Florida Highway Patrol

Last updated

Florida Highway Patrol
FL Hwy Patrol digital patch.png
FHP patch
Seal of the Florida Highway Patrol.png
FHP seal
Florida Trooper Badge.png
FHP Badge
MottoCourtesy, Service, Protection
Agency overview
Formed1939;85 years ago (1939)
Preceding agencies
  • State Road Department (1930's)
  • Motor Carrier Compliance (absorbed 2011)
Employees2,496 (total)
Annual budget$259.9 million (2019)
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionFlorida, US
FHP Troops & Boundaries
Size65,795 square miles (170,410 km2)
Population21,477,737 (2019) [1]
Legal jurisdictionStatewide
Governing body Florida Legislature
Constituting instrument
  • §321.05, Florida Statutes
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersTallahassee, Florida
Troopers1,982 (authorized, as of 2023) [2]
Civilian employees514 Civilian Employees (2024)
Agency executives
  • Colonel Gary L. Howze, Director
  • Lt. Colonel Robert Chandler, Deputy Director of Patrol Operations
  • Lt. Colonel Joseph C. Harrison, Deputy Director, Executive Officer
  • Lt. Colonel Mark Brown, Deputy Director of Support Operations
Parent agency Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles
Specialized Areas
  • Academy
  • Aviation
  • Auxiliary
  • Background Investigation
  • Bureau of Criminal Investigations and Intelligence (BCII)
  • Contraband Interdiction Unit (CIU)
  • Commercial Vehicle Enforcement
  • Fleet & Property
  • Honor Guard
  • K-9
  • Mobile Field Force
  • Motors
  • Office of Professional Compliance
  • Public Affairs Offices (PAO)
  • Quick Response Force (QRF)
  • Recruitment
  • Special Response Team (SRT)
  • Traffic Homicide Investigation
Troop Headquarters
  • Troop A - Panama City
  • Troop B - Lake City
  • Troop C - Tampa
  • Troop D - Orlando
  • Troop E - Miami
  • Troop F - Fort Myers
  • Troop G - Jacksonville
  • Troop H - Tallahassee
  • Troop I - Tallahassee
  • Troop J - Orlando
  • Troop K - Ocoee
  • Troop L - Lake Worth
  • 12 Troops
  • 30 District Patrol Stations
  • 1 Statewide Training Academy
  • 7 Regional Communication Centers
Common Vehicles
  • Ford Explorer Interceptor
    Chevrolet Tahoe
    Dodge Charger
    Harley Davidson Motorcycle
    Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicles
  • CALEA Accreditation
  • Commission for Florida Law Enforcement Accreditation (CFA)
Official Website
[3] [4]

The Florida Highway Patrol (FHP) is a division of the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. It is Florida's highway patrol and is the primary law enforcement agency charged with investigating traffic crashes and criminal laws on the state's highways.



A 2011 study by the Florida Highway Patrol Jurisdiction Team noted that "For all practical purposes, the FHP currently investigates all traffic crashes in the unincorporated areas of 24 counties, and in an additional 26 counties, the majority of crashes. In 17 counties, the Sheriff's Office conducts more crash investigations than the FHP." [5]

The FHP's functional role and responsibilities vary significantly among counties. The 2011 report noted, "The staffing methodology of the FHP is largely based on historical agency decisions, formal and informal arrangements with local governments, and to some degree political influence...There is a disparity in the level of services provided to local governments that cannot be explained. In places like Orange, Escambia, Marion, and many rural counties, the FHP handles all traffic crash investigations in unincorporated areas. In other counties like Duval, Broward, and Palm Beach, the Sheriff handles a majority of traffic crash investigations on the same type of roadways. All other Florida counties fall somewhere among or between these extremes." [5]

FHP has statewide jurisdiction, but shortfalls in FHP staffing sometimes lead to sheriff's offices and city police forces picking up more work, straining resources. [6] [7] Of the annual average long-form traffic crash reports completed by Florida law enforcement agencies, the 2011 study found that FHP investigated 32% of crashes, county sheriff's offices 23%, and municipal police and other agencies 45%. [5] FHP investigates 58% of traffic fatalities in the state; these investigations are substantially more complicated than non-fatal traffic investigations. [5] The Florida Highway Patrol differs from most State Agencies in the Country as it is not considered a State Police. Troopers are however sworn law enforcement officers with Statewide Arrest Powers, but unlike for example the Louisiana State Police, FHP only handles Traffic Enforcement and Traffic Crash Investigation on the State of Florida roadways. In Florida, the constitutional Sheriff is the Chief Law Enforcement Officer. The Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Florida's equivalent to the FBI, handles Criminal Investigations and Officer Records and Training and provides Statewide Crime Lab Services. FHP does have a Bureau of Investigation and Intelligence, but it does not do the same thing FDLE does. Its function is slightly different but works hand in hand with FDLE and other agencies. BCII handles odometer fraud, VIN number fraud, and in some cases Auto Theft Rings.

The Director of the Florida Highway Patrol serves as one of the 19 members of the Florida Criminal Justice Standards & Training Commission. [8]


An FHP B4C Camaro FHP-Camaro.jpg
An FHP B4C Camaro

The FHP was established in 1939 under Colonel H. Neil Kirkman. [9] Troopers originally patrolled on motorcycles; among the first patrol cars used by the force was the 1940 Ford De Luxe. [10]

In 1948, Florida received national recognition for its driver license program from the National Safety Council. [11] [12]

In 1994, the FHP, in collaboration with all ten cellular phone companies operating in Florida, launched a "Dial *FHP" program, which allowed the public to make free phone calls to FHP to report highway offenses (such as drunk and reckless driving) as well as motorists in distress. The program became very popular. [13]

On July 1, 2011, the Office of Motor Carrier Compliance (a state law enforcement agency responsible for commercial vehicle laws in the state) was transferred from the Florida Department of Transportation to the FHP (which is a division of the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles). The consolidation was a result of Senate Bill 2160, passed by lawmakers during the 2011 Legislative Session, which gave responsibility for commercial vehicle licensing, registrations, fuel permits, and enforcement to DHSMV. [14]

In 2013, the agency fired a trooper who declined to give speeding tickets to two state legislators who had been pulled over. The trooper won reinstatement after arguing that he was following an unwritten FHP practice of not issuing citations to state legislators, who control the agency's budget. [15]

The FHP has launched a series of anti-aggressive driving campaigns, including "Operation Safe Ride" (20042005). [16] FHP also launched the "Statewide Overtime Action Response" (SOAR) program targeting traffic enforcement in areas deemed high priority. An investigation by the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles' office of inspector general into the SOAR program found that more than a dozen troopers, including several with decades of service had committed misconduct by receiving overtime pay for hours spent not working, among other offenses; some of the troopers were fired, while others were suspended or internally disciplined. [15] The troopers' lawyers argued that their clients had followed a longstanding unwritten FHP rules. [15]

Racial discrimination

In 2019, the Office of Inspector General conducted a review of Florida Highway Patrol Troopers and bias based profiling. The results of the review were published January 14, 2020. [17]

A 2021 study in the American Economic Review found that minorities were significantly less likely to receive discounts on their traffic tickets than White drivers; the study estimated that 42% of FHP troopers practiced racial discrimination. [18]

Ranks and organization

The director of the Division of Highway Patrol is the commander of the FHP, and has the rank of Colonel; there are two deputy directors of the Division of Florida Highway Patrol, both hold the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. [19] The FHP is divided into two bureaus: the Bureau of Records and Training (which, among other duties, operates the Florida Highway Patrol Academy in Tallahassee) and the Bureau of Field Operations. [19] The enforcement activity of the Bureau of Field Operations is divided into a Northern Region and a Southern region, [19] each headed by a chief. [20] FHP's Special Services Command and Commercial Vehicle Enforcement are also headed by a chief of equal rank to the regional commanders. [20]

The North region consists of Troops A, B, G and H. The Central region consists of Troops C, D and K, and the South region consists of Troops F, L and E . [19] These troops are assigned responsibility for enforcement activity with specific areas (a cluster of counties). [19] [20] A few troops have statewide or regional responsibilities, including troops charged with weigh station enforcement. [19] [20] Troop K patrols Florida's Turnpike, Troop I covers commercial vehicle enforcement for North Florida, and Troop J covers commercial vehicle enforcement for South Florida. [20] The troop commander of each troop holds the rank of Major. [19] [20]

Promotion of troops to the ranks of Corporal (Trooper II), Sergeant, Lieutenant, and Captain require specific minimum times in service and passage of a promotional examination. Promotion to Corporal requires a written examination; promotion to Sergeant and Lieutenant requires a written examination and assessment, and promotion to Captain requires a written examination and interview.

A career development system was created for troopers through sergeants. This consisted of additional ranks within grade based on years of service and education/training with a plan for financial incentives, however; funding was never approved and the additional ranks are awarded based on recognition of years of service within grade only. Corporal ranks must additionally show proof of case experience before receiving the recognition of an advanced rank.

Trooper Specialist- 2 years
Trooper First Class- 7 years
Senior Trooper- years
Master Trooper- years

Senior Corporal
Master Corporal

Staff Sergeant - 3 years
Sergeant First Class- 5 years
Master Sergeant- 8 years


As of 2004, the FHP had 1,654 full-time, sworn personnel. This was about 10 full-time troopers for every 100,000 residents, one of the lowest ratios in the country. [22]

The FHP's website stated in 2021 that the agency was authorized for a total of 2,475 full-time employees (1,946 sworn and 529 non-sworn). [23]

Employment demographics

In 1979, the United States Department of Justice sued the Florida Highway Patrol, alleging race and sex discrimination in employment. The State of Florida entered into a settlement with the Justice Department, which was incorporated into a consent decree entered by the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Florida on July 12, 1979. The Consent Decree required the Patrol to hire more minorities and women. [24] In 1985, following a policy change by the Reagan administration, the Justice Department changed its position and required agencies with existing affirmative action consent decrees, including the Florida Highway Patrol, to "end the use of numerical goals and quotas designed to increase employment of women, blacks or Hispanic Americans." [25]

As of 2017, FHP sworn members are 61% white, 14% African American, 23% Hispanic, and 2% other. FHP sworn members are 89% male and 11% female. [26]

Weapons, vehicles, and equipment

A Dodge Charger (LX) in FHP service, bearing the prescribed livery Florida Highway Patrol Dodge Charger.jpg
A Dodge Charger (LX) in FHP service, bearing the prescribed livery

Florida law designates the prescribed colors as 'Florida Highway Patrol black and tan.' [27] Florida law makes it a misdemeanor crime to cause a vehicle or motorcycle to be the same or similar colors as prescribed by FHP. [27] [28] A 1998 Legislative review determined the paint added $657 to the purchase of each vehicle. Prior to the vehicles being decommissioned, the Patrol defaces the cars so that they cannot be misconstrued as official law enforcement vehicles. The defaced, two-tone paint reduces each car's resale value by approximately $400. [29]

In 2004, an anonymous Florida resident donated 18 stealthy Mercury Marauders for the FHP's use. [16] In 2017, the FHP deployed a small number of "subdued cruisers" (nicknamed "Ghost Cruisers") for enforcement, assigning one to each of the state's dozen patrol troops. [30]

As of 2007, FHP owned eight airplanes. [31]

In 2010, FHP adopted the Glock 37 Gen 4 and the subcompact Glock 39 , both in .45 GAP, as the patrol's duty weapon. [32] As of 2021, FHP's primary service weapon is the Glock 45 MOS. [33] The Glock 45 MOS is a compact 9x19mm handgun. [34]

Troop Layout

The Florida Highway Patrol's troops cover the following counties as listed:

TroopCounties covered
A Bay, Calhoun, Escambia, Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton, Washington
B Alachua, Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, Hamilton, Lafayette, Levy, Marion, Suwannee
C Citrus, Hernando, Hillsborough, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Sumter
D Brevard, Lake, Orange, Osceola, Seminole, Volusia
E Miami-Dade, Monroe
F Charlotte, Collier, DeSoto, Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Highlands, Lee, Manatee, Sarasota
G Baker, Bradford, Clay, Duval, Flagler, Nassau, Putnam, St. Johns, Union
H Franklin, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Taylor, Wakulla
K Florida's Turnpike, Polk Parkway, Suncoast Parkway, First Coast Expressway
L Broward, Indian River, Martin, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, St. Lucie

Florida Highway Patrol Auxiliary

The Florida Highway Patrol is authorized by Florida law to have an Auxiliary force. The Auxiliary personnel are volunteers who dedicate a minimum number of hours on a part-time, but regularly recurring basis to supplement the Florida Highway Patrol in its legislated duties. The maximum number of auxiliary personnel is limited by law. Auxiliary personnel receive no individual wages, health or insurance benefits, and may not work as auxiliary troopers for compensation (e.g. off duty employment). [35] [36]

Just as with any Florida law enforcement officer, auxiliary personnel who wish to be considered for a traditional Auxiliary trooper position must meet minimum statutory qualification criteria. [37] [38] Additionally, auxiliary members must successfully meet other requirements including submitting a State of Florida application and fingerprints, undergoing a background investigation, passing mandated Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) and agency law enforcement training requirements. Once certified, Auxiliary troopers are Florida certified auxiliary law enforcement officers. [39] State law provides that while serving under the supervision and direction of a full-time trooper, auxiliary troopers have the power to bear arms and make arrests. [35] The supervision and direction of a full-time trooper may come in the form being present at the scene or in radio contact with the auxiliary trooper. [36] [40] Auxiliary troopers wear agency issued sidearms, and similar but slightly distinctive uniforms.

The Auxiliary is overseen by a high ranking full-time command staff member of the Florida Highway Patrol who acts as the auxiliary coordinator. Throughout the state, each auxiliary unit is supervised by a full-time member who comes under the purview of the troop commander within each troop.

Auxiliary duties include: patrolling the highways of the state, assisting motorists, participating in vehicle equipment and license checkpoints, operating the mobile Breath Alcohol Testing (BAT) Unit, and participating in specialized events or details relevant to traffic related matter. [36] [41]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vermont State Police</span> American law enforcement agency

The Vermont State Police (VSP) is the state police agency for the U.S. state of Vermont. The force has jurisdiction throughout the entire state. The Vermont Public Safety Commission directs policy and selects the commander. The commander is Colonel Matthew Birmingham. The Commissioner of the Vermont Department of Public Safety is Michael Schirling. There are 332 sworn state troopers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Michigan State Police</span> The state police agency for the state of Michigan

The Michigan State Police (MSP) is the state police agency for the U.S. state of Michigan. The MSP is a full-service law enforcement agency, with its sworn members having full police powers statewide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wisconsin State Patrol</span> State Police Force for the State of Wisconsin

The Wisconsin State Patrol is the state patrol for the state of Wisconsin and is a division of the Wisconsin Department of Transportation. The Wisconsin State Patrol enforces traffic and criminal laws, oversees the motor carrier safety and weight facilities (SWEFs), inspects and regulates motor carriers, school buses and ambulances, and assists local law enforcement agencies with traffic safety, civil disturbances and disasters.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maryland State Police</span> Official state police force of the U.S. state of Maryland

The Maryland State Police (MSP), officially the Maryland Department of State Police (MDSP), is the official state police force of the U.S. state of Maryland. The Maryland State Police is headquartered at 1201 Reisterstown Road in the Pikesville CDP in unincorporated Baltimore County.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Carolina Highway Patrol</span> South Carolina state law enforcement agency

The South Carolina Highway Patrol (SCHP) is the highway patrol agency for South Carolina, which has jurisdiction anywhere in the state except for federal or military installations. The Highway Patrol was created in 1930 and is an organization with a rank structure similar to the armed forces. The mission of the South Carolina Highway Patrol includes enforcing the rules and regulations in order to ensure road way safety and reducing crime as outlined by South Carolina law. The Highway Patrol is the largest division of the South Carolina Department of Public Safety and its headquarters is located in Blythewood. This department also includes the South Carolina State Transport Police Division, and the South Carolina Bureau of Protective Services.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nebraska State Patrol</span> Law enforcement agency in Nebraska, USA

The Nebraska State Patrol is Nebraska's only statewide full-service law enforcement agency. Serving Nebraska since 1937, State Patrol troopers perform a wide variety of duties. Those include working with communities to improve public safety, enforcing traffic laws and drug laws, investigating crimes, and enforcing the laws and regulations pertaining to motor carriers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Louisiana State Police</span> Law Enforcement Agency

The Louisiana State Police is the state police agency of Louisiana, which has jurisdiction anywhere in the state, headquartered in Baton Rouge. It falls under the authority of the Louisiana Department of Public Safety & Corrections. It is officially known in that organization as the Office of State Police.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kentucky State Police</span> Law enforcement agency

The Kentucky State Police (KSP) is a department of the Kentucky Justice and Public Safety Cabinet, and the official State Police force of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, responsible for statewide law enforcement. The department was founded in 1948 and replaced the Kentucky Highway Patrol. The department's sworn personnel hold the title State Trooper, and its nickname is The Thin Gray Line.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oklahoma Highway Patrol</span> Law enforcement agency

The Oklahoma Highway Patrol (OHP) is a major state law enforcement agency of the government of Oklahoma. A division of the Oklahoma Department of Public Safety, the OHP has traffic enforcement jurisdiction throughout the state. OHP was legislatively created on July 1, 1937, due to the growing problem of motor vehicle collisions, the expansion of highway systems, and the increase in criminal activities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Minnesota State Patrol</span> Law enforcement agency

The Minnesota State Patrol is the primary state patrol agency for Minnesota and serves as the de facto state police for the state. While Minnesota State Patrol troopers have full powers of arrest throughout the state, their primary function is traffic safety and vehicle law enforcement. The State Patrol is a division of the Minnesota Department of Public Safety.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alabama Highway Patrol</span> American law enforcement agency

The Alabama Highway Patrol is the highway patrol organization for the U.S. state of Alabama, and has complete jurisdiction anywhere in the State. Its Troopers duties include motor vehicle law enforcement and rural traffic crash investigation covering about 69,500 miles of rural roads, as well as special duty performance during emergencies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Georgia State Patrol</span> Highway patrol agency for Georgia, United States

The Georgia State Patrol (GSP) was established in March 1937 in the U.S. state of Georgia and is a division of the Georgia Department of Public Safety. It is the primary state patrol agency for the U.S. state of Georgia. Although focused primarily on the enforcement of traffic laws and investigation of traffic crashes, the Georgia State Patrol (GSP) supports the efforts of all public safety agencies to reduce criminal activity, apprehend those involved, and respond to natural and manmade disasters.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maine State Police</span> State police agency

The Maine State Police (MSP) is the state police agency for Maine, which has jurisdiction across the state and was created in 1921.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mississippi Highway Patrol</span> State police agency for the US state of Mississippi

The Mississippi Highway Patrol is the highway patrol and acting state police agency for the U.S. state of Mississippi, and has law enforcement jurisdiction over the majority of the state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Missouri State Highway Patrol</span> Law enforcement agency

The Missouri State Highway Patrol(MSHP) is the highway patrol agency for Missouri and has jurisdiction all across the state. It is a division of the Missouri Department of Public Safety. Colonel Eric T. Olson has been serving as the 24th superintendent since March 15, 2019.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Carolina State Highway Patrol</span> Highway patrol agency for North Carolina, US

The North Carolina State Highway Patrol (NCSHP) is the highway patrol agency for North Carolina which has no per-se "state police" agency. The Patrol has jurisdiction anywhere in the state except for federal or military installations and on the Cherokee Indian Reservation or on Cherokee outlying lands in the western mountains. NCSHP personnel at times conduct formations, inspections, honor guard activities. The primary mission of the North Carolina State Highway Patrol is to ensure safe and efficient transportation on the streets and highways, reduce crime, protect against terrorism, enforce motor vehicle laws, and respond to natural and man-made disasters.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tennessee Highway Patrol</span> State Patrol organization for the U.S. state of Tennessee

The Tennessee Highway Patrol (THP) is the State Patrol organization for the U.S. state of Tennessee, responsible for enforcing all federal and state laws relating to traffic on the state's federal and state highways. The agency was created to protect the lives, property, and constitutional rights of people in Tennessee. The THP is a division of the Tennessee Department of Safety and Homeland Security.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wyoming Highway Patrol</span> Law enforcement agency

The Wyoming Highway Patrol is the highway patrol and de facto state police agency for the U.S. state of Wyoming, and has jurisdiction across the entire state. The goals of the Wyoming Highway Patrol are to make Wyoming's highways safer by reducing the number of traffic crashes, deaths, and injuries; to apprehend and arrest criminals using Wyoming's highways; and to assist motorists in trouble. It is also tasked with providing security and transportation to the Governor of Wyoming.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ohio State Highway Patrol</span> Law enforcement agency

The Ohio State Highway Patrol is a division of the Ohio Department of Public Safety and has the primary responsibility of traffic enforcement in the U.S. state of Ohio.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">State police (United States)</span> Police department of a U.S. state

In the United States, the state police is a police body unique to each U.S. state, having statewide authority to conduct law enforcement activities and criminal investigations. In general, state police officers or highway patrol officers, known as state troopers, perform functions that do not fall within the jurisdiction of a county’s sheriff, such as enforcing traffic laws on state highways and interstates, overseeing security of state capitol complexes, protecting governors, training new officers for local police forces too small to operate an academy and providing technological and scientific services. They also support local police and help to coordinate multi-jurisdictional task force activity in serious or complicated cases in states that grant full police powers statewide.


  1. "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Florida". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
  2. [ "About FHP".]
  3. "HSMV FY15-16 Annual Performance Report" (PDF). www.flhsmv.gov. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  4. FDLE (2014). "Florida Criminal Justice Agency Profile 2014". www.fdle.state.fl.us. Florida Department of Law Enforcement. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  5. 1 2 3 4 "Consolidation Task Force: Florida Highway Patrol Jurisdiction Team Report" (PDF). Florida Highway Patrol Jurisdiction Team. October 28, 2011.
  6. Sheriff says state doesn't devote enough troopers to Pinellas, Tampa Bay Times (July 7, 2013).
  7. Tiffany Walden, FHP, Altamonte Springs police argue over jurisdiction at crash scene, Tampa Bay Times (April 30, 2015).
  8. "Criminal Justice Standards & Training Commission". Florida Department of Law Enforcement.
  9. FHP Celebrates 75 Years of Courtesy, Service and Protection Archived April 28, 2021, at the Wayback Machine , Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.
  10. Alaina Cordes, First Coast Gears: FHP touts history with help of '40 Ford Archived April 28, 2021, at the Wayback Machine , Florida Times-Union (September 20, 2013).
  11. "FHP in the 1940s: First Driver License Examination Program". www.flhsmv.gov. Archived from the original on November 27, 2017.
  12. "Historical Timeline Division of Driver License" (PDF). www.flhsmv.gov. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 27, 2017.
  13. Larry Rohter, Thousands of Eyes for State Police: Florida Asks Cellular Phone Users for Help on Highways, New York Times (May 10, 1994).
  14. "Motor Carrier Compliance officers become 'troopers' July 1" (PDF) (Press release). Florida Highway Patrol. June 29, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  15. 1 2 3 Jeff Burlew, State troopers fired, forced to retire in overtime probe, Tallahassee Democrat (September 4, 2015).
  16. 1 2 "FHP Unveils Latest Stealth Vehicle". Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. 2004.
  17. Kim Butler (January 14, 2020). "Florida Highway Patrol Bias Based Profiling Review Advisory Memorandum 201920-08" (PDF). Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. Office of Inspector General. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  18. Goncalves, Felipe; Mello, Steven (2021). "A Few Bad Apples? Racial Bias in Policing". American Economic Review. 111 (5): 1406–1441. doi: 10.1257/aer.20181607 . ISSN   0002-8282.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Florida Administrative Code, section 15-1.003 (Division of Florida Highway Patrol).
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Troop Boundaries & Information, Florida Highway Patrol (accessed April 28, 2021).
  21. Section 5.02.05, FHP Policy Manual , Florida Highway Patrol.
  22. Brian A. Reaves, Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2004, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice (June 2007), pp. 6 and 9.
  23. About FHP, Florida Highway Patrol.
  24. "Consent Decree: FHP in the 1970s". www.flhsmv.gov. September 16, 2017.
  25. Pear, Robert (April 3, 1985). "Justice Dept Presses Drive on Quotas". The New York Times . Archived from the original on November 25, 2017.
  26. DHSMV Office of Inspector General (February 13, 2017). "Audit Report 201516-28" (PDF). Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.
  27. 1 2 § 321.02, Fla. Stat. (2010) Powers and Duties of FHP
  28. "321.03 Fla. Stat. (2010) FHP Imitations prohibited". Florida Legislature Online Sunshine.
  29. Vaughn, Linda; Estes, Anna (1999). Report 98-87 Justification Review: Florida Highway Patrol (PDF). The Florida Monitor: Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability (OPPAGA): An Office of the Florida Legislature. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2018.
  30. ""Ghost Cruiser" is FHP's new weapon". WEARtv.com. June 5, 2017.
  31. Lynn Langton, Aviation Units in Large Law Enforcement Agencies, 2007 , Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice (July 2009).
  32. Rob Garrett (March 5, 2015). "Inside the Fast-Paced Florida Highway Patrol". Tactical Life.
  33. "Florida Highway Patrol Policy 10.02 (Authorized Weapons Care and Use)" (PDF). Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.
  34. "GLOCK 45 MOS". us.glock.com. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  35. 1 2 321.24, Fla. Stat. (2007) Members of an auxiliary to Florida Highway Patrol
  36. 1 2 3 "FHP Policy - Auxiliary 18.02" (PDF). www.flhsmv.gov/fhp/Manuals. January 14, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 6, 2015. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  37. § 943.13, Fla. Stat. (2013) Officers' minimum qualifications for employment or appointment.
  38. Fla. Admin. Code R. 11B-35.003 (2014) Basic recruit training program requirements for auxiliary law enforcement training.
  39. "FDLE Curriculum Training Programs". Florida Department of Law Enforcement. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
  40. § 943.10(8), Fla. Stat. (2007) Definitions for s 943.085-943.255: Auxiliary law enforcement officer means in part - "...has authority to arrest and perform law enforcement functions."
  41. "FHP Policy - Drivers License and Vehicle Inspection Checkpoints 17.07" (PDF). www.flhsmv.gov/fhp/Manuals. Florida Highway Patrol. December 17, 2015. p. 4. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
Listen to this article (33 minutes)
This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 3 July 2007 (2007-07-03), and does not reflect subsequent edits.