List of gomphothere fossils in South America

Last updated

This is a list of gomphothere fossils found in South America. Gomphotheres were elephant-like mammals that lived from the Middle Miocene (approximately 12 million years ago) to the Holocene (6000 years BP).

Contents

The following species have been described in twentieth and twenty-first century paleontological literature about South America. [1] An alternative proposal is considered within the scientific community, [2] [3] [4] [5] listed below.

Original classification

Proposed reclassification

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Locations of gomphothere fossil finds in South America, reclassification by Mothé et al [6]
Red pog.svg Amahuacatherium peruvium
Blue pog.svg Cuvieronius hyodon
Brown pog.svg Notiomastodon platensis
White pog.svg Gomphotheriidae indet.

Gomphothere fossil finds

Formations are ordered according to their youngest age

Argentina

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Locations of gomphothere fossil finds in Argentina
Brown pog.svg Notiomastodon (cf) platensis
Green pog.svg Stegomastodon sp.
  SpringGreen pog.svg S. platensis (TL)
  Turquoise pog.svg S. superbus
  Lightgreen pog.svg S. waringi
White pog.svg Gomphotheriidae indet.
AgeFormationLocationPresent elevationFossilsNotes
Late Pleistocene Urundel Fm. Quebrada del Aguay, Salta 596 m (1,955 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
[7]
Río Dulce, Santiago del Estero, Santiago del Estero 194 m (636 ft) Stegomastodon platensis
Santa Clara Fm. Santa Clara del Mar, Mar Chiquita Partido, Buenos Aires 1 m (3.3 ft) Stegomastodon platensis
[9]
San Nicolás de los Arroyos, Buenos Aires 10 m (33 ft) Stegomastodon platensis (TL 1)
Mid to Late Pleistocene Yupoi Fm. Arroyo Toropí-Level 3, Bellavista, Corrientes 61 m (200 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Luján Fm. Luján, Buenos Aires 21 m (69 ft) Stegomastodon superbus
Playa del Barco, Monte Hermoso, El Conglomerado, Cascada Paleolama, Pehuen Có, Buenos Aires 1 m (3.3 ft) Stegomastodon platensis (TL 2)
Aviá Terai, Chaco 102 m (335 ft) Stegomastodon platensis
Barranqueras, Chaco 49 m (161 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Charata, Chaco 100 m (330 ft) Stegomastodon sp., Stegomastodon cf. platensis
Castelli, Chaco 100 m (330 ft) Stegomastodon cf. platensis
Pleistocene El Palmar Fm. Estancia El Palmar, Entre Ríos 29 m (95 ft) Stegomastodon platensis
Punta Piedras, Punta Indio, Buenos Aires 1 m (3.3 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Río Carcarañá, Río Tercero, Santa Fe 65 m (213 ft) Mastodon sp.
Bajada de Santa Fe, Entre Ríos 12 m (39 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Pampa de Olaen, Córdoba 900 m (3,000 ft) cf. Notiomastodon platensis
Arroyo Feliciano Fm. San José de Feliciano, Entre Ríos 50 m (160 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Tapalqué, Buenos Aires 95 m (312 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Arroyo Perucho Verna Fm. Villa Elisa, Entre Ríos 27 m (89 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Charbonier Fm. Valle de Los Reartes, Córdoba 870 m (2,850 ft) Stegomastodon platensis ("=Notiomastodon sp.")
Tafí del Valle Fm. Tafí del Valle, Tucumán 2,000 m (6,600 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.

Bolivia

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Locations of gomphothere fossil finds in Bolivia
Blue pog.svg Cuvieronius hyodon (="C. andinum")
Brown pog.svg Notiomastodon platensis
Green pog.svg Stegomastodon sp.
Yellow-brown-blue dot.svg Cuvieronius , Notiomastodon & Stegomastodon
AgeFormationLocationPresent elevationFossilsNotes
Pleistocene Río Rujero, Tarija 1,718 m (5,636 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon
Ulloma Fm. Río Desaguadero, Ulloma, Oruro 3,880 m (12,730 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon
Anzaldo, Cochabamba 3,038 m (9,967 ft) Cuvieronius sp.
Betanzos Basin, between Potosí and Sucre 3,390 m (11,120 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon
Valle de Carohuaycho, between Camiri and Charagua 1,080 m (3,540 ft) Cuvieronius "andinum"
Chiquitos 167 m (548 ft) Cuvieronius "andinum"
Villa Montes, Tarija 413 m (1,355 ft) Notiomastodon platensis
Mid Pleistocene Ñuapua Fm. Ñuapua 1, Chuquisaca 595 m (1,952 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Early Pleistocene Tarija Fm. Tarija, Tarija 973 m (3,192 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon, C. tropicus , Notiomastodon sp., Stegomastodon sp.

Brazil

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Locations of gomphothere fossil finds in Brazil
Red pog.svg Amahuacatherium peruvium
Yellow ffff80 pog.svg Haplomastodon sp.
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Brown pog.svg Notiomastodon platensis
Lightgreen pog.svg Stegomastodon waringi
Yellow-purple dot.svg Haplomastodon & Notiomastodon
Greenandorange pog.svg Haplomastodon & Stegomastodon
White pog.svg Gomphotheriidae indet.
AgeFormationLocationPresent elevationFossilsNotes
Holocene Lagoa do Rumo/Chapada Diamantina, Baixa Grande, Bahia 400 m (1,300 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Late Pleistocene Garrincho, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí 390 m (1,280 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Toca da Janela da Barra do Antoniao, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí 300 m (980 ft) Haplomastodon sp.
Gruta dos Brejões, Morro do Chapéu, Bahia 500 m (1,600 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Toca dos Ossos, Ourolândia, Bahia 770 m (2,530 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Fazenda Suse II, Vitória da Conquista, Bahia 900 m (3,000 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Janaúba, Minas Gerais 580 m (1,900 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Gruta do Ingá, Pains, Minas Gerais 700 m (2,300 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Poté, Minas Gerais 560 m (1,840 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Lapa do Caetano, Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais 685 m (2,247 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Lajedo de Escada, Apodi, Rio Grande do Norte 122 m (400 ft) Stegomastodon waringi ("= Notiomastodon platensis")
Caverna do Japonês & Nascente do Formoso, Serra da Bodoquena, Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul 373 m (1,224 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Picos II, Piranhas, Alagoas 255 m (837 ft) Notiomastodon platensis
Touro Passo Fm. Touro Passo Creek, Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul 52 m (171 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Pleistocene Aguas do Araxá, Minas Gerais 973 m (3,192 ft) Haplomastodon waringi, Stegomastodon waringi
Inajá Fm. Inajá, Pernambuco 355 m (1,165 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Lage Grande, Pesqueira, Pernambuco 740 m (2,430 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi, Notiomastodon vidali
Roçado & Quixabinha, Petrolândia, Pernambuco 320 m (1,050 ft) Haplomastodon sp.
Santa Cruz do Capibaribe & Panelas, Pernambuco 440 m (1,440 ft) Haplomastodon sp. (="Stegomastodon")
Águas Belas & Santa Maria da Boa Vista, Pernambuco 360 m (1,180 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Lagoa das Pedras, Salgueiro, Pernambuco 430 m (1,410 ft) Haplomastodon waringi
Lagoa Lajinha, Petrolina, Pernambuco 390 m (1,280 ft) Stegomastodon waringi "(=H. waringi)"
Fazenda Nova, Brejo da Madre de Deus, Pernambuco 470 m (1,540 ft) Stegomastodon sp. "(=Haplomastodon sp.)", S. waringi , Notiomastodon platensis
Jirau & João Cativo, Itapipoca, Ceará 65 m (213 ft) Notiomastodon platensis
Taguara/Araras, Nova Mamoré & Porto Velho, Rondônia 150 m (490 ft) Notiomastodon platensis
Sitio Novo, Matina, Bahia 490 m (1,610 ft) Notiomastodon platensis
Vitória da Conquista, Bahia 950 m (3,120 ft) Notiomastodon platensis
Fazenda Caraíba, Coronel João Sá, Bahia 266 m (873 ft) Stegomastodon waringi, Notiomastodon platensis
Serro do Gronda, Espírito Santo 25 m (82 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Taperoá, Paraíba 530 m (1,740 ft) Haplomastodon sp.
Upper Ribeira, São Paulo 360 m (1,180 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Tortonian Solimões Fm. Río Acre, Acre 274 m (899 ft) Amahuacatherium peruvium

Chile

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Locations of gomphothere fossil finds in Chile
Blue pog.svg Cuvieronius hyodon
Green pog.svg Stegomastodon sp.
White pog.svg Gomphotheriidae indet.
AgeFormationLocationPresent elevationFossilsNotes
Pleistocene Taguatagua, O'Higgins 206 m (676 ft) C. hyodon (rev. Stegomastodon sp.)
Tierras Blancas & Los Vilos, La Ligua, Valparaíso 943 m (3,094 ft) C. hyodon (rev. Stegomastodon sp.)
Parral, Cauquenes, Maule 150 m (490 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon
San Pablo de Tramalhué, Pilauco Bajo, Osorno 14 m (46 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon
Río Bueno, Valdivia 10 m (33 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon
Paredones & Colchagua 55 m (180 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon
Alto de Boroa, Temuco 131 m (430 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon
Limahuida, Río Choapa282 m (925 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon
Casablanca 313 m (1,027 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon
Chillán 138 m (453 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon
Monte Verde 59 m (194 ft) C. hyodon (rev. Stegomastodon sp.)
Lagunillas, Valparaíso 212 m (696 ft) cf. hyodon
Catapilco, La Ligua 103 m (338 ft) cf. hyodon
Marchigüe, Colchagua 170 m (560 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
El Trebal 1, Padre Hurtado, Metropolitan Region 424 m (1,391 ft) Stegomastodon platensis
Río Salado 1, Chiu Chiu 3,012 m (9,882 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Quebrada Quereo Fm. Quereo 20 m (66 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Malloco, Santiago 482 m (1,581 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Algarrobo 5 m (16 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Melipilla 269 m (883 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Cerrillos, Santiago 516 m (1,693 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Chorro de la Vieja, Colchagua 1,813 m (5,948 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Cachagua 5 m (16 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Estero de Coyanco, Laja 121 m (397 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Pliocene Las Pozas/Chacabuco 695 m (2,280 ft) C. tropicus (rev. Stegomastodon sp.)

Colombia

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Locations of gomphothere fossil finds in Colombia
Yellow ffff80 pog.svg Haplomastodon sp.
  Orange pog.svg H. chimborazi
  Yellow pog.svg H. waringi
Green pog.svg Stegomastodon sp.
  Lightgreen pog.svg S. waringi
Blue-gold pog.svg Cuvieronius & Haplomastodon
White pog.svg Gomphotheriidae indet.
AgeFormationLocationPresent elevationFossilsNotes
Holocene Quaternary alluvium Yumbo, Valle del Cauca 855 m (2,805 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Turbaná, Bolívar 80 m (260 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Late Pleistocene (Lujanian) Sabana Fm. Tibitó, Checua, Bosa, Guasca, Guatavita, Soacha, Tunjuelito, Pubenza & Mosquera, Tocancipá, Bogotá savanna, Cundinamarca 2,600 m (8,500 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon, Haplomastodon waringi or H. chimborazi
Curití, Santander 1,400 m (4,600 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Soatá Fm. Soatá, Boyacá 1,950 m (6,400 ft) Haplomastodon waringi
Rotinet Fm. Rotinet, Repelón, Atlántico 8 m (26 ft) Haplomastodon waringi
Middle Pleistocene Tocaima, Cundinamarca 432 m (1,417 ft) Haplomastodon waringi
Pleistocene Arboleda, Nariño 2,170 m (7,120 ft) Haplomastodon sp.
Mercaderes, Cauca 1,170 m (3,840 ft) Haplomastodon sp.
El Remolino, Taminango, Nariño 1,470 m (4,820 ft) Haplomastodon sp.
Toro, Valle del Cauca 970 m (3,180 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Medellín, Antioquia 1,500 m (4,900 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
El Cocuy, Boyacá 2,750 m (9,020 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Duitama, Boyacá 2,600 m (8,500 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Sáchica, Boyacá 2,150 m (7,050 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Socotá, Boyacá 2,440 m (8,010 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Tunja, Boyacá 2,820 m (9,250 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Villa de Leyva, Boyacá 2,150 m (7,050 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Salamina, Caldas 1,820 m (5,970 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Fusagasugá, Cundinamarca 1,750 m (5,740 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Carrizal, Uribia, La Guajira 53 m (174 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Cabrera & San Alfonso, Villavieja, Huila 430 m (1,410 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Cúcuta, Norte de Santander 320 m (1,050 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Pamplona, Norte de Santander 2,340 m (7,680 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Agualinda, Lebrija, Santander 1,050 m (3,440 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Vélez, Santander 2,050 m (6,730 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Ibagué, Tolima 1,280 m (4,200 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Ortega, Tolima 2,680 m (8,790 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
La Victoria, Valle del Cauca 900 m (3,000 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Zarzal, Valle del Cauca 900 m (3,000 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.

Ecuador

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Locations of gomphothere fossil finds in Ecuador
Blue pog.svg Cuvieronius hyodon (TL)
Orange pog.svg Haplomastodon chimborazi
Gold pog.svg H. guayasensis
White pog.svg Gomphotheriidae indet.
AgeFormationLocationPresent elevationFossilsNotes
Mid to Late Pleistocene Tablazo Fm. Río Cañas, Montecristi, Manabí 100 m (330 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Pleistocene Imbabura, Imbabura 3,200 m (10,500 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon (TL)
Region de La Paz, Carchi 2,690 m (8,830 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Hacienca Pucará, Carchi 3,000 m (9,800 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Calderón/Carapungo, Quito, Pichincha 2,630 m (8,630 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Alangasí, Quito, Pichincha 2,539 m (8,330 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Punín, Chalán, Chimborazo 2,994 m (9,823 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Tumbaco, Pichincha 2,360 m (7,740 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Llano Chico, Quito, Pichincha 2,610 m (8,560 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Quebrada La Tola, Quito, Pichincha 2,343 m (7,687 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Checa, Pichincha 2,520 m (8,270 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
La Carolina, Santa Elena 5 m (16 ft) Haplomastodon guayasensis
Tanque Loma, Santa Elena 21 m (69 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet. (cf. N. platensis)
Quebrada Pistud, Bolívar, Carchi 2,760 m (9,060 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi
Baños, Cuenca 2,760 m (9,060 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon

Paraguay

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Location of gomphothere fossil finds in Paraguay
Brown pog.svg cf. Notiomastodon
Green pog.svg Stegomastodon sp.
AgeFormationLocationPresent elevationFossilsNotes
Pleistocene General Bruguer/Riacho Negro, Presidente Hayes 55 m (180 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Puerto Santa Rosa, San Pedro 72 m (236 ft) cf. Notiomastodon

Peru

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Locations of gomphothere fossil finds in Peru
Red pog.svg Amahuacatherium peruvium
Blue pog.svg Cuvieronius hyodon
Green pog.svg Stegomastodon sp. "=Haplomastodon" [136]
  Lightgreen pog.svg S. waringi
AgeFormationLocationPresent elevationFossilsNotes
Late Pleistocene La Brea, Talara, Piura 3 m (9.8 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Cupinisque Desert, La Libertad 2 m (6.6 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Ocucaje, Ica 500 m (1,600 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Quebrada El Jahuay, Arequipa 1 m (3.3 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
La Huaca, Piura 17 m (56 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Ayusbamba, Cuzco 3,500 m (11,500 ft) Cuvieronius hyodon
Quipan, Canta, Lima 2,200 m (7,200 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Pasamayo Quarry, Lima 10 m (33 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Pleistocene Sacaco 2, Arequipa 750 m (2,460 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Celendín, Cajamarca 2,500 m (8,200 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Tortonian Madre de Dios Fm. Cerro Colorado, Madre de Dios 300 m (980 ft) Amahuacatherium peruvium

Uruguay

Uruguay location map Topographic.png
Lightgreen pog.svg
V
Lightgreen pog.svg
C
Locations of gomphothere fossil finds in Uruguay
Lightgreen pog.svg Stegomastodon waringi
AgeFormationLocationPresent elevationFossilsNotes
Late Pleistocene Dolores Fm. Campo Viñoles, Cerro Largo 105 m (344 ft) Stegomastodon waringi
Mid to Late Pleistocene Casil Quarry, Montevideo 17 m (56 ft) Stegomastodon waringi

Venezuela

Venezuela relief location map (+claimed).jpg
White pog.svg
MG
White pog.svg
Gu
White pog.svg
Z
White pog.svg
PN
White pog.svg
Co
White pog.svg
Ca
White pog.svg
White pog.svg
White pog.svg
White pog.svg
EA
White pog.svg
M
White pog.svg
MN
White pog.svg
O
White pog.svg
Cm
White pog.svg
White pog.svg
SP
White pog.svg
GS
Green pog.svg
Green pog.svg
Q
Green pog.svg
G
Green pog.svg
SJ
Cyan pog.svg
LG
Orange pog.svg
C
Greenandorange pog.svg
T
Locations of gomphothere fossil finds in Venezuela
Cyan pog.svg ?Cuvieronius sp.
Orange pog.svg Haplomastodon chimborazi
Greenandorange pog.svg H. sp. &/= Stegomastodon waringi
Green pog.svg Stegomastodon sp.
White pog.svg Gomphotheriidae indet.
AgeFormationLocationPresent elevationFossilsNotes
Late Pleistocene Cucuruchú, Barquisimeto 566 m (1,857 ft) Haplomastodon chimborazi ("=Stegomastodon")
Taima-Taima, Falcón 40 m (130 ft) Haplomastodon sp., (=) Stegomastodon waringi
San Miguel, Lara 998 m (3,274 ft) ?Stegomastodon sp.
Quíbor, Lara 694 m (2,277 ft) ?Stegomastodon sp.
Quebrada de Guadalupe, Lara 590 m (1,940 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
San Juan de los Morros, Guárico 450 m (1,480 ft) Stegomastodon sp.
Los Guamos, Trujillo 1,200 m (3,900 ft) ?Cuvieronius sp.
Minas de Guaniamo, Cedeño, Bolívar 250 m (820 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Los Guayos, Guacara, Carabobo 440 m (1,440 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Zanja de Lira, Cojedes 70 m (230 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
La Ciénega, Pueblo Nuevo  [ es ], Falcón 60 m (200 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Coro, Falcón 28 m (92 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Camaguán, Guárico 50 m (160 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Barbacoas, Lara 1,500 m (4,900 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Carora, Lara 425 m (1,394 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
La Cruz, Guardagallos, Quebrada del Totumo, Urdaneta, Lara 185 m (607 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
El Anís, Mérida 499 m (1,637 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Maturín, Monagas 90 m (300 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Mundo Nuevo, Monagas 900 m (3,000 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Orocual, Monagas 145 m (476 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Cumanacoa, Sucre 231 m (758 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Agua Viva, Trujillo 120 m (390 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Serranía del Perijá, Zulia 175 m (574 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.
Minas de Guasare-Socuy, Zulia 26 m (85 ft) Gomphotheriidae indet.

Proposed reclassification

Some authors, Lucas, Mothé, Avilla et al., propose a reclassification of the South American gomphotheres as follows: [2] [3] [4] [5]

Other researchers as Labarca, Prado and Alberdi agree with the placement of species into Notiomastodon, but reject the idea of a single species. They continue to use Stegomastodon waringi for South American gomphotheres from Chile. [90]

Evolution

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Reclassified as Notiomastodon platensis by Mothé et al. (2015) [6]

Related Research Articles

Proboscidea Order of mammals

The Proboscidea are a taxonomic order of afrotherian mammals containing one living family (Elephantidae) and several extinct families. This order, first described by J. Illiger in 1811, encompasses the trunked mammals. In addition to their enormous size, later proboscideans are distinguished by tusks and long, muscular trunks; these features were less developed or absent in the smaller early proboscideans. Beginning in the mid-Miocene, most members of this order were very large animals. The largest land mammal today is the African elephant weighing up to 10.4 tonnes with a shoulder height of up to 4 m (13.1 ft). The largest land mammal of all time may have also been a proboscidean: Palaeoloxodon namadicus, which may have weighed up to 22 t with a shoulder height up to 5.2 m (17.1 ft), surpassing several sauropod dinosaurs.

Gomphothere family of mammals

Gomphotheres are any members of the diverse, extinct taxonomic family Gomphotheriidae. Gomphotheres were elephant-like proboscideans, but not belonging to the family Elephantidae. They were widespread in North America during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, 12–1.6 million years ago. Some lived in parts of Eurasia, Beringia, and in South America following the Great American Interchange. While most famous forms like Gomphotherium had long lower jaws with tusks, which is the ancestral condition for the group, after these forms became extinct the surviving gomphotheres had short jaws with either vestigal or no lower tusks (brevirostrine), looking very similar to modern elephants, an example of parallel evolution. Beginning after 5 million years ago, they were gradually replaced by mammoths and mastodons in most of North America, with the last two genera Cuvieronius persisting in Mexico and Notiomastodon having a wide range over most of South America until the end of the Pleistocene.

<i>Anancus</i> genus of mammals (fossil)

Anancus is an extinct genus of anancid proboscidean endemic to Africa, Europe, and Asia, that lived during the Turolian age of the late Miocene until the genus' extinction during the early Pleistocene, roughly from 7—1.5 million years ago.

<i>Cuvieronius</i> genus of mammals (fossil)

Cuvieronius is an extinct New World genus of gomphotheres and is named after the French naturalist Georges Cuvier. Alive, specimens typically stood about 2.3 m (7.5 ft) tall at the shoulder, weighed about 3.5 t and would have superficially resembled modern elephants with spiral-shaped tusks.

<i>Stegomastodon</i> genus of mammals (fossil)

Stegomastodon is an extinct genus of gomphotheres, a family of proboscideans. It ranged through North and possibly South America.

<i>Mixotoxodon</i> genus of mammals

Mixotoxodon is an extinct genus of notoungulate of the family Toxodontidae inhabiting South America, Central America and parts of southern North America during the Pleistocene, from 1,800,000—12,000 years ago.

<i>Rhynchotherium</i> genus of mammals (fossil)

Rhynchotherium is an extinct genus of proboscidea endemic to North America and Central America during the Miocene through Pliocene from 13.650—3.6 Ma, living for approximately 10 million years.

<i>Archaeobelodon</i> genus of mammals (fossil)

Archaeobelodon is an extinct genus of proboscidea of the family Gomphotheriidae that lived in Europe and Northern Africa (Egypt) during the Miocene from 16.9—16.0 Ma, living for approximately 0.9 million years.

South American land mammal age

The South American land mammal ages (SALMA) establish a geologic timescale for prehistoric South American fauna beginning 64.5 Ma during the Paleocene and continuing through to the Late Pleistocene. These periods are referred to as ages, stages, or intervals and were established using geographic place names where fossil materials where obtained.