Kerch Strait incident

Last updated

Kerch Strait incident
Part of the Ukrainian crisis and the Russian military intervention in Ukraine
Yani Kapu tugboat attacked by Don patrol boat.png
Yany Kapu tugboat attacked by Don patrol boat as seen by Ukrainian Gyurza-M artillery boat
Date25 November 2018
Location
Coordinates: 44°51′00″N36°23′04″E / 44.85000°N 36.38444°E / 44.85000; 36.38444
ActionHostile actions against Ukrainian naval ships by Russian security and armed forces [1]
Result
  • Russian Border Guard captures three Ukrainian naval vessels
  • Ukraine declared regional martial law starting on 28 November 2018 [2] [3] [4]
  • Ukraine bans entry to all male Russian nationals aged 16–60 for the period of the martial law with exceptions for humanitarian purposes [5]
  • Ukraine claims that Russia blocked vessels from sailing to Ukrainian ports (denied by Russia) [6]
Belligerents

Flag of Russia.svg  Russia

Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine

Strength
10 ships:
Sobol patrol boats
PS Izumrud
PS Don
Aircraft:
2 Ka-52
2 Su-25
Su-30
24 crew
2 Gyurza-M artillery boats Berdyansk and Nikopol
1 tugboat Yany Kapu
Casualties and losses
2 ships slightly damaged 24 crew captured [8] (3 of them injured)
3 ships captured (2 gunboats, 1 tugboat; two of the ships damaged, lost engines) [9] [10] [11] [12]
Map of the Black Sea with bathymetry and surrounding relief.svg
Red pog.svg
Kerch Strait
Location within Black Sea

An international incident occurred on 25 November 2018 when the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) coast guard fired upon and captured three Ukrainian Navy vessels attempting to pass from the Black Sea into the Sea of Azov through the Kerch Strait on their way to the port of Mariupol. [9] [13] In 2014, Russia had annexed the nearby Crimean Peninsula, which is dominantly internationally recognised as Ukrainian territory. It later constructed the Crimean Bridge across the strait. Under a 2003 treaty, the strait and the Azov Sea are intended to be the shared territorial waters of both countries, and freely accessible. [9] [14] [15]

Federal Security Service Principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSRs Committee of State Security

The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB). Its main responsibilities are within the country and include counter-intelligence, internal and border security, counter-terrorism, and surveillance as well as investigating some other types of grave crimes and federal law violations. It is headquartered in Lubyanka Square, Moscow's centre, in the main building of the former KGB. According to the 1995 Federal Law "On the Federal Security Service", direction of the FSB is executed by the president of Russia, who appoints the Director of FSB.

Coast Guard (Russia) Coast guard of Russia

The Coast Guard of the Border Service of the FSB, previously known as the Maritime Units of the KGB Border Troops, is the coast guard of the Russian Federation. The Coast Guard is part of the Border Guard Service of Russia under the Federal Security Service of Russia.

Ukrainian Navy navy of Ukraine and part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine

The Ukrainian Naval Forces is the navy of Ukraine and part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.

Contents

As the flotilla, which consisted of two gunboats and a tugboat, approached the Kerch Strait, the Russian coast guard said they repeatedly asked the Ukrainian vessels to leave what they referred to as "Russian territorial waters". They said that the vessels had not followed the formal procedure for passage through the strait, that the Ukrainian ships had been manoeuvring dangerously, and that they were not responding to radio communications. [9] [16] [17] Ukraine said that it had given advance notice to the Russians that the vessels would be moving through the strait, that the ships had made radio contact with the Russians, but received no response, and cited the 2003 treaty against the assertion that the ships had entered Russian territorial waters. [18] [19] [20] The Russians tried to halt the Ukrainian ships, but they continued moving in the direction of the bridge. As they neared the bridge, the Russians authorities placed a large cargo ship under it, blocking their passage into the Azov Sea. The Ukrainian ships remained moored in the strait for eight hours, before turning back to return to port in Odessa. The Russian coast guard pursued them as they left the area, and later fired upon and seized the vessels in international waters off the coast of Crimea. [16] [21] [9] [22] [23] Three Ukrainian crew members were injured in the clash, and all twenty-four Ukrainian sailors from the captured ships were detained by Russia. [9] [8] [24]

The Ukrainian government characterised the incident as a potential precursor to a Russian invasion, and declared martial law along the border with Russia and in Black Sea coastal areas, which expired on 26 December 2018. [25] [26] The incident took place a few days before the 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit. Western leaders referred to it when they spoke of sanctions against Russia.

Martial law in Ukraine

Martial law in Ukraine was a period of martial law introduced by presidential decree of November 26, 2018 in 10 regions of Ukraine from 14:00 local time for 30 days on with the aim of strengthening the defense of Ukraine against the background of increasing tension with Russia. This happened after the incident in the Kerch Strait. Martial law was ended after 30 days.

2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit 2018 G20 event

The 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit, was the thirteenth meeting of Group of Twenty (G20), which was held on 30 November and 1 December 2018 in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was the first G20 summit to be hosted in South America.

International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis Sanctions against Russia after its annexation of Crimea in 2014

International sanctions were imposed during the Ukrainian crisis by a large number of countries against Russia and Crimea following the Russian military intervention in Ukraine, which began in late February 2014. The sanctions were imposed by the United States, the European Union (EU) and other countries and international organisations against individuals, businesses and officials from Russia and Ukraine. Russia responded with sanctions against a number of countries, including a total ban on food imports from the EU, United States, Norway, Canada and Australia.

Background

Russia annexed Crimea in 2014. [25] The annexation is not officially recognised by the United Nations. [27] [28]

Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation Annexation of Crimea by Russia from Ukraine in February–March 2014

The Crimean Peninsula was annexed by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014 and since then has been administered as two Russian federal subjects—the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. The annexation from Ukraine followed a Russian military intervention in Crimea that took place in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution and was part of wider unrest across southern and eastern Ukraine.

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 United Nations General Assembly resolution adopted in 2014

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 was adopted on March 27, 2014 by the sixty-eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly in response to the Russian annexation of Crimea and entitled "Territorial integrity of Ukraine". The non-binding resolution, which was supported by 100 United Nations member states, affirmed the General Assembly's commitment to the territorial integrity of Ukraine within its internationally recognized borders and underscored the invalidity of the 2014 Crimean referendum. Eleven nations voted against the resolution, while 58 abstained, and a further 24 states were absent when the vote took place.

The Kerch Strait connects the Sea of Azov with the Black Sea, and is formed by the coasts of the Russian Taman Peninsula and disputed Crimea. It is the sole access point for ships travelling to and from Ukraine's eastern port cities, most notably Mariupol. While both Ukraine and Russia agreed to the principle of freedom of movement through the strait and the Sea of Azov in 2003 following the Tuzla Island incident, [14] Russia has controlled both sides of the strait since the Crimean annexation. [12] By May 2018, Russia had completed the construction of the Crimean Bridge, which is 19 kilometres (12 mi) long and spans the strait, providing a direct land connection between Crimea and Moscow. [29] The bridge's construction was criticised by Ukraine and many other countries, which called it illegal. [30] Furthermore, the Ukrainian and American governments have said that the bridge is being used by Russia as part of a creeping hybrid blockade of Ukrainian ports in the Azov Sea, and that Russian inspections of ships have risen sharply since the bridge opened in May 2018, with some reportedly being forced to wait between three and seven days before being allowed through. [31] [32] [33] [34] Under the 2003 treaty, both Russia and Ukraine have the right to inspect vessels sailing into or out of the Sea of Azov. [35] Ukraine has said that the increase in inspections by the Russian coast guard following the opening of the bridge represents an abuse of that right. [15]

Kerch Strait strait

The Kerch Strait is a strait connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, separating the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea in the west from the Taman Peninsula of Russia's Krasnodar Krai in the east. The strait is 3.1 kilometres (1.9 mi) to 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) wide and up to 18 metres (59 ft) deep.

Sea of Azov Sea on the south of Eastern Europe linked to the Black Sea

The Sea of Azov is a sea in Eastern Europe. To the south it is linked by the narrow Strait of Kerch to the Black Sea, and it is sometimes regarded as a northern extension of the Black Sea. The sea is bounded in the northwest by Ukraine, in the southeast by Russia. The Don and Kuban are the major rivers that flow into it. The Sea of Azov is the shallowest sea in the world, with the depth varying between 0.9 and 14 metres. There is a constant outflow of water from the Sea of Azov to the Black Sea.

Black Sea Marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and Asia

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey and Ukraine.

According to the Defense News , "From Russia’s perspective, tensions began flaring in March, when Ukrainian coast guard vessels in the Sea of Azov seized the Nord, a Russian-flagged fishing boat operating out of the Crimean city of Kerch." [20] In March 2018, the Ukrainian border guards detained in the Sea of Azov fishing vessel Nord, accusing the crew of entering "territory, which has been under a temporary occupation". [36] The captain of the Nord, Vladimir Gorbenko, is facing up to five years in prison. [37]

In late September, the Ukrainian Navy launched an operation to move the Donbas search-and-rescue ship and the Korets  [ uk ] tugboat from Odessa to Mariupol. [38] The operation was the first deployment of Ukrainian Navy ships to the Kerch Strait area since the Russian annexation of Crimea. [39] Commanded by Dmytro Kovalenko, the ships radioed their intention to enter the Azov Sea via the Kerch Strait as they approached it on 23 September, but did not follow the official procedure to request permission. According to Kovalenko, this was an intentional form of "naval diplomacy", carried out with the aim of asserting the Ukrainian claim to the surrounding waters. While the ships received pilot services from the Kerch port authority free of charge, they were also tailed by at least 13 Russian vessels, and flown over by Russian aircraft. [38] Ultimately, Russia did not hinder the ships' passage under the Crimean Bridge, and they successfully reached Mariupol. In an interview with the Kyiv Post , Ukrainian naval expert Taras Chmut said that he thought that Russians had not expected the Ukrainian operation, and so decided to take the least risky option by allowing them through. He also said "For the first time, we didn’t just react to the Russians’ steps, but started to set our own game rules". [39]

EU Commissioner for Security Sir Julian King said that Russia had staged a year-long disinformation campaign in order to "soften up" public opinion in preparation for the incident. According to King, numerous rumours were spread about the plans of the Ukrainian authorities, including that the Ukrainian government had begun dredging the Azov Sea in preparation for the arrival of a NATO fleet, that it intended to infect the Black Sea with cholera, and that it planned to blow up the Crimean Bridge with a nuclear bomb. [40]

Pavel Felgenhauer, a Moscow-based defense analyst and columnist for Novaya Gazeta , speculated that Putin's government instigated the incident out of concern that Ukraine’s naval bases in the Sea of Azov may eventually host visiting NATO patrols. [20]

Events

The incident

Positions of the Ukrainian vessels in the Kerch Strait on 25 November 2018 according to Bellingcat Kerch Strait incident map.jpg
Positions of the Ukrainian vessels in the Kerch Strait on 25 November 2018 according to Bellingcat
25 November, 2018 Kerch Strait incident map Kerch incident map.svg
25 November, 2018 Kerch Strait incident map

The incident began in the morning of 25 November, when the Ukrainian Gyurza-M-classartillery boats Berdyansk  [ uk ], Nikopol  [ uk ], and tugboat Yany Kapu  [ uk ] attempted to complete a journey from the Black Sea port of Odessa in south-western Ukraine to the Azov Sea port of Mariupol in eastern Ukraine. [9] Agents of the Ukrainian SBU security service were present on board the ships; according to Ukraine they were providing ordinary counter-intelligence coverage. [24] As they approached the Kerch Strait, Russian coast guards boats accused the Ukrainian ships of illegally entering Russian territorial waters, and ordered them to leave. When the Ukrainians refused, citing the 2003 Russo-Ukrainian treaty on freedom of navigation in the relevant area, the Russian boats attempted to intercept them, and rammed the tugboat Yany Kapu several times. [9] [41] When they tried to ram the more agile gunboats, two Russian ships collided, and the Russian Rubin-class patrol boat Izumrud was damaged. [42] The Ukrainian vessels then continued their journey, stopping near the anchorage 471 waiting zone, about 14 kilometres (9 mi) from the Crimean Bridge, and remained there for the next eight hours. [16] During this time, the Russians placed a large cargo ship under the bridge, blocking the route into the Sea of Azov. [21] [23] [9] [43] Concurrently, Russia scrambled two fighter jets and two helicopters to patrol the strait. [9] In the evening, the Ukrainian ships turned back to return to port in Odessa. As they were leaving the area, the Russian coast guard pursued them, later firing on and capturing the Ukrainian vessels about 23 kilometres (14 mi) off the coast of Crimea, in international waters. [9] [44] [16]

Damage and political response

A Gyurza-M-class artillery boat BK-02 Berdyansk. One of the gun boats captured by the Federal Security Service Novozbudovani dlia ukrayins'kikh VMS mali bron'ovani artileriis'ki kateri v khodi viprobuvan' zdiisnili spil'ne plavannia (27359525951).jpg
A Gyurza-M-class artillery boat BK-02 Berdyansk. One of the gun boats captured by the Federal Security Service

Following the incident, the Ukrainian Navy reported that six servicemen had been injured by the Russian actions. [9] Berdyansk was damaged in her bridge, either by a Sukhoi Su-30 fighter [45] or by 30 mm naval gunfire from the Russian gunboat Izumrud, according to the Russian version. [16] According to radio communication between the Russian leadership and border guard ships, two Russian ships were damaged. [46] One was damaged while ramming the Ukrainian tugboat Yany Kapu. [47] [48] [49] In addition, the Russian ship Don also collided with and damaged the Russian ship Izumrud. [50] In the aftermath of the incident, officials from both countries accused the other of provocative behaviour. [51] Ukraine decried the seizure of its ships as illegal. [9] [52] [12] In a statement, the Ukrainian Navy said, "After leaving the 12-mile zone, the Russian Federation's FSB opened fire at the flotilla belonging to... the armed forces of Ukraine". [13] Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko convened the Ukrainian National Security and Defence Council, describing the Russian actions as "unprovoked and crazy". [9]

Russia did not immediately or directly respond to the allegation, but Russian news agencies cited the Federal Security Service (FSB) as saying it had incontrovertible proof that Ukraine had orchestrated what it called a "provocation" and would publicise its evidence soon. [53] A report by the Russian FSB said that Ukraine had not followed the official procedure required for passage through the strait, namely that the port authority in Kerch should be informed 48 and 24 hours in advance of any movement, with an official confirmation 4 hours before the passage. [16] It also said the Ukrainian ships had been manoeuvring dangerously and intentionally ignored FSB instructions in order to stir up tensions. Russian politicians, including President Vladimir Putin, denounced the Ukrainian government, saying the incident was a calculated attempt by Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko to increase his popularity ahead of the Ukrainian presidential election next year. [18] [54] The Ukrainian government rejected this, and said it had informed the Russians of the planned passage through the Kerch Strait in advance. [9] [18] Ukrainian Navy spokesman Oleh Chalyk said that Yany Kapu had "established contact with a coast-guard outpost" operated by the FSB Border Service and "communicated its intention to sail through the Kerch Strait. The information was received [by Russian authorities] but no response was given". [19] According to Ukraine, contact was established at 03:58 on 25 November, "according to international rules of the sea navigation safety". [55]

Aftermath

Captured BK-02 Berdyansk with a hole in the pilothouse Berdyansk damaged gunboat.jpg
Captured BK-02 Berdyansk with a hole in the pilothouse

On the morning of 26 November, photographs of the captured Ukrainian ships laid up in the Crimean port of Kerch were published. In the photos, small camouflage nets cover the ships' bows. [56] Also on that day, according to APK-Inform, Ukrainian commercial shipping returned to normal operation after the Kerch Strait was reopened to civilian traffic. [57] [58] [59]

According to Ukrainian intelligence, the state of health of the Ukrainian Naval Forces servicemen who were injured in the attack in the Kerch Strait is satisfactory. The injured Ukrainian sailors were being treated at Pirogov Kerch City Hospital No. 1. [60] Other photographs showed significant damage inflicted to the Berdyansk gunboat, including a hole in the bridge. According to Vasyl Hrytsak, the Head of the Security Service of Ukraine, two missiles were fired by one of the Russian strike aircraft. [45]

On 27 November, a Crimean court ordered that 12 of the 24 Ukrainian sailors be detained for 60 days. [8] The following day the 12 remaining Ukrainian sailors, including the three hospitalised, were also officially detained for 60 days by the Kievskiy Raion court of Simferopol. [61] On 29 November, Russian authorities stated that the three hospitalised sailors were discharged from hospital. [62] On 30 November all captured Ukrainian sailors were transferred to (the Russian capital) Moscow. [63]

On the evening of 28 November, Ukrainian Infrastructure Minister Volodymyr Omelyan said that vessels bound for the ports of Berdyansk and Mariupol awaited entrance to the Sea of Azov and vessels were also waiting to go southbound. He characterised this as a virtual blockade. No vessels were identified as Ukrainian. [64] On 4 December Omelyan stated that Russia did let ships reach Berdyansk and Mariupol again. [6] [65] The same day the Ukrainian Ministry of Temporarily Occupied Territories and IDPs claimed that the accumulation of ships waiting to go to the Ukrainian ports had led to several accidents. [66] Russia denied it ever blocked vessels from sailing to Ukrainian ports and asserted that any possible disruptions were due to bad weather. [6] [67]

On 19 January 2019, USS Donald Cook entered the Black Sea, being the second American vessel to arrive in the Black Sea after the Kerch Strait incident after USS Fort McHenry entered in 10 January 2019. [68]

In March 2019, Canada, the United States and the EU imposed sanctions on Russian citizens and companies for their participation in the incident and activities in Crimea and separatist-controlled eastern Ukraine. [69]

Reactions

Ukraine

Martial law in Ukraine Martial Law in Ukraine (2018).svg
Martial law in Ukraine

Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko convened the National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine on 25 November. [70] He warned of the threat of a Russian land invasion. [71]

Oleksandr Turchynov, Secretary of the National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine, reportedly said that the incident was an act of war by Russia. [72] He has also stated that active military preparations had been spotted along the border on the Russian side. [73] The National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine, in its decision of 26 November, stated [74] that the actions of the Russian Federation against the ships of the Navy of the Armed Forces of Ukraine fall under paragraphs "c" and "d" of Art. 3 of Resolution 3314 (XXIX). Definition of Aggression, adopted by the UN General Assembly on 14 December 1974, namely:

On 26 November 2018, the General Staff of the Ukrainian Armed Forces held a briefing, where they announced that they viewed the actions of the Russian Federation during the incident as an act of armed aggression in violation of a number of international norms and treaties, including: [76] the Treaty Between the Russian Federation and Ukraine on Cooperation in the Use of the Sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait, article 17 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, part 1 of article 36 of the UN Convention, articles 32 and 95 of the United Nations Convention, article 30 of the UN Convention, and article 2 of the UN Charter. [76]

On 26 November, a day after the incident, lawmakers in the Ukrainian Parliament overwhelmingly backed the imposition of martial law in the country's coastal regions, and those bordering Russia and unrecognised Transnistria. A total of 276 members of parliament voted for the measure, which took effect on 28 November 2018, [77] and automatically expires in 30 days. [78] The initial recommendation was for a 60-day enforcement; according to Poroshenko it was amended so not to affect the upcoming 2019 Ukrainian presidential election. [25]

On 27 November 2018, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine appealed to the signatory states of the Budapest Memorandum with the requirement to hold urgent consultations to ensure full compliance with the commitments and the immediate cessation of Russian aggression against Ukraine. [79] [80] [81]

On 28 November 2018, Ukrainian President Poroshenko said that the incident was provoked by Russia in order to force Ukraine to declare martial law and therefore to prevent Ukraine from receiving its tomos of autocephaly for the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (see: Granting of autocephaly to the Orthodox Church of Ukraine and the 2018 Moscow–Constantinople schism). [82] [83]

Vice Admiral Ihor Voronchenko said on 29 November that Ukraine would request the closure of the Bosphorus Strait. [84]

President Poroshenko during an interview told the German tabloid Bild that Germany should support Ukraine. [85] Poroshenko also told Bild that Putin saw Ukraine as a Russian colony. [86]

On 30 November, Ukraine banned all Russian men between 16 and 60 from entering the country for the period of the martial law with exceptions for humanitarian purposes, [5] claiming this is a security measure. [63]

On 19 December, Oleksandr Turchynov, the secretary of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine, in an interview with the BBC Ukraine told that a new attempt is needed to go through the Kerch Strait and called on representatives of the OSCE and other international organizations to take part. In his opinion, otherwise Russia will fulfill its plan to seize the Sea of Azov and that will de facto legitimize the occupation of Crimea. Turchynov also mentioned plans to deploy missiles onshore, capable of destroying the Crimean Bridge. [87] [88] [89]

On 26 December at 2 p.m., the martial law in Ukraine ended, [90] but the ban for Russian men aged between 16 and 60 continued. [91]

Russia

Ukraininan ships detained in the Kerch port Detained ships in the port of Kerch.jpg
Ukraininan ships detained in the Kerch port

In the immediate aftermath of the incident, the Russian FSB security service blamed Ukraine for sparking the clashes, saying their "irrefutable" evidence would "soon be made public". [70]

On 26 November, the FSB published its detailed chronology of the events of 25 November on its website. [16] The chronology indicated that the Ukrainian vessels failed to follow the advance notification procedures for passage through the Kerch Strait and that Russia did not contest the 2003 Treaty right to freedom of navigation through the strait. Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said on the next day that Ukraine had violated international legal norms by failing to obtain authorisation for its vessels. [92] Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Pyotr Tolstoy warned of the danger of a war. [93]

Following the declaration of martial law in Ukraine, Russian President Vladimir Putin expressed "serious concern". [25] He later called the event "a provocation" and accused the Ukrainian president of staging the incident in order to improve his popularity ahead of the 2019 presidential election. [54]

According to the state-run RIA Novosti, the Russian military planned to send additional S-400 Triumf surface-to-air anti-aircraft missile batteries to Crimea. [94]

United Nations

On 26 November, Russia called for an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). [95] The agenda of that UNSC session, on what Russia described as the "violation" of its borders by the Ukrainian Navy, was dismissed by seven votes to four, with four abstentions. Russian first deputy ambassador to the UN, Dmitry Polyanski, said that Russia, being a permanent member of the Security Council, would continue to raise important issues "under the agenda they relate to". [96] The Russian version of the incident as a violation of Russian borders was supported in addition to Russia by representatives of China, Kazakhstan and Bolivia. Four states abstained, seven were against. Thus, the proposal did not pass. [97]

Ukraine also called for an emergency meeting of the UNSC over what it described as the "attack" of Russia. [98] This was confirmed by US Ambassador to the UN Nikki Haley. [99] [100] Haley said that Russia's actions were an "outrageous violation" of Ukrainian territory. She demanded that Russia stop its "unlawful conduct" and respect the "navigational rights and freedoms of all states". [101] UK Ambassador Karen Pierce condemned Russia's "deplorable" military action. [78] U.N. Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Rosemary DiCarlo said the United Nations was not able to verify the events independently. [102]

On 27 November, Secretary-General António Guterres expressed in a statement that he was "greatly concerned" about the incident and urged Russia and Ukraine to use "maximum restraint" and "to reduce tensions through all available peaceful means in accordance with the Charter of the UN". [103] [104] [105]

On 15 February 2019, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner classified imprisoned Ukrainian officers as prisoners of war and urged Russia to provide the prisoners with medical help and protect them against any violence and intimidation. [106]

Other countries and organisations

The Council of Europe urged deescalation, [107] as did the European Union, [108] Spain [92] Bolivia, [97] China [97] [109] Japan, [110] and NATO. [111]

The President of the European Council Donald Tusk condemned the Russian use of force. [112] In resolution 433 of 12 December 2018 the European Parliament strongly condemned Russian aggression in the Kerch Strait, demanded the release of all Ukrainian vessels and sailors. It also called on the European Union to introduce sanctions against Russia if the servicemen are not released and if there is any further military escalation. In the same resolution MEPs condemned the construction of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline and called for it to be cancelled. [113]

Australia, [114] Canada, [115] the Czech Republic, [116] Denmark, [117] Estonia, [92] France, [118] Germany, [119] Hungary, [120] Latvia, [121] Lithuania, [92] Poland, [122] Romania, [123] Slovakia, [124] Sweden, [125] the United Kingdom, [92] [126] [127] Norway, [128] and Turkey [129] all issued statements criticising Russia's use of force.

United States President Donald Trump cancelled the planned meeting with the President of Russia Vladimir Putin during the G-20 summit in Argentina, claiming that the sole reason was the situation with Ukrainian ships and sailors. [130] [131]

Order of battle

Russia

Two more tugs brought a cargo ship to block passage under the bridge.

Russian Coast Guard
Vessel nameVessel classArmamentCommanderCasualtiesNotes
KilledWoundedTotal
Don Sorum-classtugboat [135] 2 × 30 mm AK-230M or AK-306 Captain 2nd rank Alexey Salyaev  [ uk ]
0
0
0
slightly damaged
self-inflicted
Izumrud Rubin-classpatrol boat [135] 1 × 30 mm AK630M, 2 × 12.7 mm MG, 8 Igla SAM Captain 3rd rank Andrey Shipitsyn  [ uk ]
0
0
0
slightly damaged
self-inflicted
unknown Mangust-classpatrol boat [135] unknown
0
0
0
multiple vessels of this class were present
unknown Sobol-classpatrol boat [135] 1 × 14.5 mm MTPU MG, 2 × Igla SAM, 1 × 30 mm grenade launcherunknown
0
0
0
multiple vessels of this class were present
Total casualties: none reported
Black Sea Fleet
Vessel nameVessel classArmamentCommanderCasualtiesNotes
KilledWoundedTotal
Suzdalets  [ ru ] [135] Grisha-classcorvette unknown
0
0
0
Vice-Admiral Zakharin  [ ru ] Natya-classminesweeper [132] unknown
0
0
0
unknown Shmel-class artillery boat  [ ru ]unknown
0
0
0
two unidentified ships of this class were present [132]
Total casualties: none reported

Ukraine

Ukrainian Navy
Vessel nameVessel classArmamentCommanderCasualtiesNotes
KilledWoundedTotal
Berdyansk  [ uk ] Gyurza-M-classartillery boat 2 × 30 mm autocannon, 2 × 30 mm grenade launchers, 4 × Barrier ATGM, 2 × 7.62 mm MG, 9K38 Igla MANPADSLt. (JG) Roman Mokryak  [ uk ]
0
unknown
unknown
damaged, captured
Nikopol  [ uk ] Gyurza-M-class artillery boat2 × 30 mm autocannon, 2 × 30 mm grenade launchers, 4 × Barrier ATGM, 2 × 7.62 mm MG, 9K38 Igla SAMLt. Bohdan Nebylytsia  [ uk ]
0
unknown
unknown
captured
Yany Kapu  [ uk ] Prometey-class tugboat  [ ru ] [135] 2 × 14.5 mm MG [137] Starshina Oleh Melnychuk  [ uk ]
0
unknown
unknown
damaged, captured
Total casualties: 3 wounded, 24 captured (including wounded)

See also

Related Research Articles

Crimea peninsula in the Black Sea

Crimea is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, and west of the Russian region of Kuban, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge. The Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to its west is Romania and to its south Turkey.

Black Sea Fleet regional command of the Russian (and former Soviet) Navy

The Black Sea Fleet is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea.

Tuzla Island island

Tuzla Island, is a sandy islet in the form of a spit located in the middle of the Strait of Kerch between the Kerch Peninsula in the west and the Taman Peninsula in the east. The Strait of Kerch connects the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. Administratively, Tuzla is part of Kerch city in eastern Crimea.

Russia–Ukraine relations Diplomatic relations between Russia and Ukraine

Russia–Ukraine relations are bilateral relations between the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The bilateral relationship between Russia and Ukraine formally started in the 1990s immediately upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union, of which both Russia and Ukraine had been founding constituent republics.

Crimean Bridge bridge in Russia

The Crimean Bridge, or colloquially the Kerch Strait Bridge, is a pair of parallel bridges constructed by the Russian Federation to span the Strait of Kerch between the Taman Peninsula of Krasnodar Krai and the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea. The bridge complex provides for both road and rail traffic. With a length of 18.1 km (11.2 mi), it is considered to be the longest bridge in Russia and Europe.

European route E97 A-class European Route in Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, and Turkey

European route E 97 is an A-class European Route in Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, and Turkey. The highway runs for 1,360 kilometres (850 mi) in total. It connects the North Black Sea region with the South Black Sea region along the eastern shores of the sea.

Russia–Ukraine border Separates territories of Ukraine and Russia

The Russian-Ukrainian border is the international state border between the Russian Federation and Ukraine, which formally has been in existence since Ukraine's independence from the Soviet Union, on August 24, 1991. Over land the border outlines five oblasts (regions) of Ukraine and five oblasts of the Russian Federation.

Republic of Crimea First-level administrative division of Russia, annexed territory of Ukraine

The Republic of Crimea is a federal subject of Russia that is located on the Crimean Peninsula. The capital city and largest city within the republic is Simferopol which is also the second largest city of Crimea, behind the federal city of Sevastopol. At the last census the republic had a population of 1,891,465 .

Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Empire April 1783 annexation of the Crimean Khanate by the Russian Empire

The territory of Crimea, previously controlled by the Crimean Khanate, was annexed by the Russian Empire on 19 April [O.S. 8 April] 1783. The period before the annexation was marked by Russian interference in Crimean affairs, a series of revolts by Crimean Tatars, and Ottoman ambivalence. The annexation began 134 years of rule by the Russian Empire, which was ended by the revolution of 1917.

Ukrainian command ship Donbas

Donbas is a former Soviet repair ship that was converted to a command ship of the Ukrainian Navy, Project 304. She was built on Szczecin Shipyard in Poland in 1969 for the Soviet Navy and entitled PM-9. "PM" is a Russian abbreviation for a repair ship, and literally means a floating repair shop.

Gyurza-M-class artillery boat

The Project 58155 Gyurza-M class is a series of small armored artillery boats in service with the Ukrainian Navy. The first two vessels were laid down at the Kuznya na Rybalskomu shipbuilding plant in October 2012. Originally it was planned to build nine such vessels by 2017. In December 2013 the Ministry of Defence withdrew its contract.

Kerch–Yenikale Canal Canal in the Kerch Strait

Kerch–Yenikale canal is a maritime shipping canal in the Kerch Strait. It connects the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea.

Kerch Polytechnic College massacre 2018 school shooting and bombing in Kerch, Crimea

The Kerch Polytechnic College massacre was a school shooting and bomb attack that occurred in Kerch, Crimea, on 17 October 2018. Twenty victims were shot to death and 70 others wounded; the perpetrator also committed suicide. The attack was the greatest loss of life in school violence in the former Soviet Union since the Beslan school siege in 2004 where 385 people were murdered and another 783 wounded.

The Treaty Between the Russian Federation and Ukraine on Cooperation in the Use of the Sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait is an agreement on sea and fisheries between Russia and Ukraine entered into force on 23 April 2004. It was signed on 24 December 2003 by President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma and President of Russia Vladimir Putin.

2003 Tuzla island conflict Territorial dispute between Russia and Ukraine

There was a territorial dispute over the ownership of the Tuzla Island between Ukraine and Russia in October 2003. The Russian authorities claimed the 1954 transfer of Crimea to Ukraine had only included the continental parts of Crimea, even though the Tuzla Island had been administratively part of Crimea since 1941.

References

  1. "Explaining the naval clash between Russia and Ukraine". The Economist . 1 December 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  2. "Poroshenko says martial law to be introduced in Ukraine at 9 a.m. on Nov 28". Interfax-Ukraine. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  3. Darrah, Nicole (26 November 2018). "Ukrainian parliament votes to impose martial law after Russia allegedly seized country's ships". Fox News. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  4. "Poroshenko Ends Martial Law In Ukraine As Tensions With Russia Continue". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 26 December 2018. Retrieved 2018-12-27.
  5. 1 2 "Ukraine bans entry to all male Russian nationals aged 16-60". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  6. 1 2 3 "Ukraine's ports partially unblocked by Russia, says Kiev". Associated Press. 4 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018 via The Guardian .
  7. "Минобороны РФ подтвердило участие военных в инциденте в Керченском проливе)" [Russian Ministry of Defence confirmed its military involvement in the Kerch Strait incident] (in Russian). Interfax. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  8. 1 2 3 "Ukraine-Russia sea clash: Captured sailors shown on Russia TV". BBC News. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 "Tension escalates after Russia seizes Ukraine naval ships". BBC News. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  10. "Russian ships used weapons to stop & seize Ukrainian vessels violating territorial waters – FSB". RT. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  11. Kalashnik, Pavlo (26 November 2018). "Росія захопила понад 20 українських моряків — представник президента в Криму" (in Ukrainian). Hromadske.TV . Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  12. 1 2 3 "Russia seizes Ukrainian ships near annexed Crimea". Al Jazeera. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  13. 1 2 Osborn, Andrew; Polityuk, Pavel (25 November 2018). "Russia seizes Ukrainian ships near annexed Crimea after firing on them". Reuters . Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  14. 1 2 "Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Ukraine on cooperation in the use of the sea of Azov and the strait of Kerch". Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Database. 24 December 2003.
  15. 1 2 "Ukraine-Russia sea clash: Who controls the territorial waters around Crimea?". BBC News. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "О провокационных действиях кораблей ВМС Украины". fsb.ru (in Russian). Russian Federal Security Service. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  17. "Russian forces fulfilled 'military duty' in stopping Ukraine ships: Putin". Agence France-Presse. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019 via New Straits Times.
  18. 1 2 3 Bodner, Matthew (26 November 2018). "Russia fires on Ukrainian vessels in Black Sea; 2 wounded". Associated Press. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  19. 1 2 "Kyiv Says Russia Attacked Ukrainian Navy Ships, Seized Three In Black Sea". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  20. 1 2 3 Larter, David B.; Bodner, Matthew (28 November 2018). "The Sea of Azov won't become the new South China Sea (and Russia knows it)". Defense News . Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  21. 1 2 "Russia-Ukraine sea clash in 300 words". BBC News. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  22. Osborn, Andrew; Polityuk, Pavel (25 November 2018). "Russia fires on and seizes Ukrainian ships near annexed Crimea". Reuters. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  23. 1 2 Esch, Christian (4 December 2018). "Russia Tries to Strangle Ukraine with New Maritime Strategy". Spiege Online. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  24. 1 2 Troianovski, Anton; Ferris-Rotman, Amie (27 November 2018). "Russia shrugs off Western pressure over Black Sea incident with Ukraine". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  25. 1 2 3 4 "Ukraine-Russia clash: MPs back martial law". BBC News. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  26. Hodge, Nathan; Berlinger, Josh (26 November 2018). "Ukrainian lawmakers approve martial law as tensions with Russia escalate". CNN. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  27. "UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/68/262". United Nations. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  28. Ingold, David; Ummelas, Ott; Eglitis, Aaron (14 March 2014). "Putin's Stance on Ukraine Supported by Minority of Nations". Bloomberg. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  29. Roth, Andrew (15 May 2018). "Putin opens 12-mile bridge between Crimea and Russian mainland". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  30. Stolyarov, Gleb (15 May 2018). "Trucker Putin opens Russia bridge link with annexed Crimea". Reuters. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  31. Choursina, Kateryna (25 July 2018). "Ukraine Complains Russia Is Using New Crimea Bridge to Disrupt Shipping". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  32. Klimenko, Andrey (10 September 2017). "Bulk carrier had to cut off mast to pass under illegal Kerch Strait Bridge". Maritime Bulletin. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  33. Lourie, Richard (26 October 2018). "Putin's bridge over troubled waters". The Globe and Mail . Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  34. Fisher, Jonah (27 November 2018). "Why Ukraine-Russia sea clash is fraught with risk". BBC News . Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  35. "EU calls on Russia to ensure foreign vessels' free access to Ukrainian ports in Sea of Azov". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 5 September 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  36. Chumakova, Natalia; Zinets, Natalia (15 August 2018). "Some Russian ships stop cargoes to Ukraine after tanker detained: sources". Reuters. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  37. "Russians from Nord ship swapped for Ukrainian sailors". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 30 October 2018. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  38. 1 2 Tykhyi, Heorhii (4 October 2018). "Dmytro Kovalenko, commander of the Ukrainian Navy move to Azov Sea". Mariupol. Ukrinform . Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  39. 1 2 Grytsenko, Oksana (24 September 2018). "Two Ukrainian navy ships pass through Russian-controlled Kerch Strait (VIDEO)". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  40. Boffey, Daniel (10 December 2018). "Russia 'paved way for Ukraine ship seizures with fake news drive'". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  41. "Bellingcat: Shooting of "Berdyansk" boat most likely took place in international waters". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 1 December 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  42. "#MinskMonitor: Russian Escalation in Kerch". medium.com. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  43. "Росія перекрила прохід цивільних суден через Керченську протоку". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 25 November 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  44. "У мережі показали координати місця атаки росіянами українських катерів (фото)" (in Ukrainian). Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  45. 1 2 Brown, Daniel (29 November 2018). "New pictures show exactly how severely Russia damaged a Ukrainian boat and set off a crisis in the Black Sea". Business Insider. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  46. "Radio communication between the Russian leadership and border guard ships". General Staff of the Ukrainian Armed Forces. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018 via YouTube.
  47. "Захоплених українських моряків етапували в Керч". mil.in.ua (in Ukrainian). Ukrainian Military Portal  [ uk ]. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  48. "Під час конфлікту в Азовському морі пошкоджений російський корабель". Segodnya (in Ukrainian). 25 November 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  49. "Российский пограничный корабль таранил буксир ВМС Украины и получил пробоину" [Russian border ship rammed a tug of the Ukrainian Navy and got a hole]. Dumskaya.net (in Russian). 25 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  50. "Ukraine intercepts radio comms of Russian coast guards with Command amid attack on Ukraine Navy boats (Transcript)". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  51. "Ukraine Backs Martial Law After Gunfire At Sea". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  52. "Russia's 'Don' coast guard ship rams Ukrainian tugboat amid transfer from Odesa to Mariupol (video)". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  53. "Порошенко скликав воєнний кабінет на 22:00 через агресію Росії на морі" (in Ukrainian). Espreso TV. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  54. 1 2 "Ukraine-Russia sea clash staged, says Putin". BBC News. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  55. "Russia escalates conflict in the Kerch Strait: chronology of events". Ukrinform. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  56. "Фото захоплених українських кораблів у Керчі". ukrmilitary.com (in Ukrainian). Ukrainian Military Pages  [ uk ]. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  57. "Ukraine's Azov Sea ports operating normally despite tensions with Russia". Reuters. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  58. "Passage through Kerch Strait open for civilian vessels after Ukraine standoff". TASS. 26 November 2018.
  59. Osborn, Andrew; Rodionov, Maxim (26 November 2018). "Russia reopens Kerch Strait to shipping after standoff with Ukraine". Independent.ie. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  60. "Трьох поранених українських моряків прооперували у Керчі - розвідка" (in Ukrainian). Ukrinform. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  61. "Окупанти заарештували всіх захоплених українських моряків" [The occupants arrested all captured Ukrainian sailors]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 28 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  62. "У Криму заявили, що виписали з лікарні 3 поранених моряків" [In Crimea, it was stated that they were discharged from the hospital three wounded sailors]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 29 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  63. 1 2 Roth, Andrew (30 November 2018). "Ukraine bans entry to Russian men 'to prevent armies forming'". The Guardian . Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  64. "Россия заблокировала украинские порты на Азовском море. 35 судов в ожидании – Омелян". krymr.com (in Russian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  65. "Росія частково розблокувала порти в Азовському морі – Омелян" [Russia partially unblocked ports in the Azov Sea – Omelyan]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 4 December 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  66. "Росія спричинила аварії у Керченській протоці – МінТОТ" [Russia caused an accident in the Kerch Strait – MinTOT]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 4 December 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  67. "Kyiv Says Russia Blocking Kerch Strait, Plans To Send Ukrainian Navy Ships". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 7 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  68. "USS Donald Cook missile destroyer en route to the Black Sea". 112.international. 112 Ukraine. 19 January 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  69. Times, Business (2019-03-18). "US, EU And Canada Impose Fresh Sanctions On Russia over Ukraine". Business Times. Retrieved 2019-03-19.
  70. 1 2 "Ukraine parliament approves the martial law for 30 days". Euronews. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  71. Osborn, Andrew; Zinets, Natalia (26 November 2018). "Ukraine introduces martial law citing threat of Russian invasion". Reuters. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  72. "Турчинов: РФ вперше відкрито атакувала Збройні сили України". ZIK.ua (in Ukrainian). 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  73. "Турчинов заявив про активну підготовку військових підрозділів РФ на кордонах з Україною" (in Ukrainian). Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  74. "Щодо надзвичайних заходів із забезпечення державного суверенітету і незалежності України та введення воєнного стану в Україні". zakon.rada.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  75. "United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3314 (XXIX)". hrlibrary.umn.edu. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  76. 1 2 "Норми міжнародного права та національного законодавства дають підстави класифікувати дії РФ як акт збройної агресії, – генерал-майор Радіон Тимошенко". mil.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). Ministry of Defence of Ukraine. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  77. "Воєнний стан діятиме до 26 грудня – Порошенко". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 27 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  78. 1 2 Embury-Dennis, Tom (27 November 2018). "Russia-Ukraine crisis: Kiev declares martial law as world powers condemn the seizure of ships by Putin's forces near Crimea". The Independent. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  79. Khristoforov, Vladislav (5 December 2018). "Україна скликає зустріч ядерних держав". uprom.info (in Ukrainian). National Industrial Portal  [ uk ]. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  80. "Україна скликає зустріч ядерних держав за механізмом Будапештського меморандуму". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 5 December 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  81. "Заява МЗС України у зв'язку зі скликанням консультацій відповідно до Будапештського меморандуму". mfa.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. 5 December 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  82. "Poroshenko explains timing of Russia's attack on Ukrainian ships near Kerch Strait". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  83. "Порошенко сказав, чому Путін напав в Керченській протоці саме зараз" (in Ukrainian). Espreso TV. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  84. "Ukraine will call for closing Bosphorus Strait for Russian navy because of Kerch Strait incident – Voronchenko". Interfax-Ukraine. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  85. "Ukraine-Russia sea clash: Poroshenko urges Nato to send ships". BBC News. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  86. "Ukrainian leader says Putin wants his whole country, asks for NATO help". Reuters. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019 via Haaretz.
  87. "Ukraine plans another naval foray into Sea of Azov". Associated Press. 19 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018 via Navy Times.
  88. "Ukraine Navy vessels to try to pass through Kerch Strait with OSCE officials on board – Turchynov". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 19 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  89. Torop, Oksana; Shramovich, Vyacheslav (19 December 2018). "Александр Турчинов: "Мы готовим новый проход военных кораблей через Керченский пролив"" (in Russian). BBC News Ukrainian . Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  90. "Poroshenko confirms termination of martial law in Ukraine". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 26 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  91. "Ukraine continues tightened control on border with Russia, incl. entry ban for men aged 16-60". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 26 December 2018. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  92. 1 2 3 4 5 "The Latest: Trump fails to single out Russia in Ukraine spat". Associated Press. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  93. "'Unleashing conflict': Ukraine says Russia opened fire on navy ships". Agence France-Presse. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018 via thejournal.ie.
  94. Chappell, Bill (28 November 2018). "Russia Plans To Deploy More S-400 Missiles To Disputed Crimea Peninsula". NPR. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  95. "Russia asks for convening UN SC meeting on Sea of Azov situation". TASS. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  96. "UN Security Council refuses to adopt Russia's agenda for emergency session". TASS. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  97. 1 2 3 "UN urges Russia and Ukraine to step away from further confrontation at sea". UN News. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  98. "Україна звернулася до Ради безпеки ООН через напад російських кораблів на українські" (in Ukrainian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  99. Conradis, Brandon (25 November 2018). "Haley: UN Security Council to hold emergency meeting on Ukraine-Russia tensions". The Hill. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  100. "The U.N. Security Council Is Calling an Emergency Meeting Over Russia-Ukraine Tensions". Time. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  101. Sullivan, Emily; Chappell, Bill (26 November 2018). "Russia's Seizure Of Ukrainian Ships Is An 'Outrageous Violation,' Haley Says At U.N." NPR. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  102. Nichols, Michelle (26 November 2018). "At U.N., U.S. warns Russia over 'outrageous' violation of Ukraine sovereignty". Thomson Reuters Foundation News. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  103. Georgieva, Stanislava (27 November 2018). "Kerch Strait Incident Resulted in Court Orders and International Criticism". BulgarianMilitary.com. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  104. "UN 'greatly concerned' over Russia-Ukraine conflict". RTÉ.ie. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  105. "United Nations chief Antonio Guterres urges 'maximum restraint' from Russia, Ukraine". Times Now. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  106. "Report on the human rights situation in Ukraine" (PDF).
  107. "Poroshenko: We must put pressure on Russia to bring it back to civilized world since it is a threat to global security". Ukrinform. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  108. "The Latest: Security Council to meet over Russia, Ukraine". Associated Press. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  109. "Germany, China seek to defuse Kerch Strait tensions, as Austria worries over impact on Ukraine vote". RT. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  110. "Tokyo avoids criticizing Moscow over Ukraine issue ahead of talks on Russian-held islands off Hokkaido". The Japan Times. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  111. Greenfield, Patrick (26 November 2018). "Ukraine president proposes martial law after Russia's ship seizure". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  112. "Global Community Responds Russia Firing On Ukraine: NATO, EU Condemn Force". Associated Press. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018 via Talking Points Memo.
  113. "MEPs commend Ukraine's reform efforts and denounce Russian aggression". europarl.europa.eu (Press release). European Parliament. 12 December 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  114. "Australia calls on Russia to restore navigation rights at Kerch Strait – embassy". Ukrinform. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  115. "Canada calls on Russia to resume maritime traffic in Sea of Azov". Ukrinform. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  116. "Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemns the use of force at the Kerch Strait". mzv.cz. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  117. W, Christian (26 November 2018). "Denmark backs Ukraine in Crimea drama". The Copenhagen Post. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  118. "France urges Russia to free Ukrainian sailors". Reuters. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  119. "Germany: Russian blockade of Sea of Azov is unacceptable". Reuters. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  120. "Hungary stands with Ukraine against Russia - Orban". Tanjug. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019 via B92.net.
  121. "The Foreign Minister calls on Russia to abide by international law and ensure free access to Ukrainian ports in the Sea of Azov". mfa.gov.lv. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia. 6 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  122. "Poland's Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemns 'Russian aggression' in Azov Sea". Reuters. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  123. "Romania reacts to Russia – Ukraine developments in Kerch strait". Romania-Insider.com. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  124. "Slovak officials: We need to stand by Ukraine". The Slovak Spectator. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  125. "Margot Wallström: "Djupt oroande eskalering av Ryssland"" (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  126. "Britain condemns Russia's 'act of aggression against' Ukraine: PM May's spokesman". Reuters. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  127. "Theresa May says Russia must release Ukrainian vessels and crew". Reuters. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019 via The Hindu.
  128. "Russia's hijacking 'unacceptable'". newsinenglish.no. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  129. "Turkey says Kerch Strait must remain open after Russia-Ukraine standoff". Reuters. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  130. "Donald Trump may cancel Putin meeting over Russia's seizure of ships in Crimea". The Telegraph. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  131. Landler, Mark; Baker, Peter (30 November 2018). "Dodging Friends, Chased by Legal Troubles, Trump Navigates G-20". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  132. 1 2 3 4 5 Bulanov, Kirill; Nikolsky, Alexey; Chevtayeva, Irina (26 November 2018). "Конфликт между Россией и Украиной в Черном море. Что случилось" [Conflict between Russia and Ukraine in the Black Sea. What happened]. Vedomosti (in Russian). Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  133. 1 2 "Киев обвинил российский пограничный корабль в таране украинского буксира" [Kiev blamed the Russian border ship for ramming the Ukrainian tug] (in Russian). NTV. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  134. 1 2 3 4 Ramm, Alexey; Stepovoy, Bogdan; Galanina, Angelina; Laru, Dmitry (26 November 2018). "Море от ума: украинская провокация в Керченском проливе завершилась провалом" [Sea from Wit: Ukrainian provocation in the Kerch Strait ended in failure]. Izvestia (in Russian). Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  135. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rosamond, Jon (26 November 2018). "Ukrainian Sailors Injured, Held After Russia Seizes Three Warships". USNI News. United States Naval Institute. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  136. 1 2 "На захоплених Росією українських кораблях поранені шість військових – ВМС" (in Ukrainian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  137. "Harbor tug - Project 498". RussianShips.info. Retrieved 27 November 2018.