First's major donor, later reoriented Family First to emphasise issues such as industrial relations reform, free speech and smaller government, which brought Family First closer to Bernardi's Conservatives.[ citation needed ]

Electoral performance

The party made modest showings at the 2017 Bennelong and 2018 Batman by-elections, achieving primary vote of 4.29% and 6.41%, respectively, the latter in the absence of Liberal Party candidate, failing to elect a candidate in either instance.

In March 2018, the party lost both of its representatives in the South Australian Legislative Council. Robert Brokenshire lost his bid for reelection, and parliamentary leader Dennis Hood defected to the Liberal Party, which nine days prior had won government in the state election. [50] At the election, the Australian Conservatives suffered a 3.2% swing in the South Australian House of Assembly (from a Family First vote of 6.2% in 2014) for a primary vote of 3.0%. It stood 33 candidates for the lower house, none of whom came close to being elected. It suffered a swing of 0.9% swing in the Legislative Council (from a Family First vote of 4.4% in 2014) for a primary vote of 3.5%. [51] [52]

In the 2019 New South Wales state election, the Australian Conservatives won approximately 0.6% of the vote. [53]

In the subsequent federal election, the Australian Conservatives ran candidates for the senate in every state but failed to win any seats.[ citation needed ] In light of this result, Bernardi announced he would start the process of deregistering the party. Bernardi said that in addition to the party's poor showing at the polls, he believed that the Coalition's upset victory under new Prime Minister Scott Morrison proved that "common sense" had returned to Canberra, which was "all we, as Australian Conservatives, have ever sought to do." [11]

Parliamentary representatives





The Australian Conservatives' policies included: [55]



See also


  1. Bernardi was the party's first and only leader.
  2. The foundational date of the party was in February 2017. [1] However, the party was originally established as a conservative organisation in July 2016. [2]

Related Research Articles

Democratic Labour Party (Australia) Political party

The Democratic Labour Party (DLP), formerly the Democratic Labor Party, is an Australian political party. It broke off from the Australian Labor Party (ALP) as a result of the 1955 ALP split, originally under the name Australian Labor Party (Anti-Communist), and was renamed the Democratic Labor Party in 1957. In 1962, the Queensland Labor Party, a breakaway party of the Queensland branch of the Australian Labor Party, became the Queensland branch of the DLP.

Eric Abetz Australian politician

Eric Abetz is an Australian politician who has been a Senator for Tasmania since February 1994, representing the Liberal Party. He was the Minister for Employment and the Leader of the Government in the Senate in the Abbott Government from 2013 to 2015. He previously also served as Special Minister of State in the Howard Government from 2001 to 2006 and as Minister for Fisheries, Forestry and Conservation from 2006 to 2007.

Family First Party Political party in Australia

The Family First Party was a conservative political party in Australia which existed from 2002 to 2017. It was founded in South Australia where it enjoyed its greatest electoral support. Since the demise of the Australian Conservatives into which it merged, it has been refounded in that state as the Family First Party (2021) where it contested the state election in 2022 but failed to win a seat.

Cory Bernardi Australian politician

Cory Bernardi is an Australian conservative political commentator and former politician. He was a Senator for South Australia from 2006 to 2020, and was the leader of the Australian Conservatives, a minor political party he founded in 2017 but disbanded in 2019. He is a former member of the Liberal Party of Australia, having represented the party in the Senate from 2006 to 2017. Bernardi is a committed conservative Catholic Christian and author of The Conservative Revolution.

Bob Day Australian politician

Robert John Day is an Australian former politician and businessman who was a Senator for South Australia from 1 July 2014 to 1 November 2016. He is a former federal chairman of the Family First Party. Before entering politics, he worked in the housing industry, owning several businesses, and at one stage serving as president of the Housing Industry Association.

Conservatism in Australia Overview of conservatism in Australia

Conservatism in Australia refers to the political philosophy of conservatism as it has developed in Australia. Politics in Australia has since at least the 1910s been most predominantly a contest between the Australian labour movement and the combined forces of anti-Labour groups. The anti-Labour groups have at times identified themselves as "free trade", as "nationalist", as "anti-communist", as "liberal", “right of centre”, besides other labels; until the 1990s, the label "conservative" had rarely been used in Australia, and when used it tended to be used by pro-Labour forces as a term of disparagement against their opponents.

The Q Society of Australia Inc. was a far-right, Islamophobic and homophobic organisation that opposed Muslim immigration and the presence of Muslims in Australian society. Q Society described itself as "Australia's leading Islam-critical organisation" and stated that its purpose was to fight against the "Islamisation of Australia". The Q Society was so named because it was founded at a meeting in the Melbourne suburb of Kew in 2010.

David Leyonhjelm Australian politician

David Ean Leyonhjelm is an Australian former politician. He was a Senator for New South Wales, representing the Liberal Democratic Party from 2014 to 2019. Having been elected at the 2013 federal election, he took office on 1 July 2014, and was re-elected in the 2016 full Senate election. He resigned from the Senate in March 2019 to stand for the Legislative Council at the 2019 New South Wales state election, but failed to be elected. Before being elected to federal parliament, Leyonhjelm worked as a veterinarian and then as an agribusiness consultant. He also writes columns for several Australian publications, with a concentration on rural issues.

Rachel Carling-Jenkins Australian politician

Rachel Carling-Jenkins is an Australian politician. She was a member of the Victorian Legislative Council from 2014 to 2018, representing Western Metropolitan Region for the Democratic Labour Party (2014-2017), Australian Conservatives (2017-2018) and as an independent (2018). She did not recontest her Legislative Council seat at the 2018 election, instead unsuccessfully contesting the Legislative Assembly seat of Werribee.

Joanna Maria Lindgren is an Australian politician who served as a Senator for Queensland from May 2015 to July 2016.

Yellow Vest Australia Political party in Australia

Yellow Vest Australia (YVA), until 9 April 2019 known as the Australian Liberty Alliance (ALA), was a minor right-wing to far-right political party in Australia. The party was founded by members of the Q Society and has been described as the political wing of Q Society. The leader was Debbie Robinson (President), who was also national president of the Q Society. On 4 September 2020, the Australian Electoral Commission removed the Yellow Vest Australia from the registered political party list.

Turnbull government Australian government 2015–18

The Turnbull government was the federal executive government of Australia led by the 29th prime minister of Australia, Malcolm Turnbull, from 2015 to 2018. It succeeded the Abbott government, which brought the Coalition to power at the 2013 Australian federal election. The government consisted of members of Australia's Liberal-Nationals Coalition. Turnbull took office by challenging his leader, Tony Abbott, in an internal leadership ballot. Warren Truss, the leader of the Nationals, served as Deputy Prime Minister until he retired in 2016 and was replaced by Barnaby Joyce. Joyce resigned in February 2018 and the Nationals' new leader Michael McCormack became Deputy Prime Minister. The Turnbull government concluded with Turnbull's resignation ahead of internal leadership ballot which saw him succeeded as Prime Minister by Scott Morrison and the Morrison government.

Members of the Australian Senate, 2016–2019

This is a list of members of the Australian Senate following the 2016 Australian federal election held on 2 July 2016. The election was held as a consequence of a double dissolution in which both houses of parliament were dissolved. Ordinarily, only half of the senators terms end at each election. In this case, all 76 senators were elected. At the first sitting following the election, half of the senators representing each of the six states of Australia were allocated six-year terms to end on 30 June 2022, with the remainder allocated three-year terms to end on 30 June 2019. The terms of senators from the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory end on the day of the next federal election.</ref>

Brian Burston Australian politician

Brian Burston is an Australian politician who was a Senator for New South Wales from 2016 to 2019, originally representing One Nation. After falling out with party leader Pauline Hanson over company tax cuts, Burston left One Nation and joined businessman Clive Palmer's newly relaunched United Australia Party. Palmer announced Burston as the new parliamentary leader of the party on 18 June 2018.

Panagiotis "Peter" Georgiou is a former Australian politician, who served as a Senator for Western Australia between 2017 and 2019. He was the second candidate on the Senate ticket for Pauline Hanson's One Nation party in the 2016 Australian federal election. The lead candidate on the ticket was Rod Culleton, Georgiou's brother-in-law. Culleton was declared to have been elected to the Senate when the writs were returned. However, the High Court, sitting as the Court of Disputed Returns, ruled on 3 February 2017 that Culleton had been ineligible to be elected at the time of the election. A consequence of that ruling was that a special recount of the votes was undertaken, as if Culleton had not been on the ballot, and Georgiou was elected in his place. Georgiou was sworn in as a Senator on 27 March 2017.

Lucy Gichuhi Australian politician

Lucy Muringo Gichuhi is an Australian politician who served as a Senator for South Australia from 2017 to 2019. Born in Kenya, Gichuhi worked as an accountant before entering politics. Gichuhi is a social conservative who has been vocally opposed to the legalization of same-sex marriage.

<i>The Gender Fairy</i>

The Gender Fairy is a 2015 picture book written by Jo Hirst and illustrated by Libby Wirt.

Fraser Anning Australian politician

William Fraser Anning is an Australian former politician who was a senator for Queensland from November 2017 to June 2019. Anning is known for holding far-right, nativist, and anti-Muslim views, and has been criticised for his use of the Nazi euphemism for the Holocaust, when he proposed a plebiscite to be the "Final Solution" to "the immigration problem" in his maiden speech. Anning also generated controversy for his statements shortly after the Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand, in which he blamed the attacks on "the immigration program which allowed Muslim fanatics to migrate".

This is a list of candidates for the 2019 Australian federal election, held on 18 May 2019.


  1. 1 2 "Cory Bernardi to quit Liberals to form own conservative party". The Guardian . 5 February 2017.
  2. 1 2 Murphy, Katharine; Karp, Paul (6 July 2016). "Cory Bernardi establishes rightwing movement Australian Conservatives". The Guardian.
  3. Sheridan, Greg (17 July 2017). "Bernardi building his power base". The Australian . Senator Bernardi said his party had about 2,500 members in Victoria. Its total national membership was approaching 13,000. Each member pays a $25 fee and there are no discounted or free memberships.
  4. 1 2 "Cory Bernardi to split with Coalition to form Australian Conservatives party". ABC News . 6 February 2017.
  5. "Cory Bernardi: Australia senator launches right-wing party". BBC . 7 February 2017.
  6. Bourke, Latika (19 November 2019). "Right-wing warrior Cory Bernardi calls time on his political career". Sydney Morning Herald.
  7. "About". Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  8. 1 2 3 Harmsen, Nick (26 March 2018). "Dennis Hood dumps Cory Bernardi's Australian Conservatives to join SA Liberals". ABC News. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  9. "Cory Bernardi's Australian Conservatives about to get more than 500 new Christian members". Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  10. "Australian Christians disbanding in Vic". 30 August 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  11. 1 2 Doran, Matthew (20 June 2019). "Bernardi cites 'lack of political success' as he calls time on his breakaway party". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  12. "Australian Conservatives Voluntary Deregistration" (PDF). Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  13. 1 2 3 Karp, Paul (6 July 2016). "Cory Bernardi establishes rightwing movement Australian Conservatives". The Guardian . Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  14. Maley, Jacqueline (6 July 2016). "Cory Bernardi 'in talks' to break away from Malcolm Turnbull's Liberal Party". The Sydney Morning Herald . Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  15. Shepherd, Tory (3 July 2016). "Bernardi lashes out over 'damaged' Liberal brand". The Advertiser . News Corp Australia. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  16. Murphy, Katharine (3 July 2016). "Marriage equality: Cory Bernardi says no need to hurry on plebiscite". The Guardian . Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  17. staff (6 July 2016). "Cory Bernardi denies split from Liberal Party". Nine News . Nine Entertainment Co. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  18. Owens, Jared (2 August 2016). "Bernardi group sign up 50,000". The Australian . News Corp Australia . Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  19. Rao, Shoba (2 August 2016). "Cory Bernardi gets 50,000 supporters for his new Australian Conservatives group". . News Corp Australia. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  20. Australian Associated Press (7 July 2016). "Qld LNP boss backs new conservative group". . News Corp Australia. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  21. 1 2 3 Crowe, David (7 February 2017). "Show You're Listening: Backbench Tells Turnbull". The Australian . News Corp Australia . Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  22. Hunter, Fergus (28 September 2016). "Cory Bernardi urges government to adopt 'delicate, nuanced' versions of One Nation policy". The Sydney Morning Herald . Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  23. W. Purcell, Paul (22 December 2016). "SA Senator and Australian Conservatives founder Cory Bernardi reportedly considering a split from the Liberal Party". The Daily Telegraph . News Corp Australia. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  24. 1 2 Bickers, Claire (22 December 2016). "Cory Bernardi eyeing Donald Trump-inspired party". . News Corp Australia. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  25. Willingham, Richard (22 December 2016). "Jeff Kennett slams Cory Bernardi, predicts Liberals will have closer 'alignment' with One Nation". The Age . Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  26. Patel, Uma (30 December 2016). "Abbott and Bernardi trade barbs over conservative unrest". The Sydney Morning Herald . Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  27. 1 2 Uhlmann, Chris; Norman, Jane (7 February 2017). "Cory Bernardi to split with Coalition to form Australian Conservatives party". ABC News Australia . Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  28. 1 2 Massola, James (7 February 2017). "Cory Bernardi breaks silence, quits the Liberal Party in Senate speech". The Sydney Morning Herald . Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  29. Reuters (7 February 2017). "Prominent Australian senator to set up conservative party in another blow to PM Turnbull". The Straits Times . Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  30. McIlroy, Tom (7 February 2017). "Peter Dutton, Barnaby Joyce slam Cory Bernardi 'betrayal'". The Sydney Morning Herald . Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  31. Corporate or institutional Author. "About Kirralie Smith" . Retrieved 11 February 2017.
    Corporate or institutional Author. "About Us" . Retrieved 11 February 2017.
    "Kirralie Smith joins Australian Conservatives". Australian Conservatives. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
    Federal Politics (8 April 2017). "Anti-halal leader Kirralie Smith joins Cory Bernardi's Australian Conservatives". Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  32. "Wilders-backed ALA won't join Bernardi". SBS . 11 April 2017.
  33. "Australian Conservatives, party registration approval" (PDF). Australian Electoral Commission. 13 April 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2017.
  34. "Bernardi's alliance intends to bloc Xenophon". The Australian . 27 April 2017.
  35. "Easter Egg Not Holiday Eggs". Australian Conservatives. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  36. Sainty, Lane (7 April 2017). "Conservatives Are Fighting For Easter But No One Knows Who Their Opponents Are". Buzzfeed. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  37. "Cory Bernardi approaches Australian Christians for Family First-style merger". Crikey . 15 May 2017.
  38. "Cory Bernardi strikes again, luring another MP to his Australian Conservatives". 26 June 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  39. "Cory Bernardi's Australian Conservatives secures Victorian DLP MP Rachel Carling-Jenkins". 26 June 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  40. "Victorian MP Rachel Carling-Jenkins set to defect to Australian Conservatives party". 26 June 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  41. "Cory Bernardi targets Victorian election after recruiting upper house MP Rachel Carling-Jenkins". 26 June 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  42. "Ex-Liberal MP Jensen defects to Bernardi's new party". The Australian . 11 August 2017.
  43. " – Subscribe to the Herald Sun for exclusive stories".
  44. "Australian Christians disbanding in Vic". 30 August 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  45. Lyle Shelton joins Cory Bernardi’s Australian Conservatives, The Guardian Australia, 4 February 2018
  46. Doherty, Ben (3 February 2018). "Lyle Shelton quits Australian Christian Lobby to enter politics". the Guardian.
  47. "Cory Bernardi forms right-wing alliance with David Leyonhjelm and Fraser Anning".
  48. Green, Antony (26 April 2017). "The Urge to merge – Family First and the Australian Conservatives". ABC. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  49. "Bernardi's Australian Conservatives to merge with Family First". ABC News. 25 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  50. "Cory Bernardi lashes out at former colleagues over 'plans to defect to Liberals'". ABC News. 28 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  51. "SA Results". ABC News. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  52. "2018 SA election result". ECSA. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  53. "New South Wales Election 2019 Results".
  54. Preiss, Benjamin; Tomazin, Farrah (4 August 2018). "It's over: Cory Bernardi's only Victorian MP sensationally quits". The Age. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  55. "Our Policies". Australian Conservatives. Retrieved 15 February 2018.