Media of Australia

Last updated

Adults employed in the information media and telecommunications industries as a percentage of the adult population in Australia divided geographically by statistical local area, as of the 2011 census Australian Census 2011 demographic map - Australia by SLA - BCP field 7214 Persons Information media and telecommunications Total.svg
Adults employed in the information media and telecommunications industries as a percentage of the adult population in Australia divided geographically by statistical local area, as of the 2011 census

Australia has a modern and diverse media industry spanning traditional and digital formats, and catering mostly to its predominantly English-speaking population. In 2018 the Press Freedom Index ranked Australia 19th out of 180 countries [1]

Press Freedom Index Reporters Without Borders assessment of countries press freedom

The press freedom index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year. It intends to reflect the degree of freedom that journalists, news organisations, and netizens have in each country, and the efforts made by authorities to respect this freedom. Reporters Without Borders is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom and does not measure the quality of journalism nor does it look at human rights violations in general.

Contents

Media is delivered in a variety of formats including radio, television, paper, internet and IPTV. Varieties include Local, Regional, State, Federal and International sources of media reporting on Australian news, opinion, policy, issues and culture.

Radio Technology of using radio waves to carry information

Radio is the technology of signaling or communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, and received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is very widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radar, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships, spacecraft and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, and the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, and by precisely measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth. In wireless remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, and keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device.

Television Telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images

Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising, entertainment and news.

Newspaper scheduled publication containing news of events, articles, features, editorials, and advertising

A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background.

Television

New South Wales and Victoria were introduced to television in 1956, with the other states and territories following suit up to 1971 (the Northern Territory). Colour television was introduced in 1975. [2]

In addition to the public broadcasters which are available to almost all of Australia's population, there are three major commercial television networks: the Nine Network, the Seven Network and Network Ten. Most of Australia's heavily populated cities are serviced by all three networks. Some rural or regional areas may receive a more limited selection, often with some of the channels available showing programming from more than one of the major networks. An example of such a "shared" regional network is Imparja.

Nine Network Australian broadcast television network

The Nine Network is a major Australian commercial free-to-air television network, that is a division of Nine Entertainment Co. with headquarters in Willoughby, a suburb located on the North Shore of Sydney, Australia. The Nine Network is one of three main free-to-air commercial networks in Australia.

Seven Network Australian broadcast television network

The Seven Network is a major Australian commercial free-to-air television network. It is owned by Seven West Media Limited, and is one of five main free-to-air television networks in Australia. Channel Seven head office is based in Sydney.

Network Ten Australian television network

Network 10 is an Australian commercial television network. One of five national free-to-air networks, 10's owned-and-operated stations can be found in the state capital cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth, while affiliates extend the network to regional areas of the country. The network is owned by Ten Network Holdings, a subsidiary of CBS Studios International.

Digital free-to-air broadcasts commenced on 1 January 2001. Analogue broadcasts were originally intended to be phased out by 2008, however analogue phaseout was not achieved until 2013.

Digital television transmission of audio and video by digitally processed and multiplexed signal

Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television signals, including the sound channel, using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier television technology, analog television, in which the video and audio are carried by analog signals. It is an innovative advance that represents the first significant evolution in television technology since color television in the 1950s. Digital TV transmits in a new image format called high definition television (HDTV), with greater resolution than analog TV, in a widescreen aspect ratio similar to recent movies in contrast to the narrower screen of analog TV. It makes more economical use of scarce radio spectrum space; it can transmit multiple channels, up to 7, in the same bandwidth occupied by a single channel of analog television, and provides many new features that analog television cannot. A transition from analog to digital broadcasting began around 2006. Different digital television broadcasting standards have been adopted in different parts of the world; below are the more widely used standards:

After heated debate in the early 2000s over a Bill that would have removed the foreign ownership restrictions of broadcasting TV licences, the Australian government chose to retain the foreign-ownership restrictions in its 1992 Broadcasting Act. The Howard Government was set to remove this law sometime in 2007, having gained parliamentary approval to change the legislation in 2006.

John Howard Australian politician, 25th Prime Minister of Australia

John Winston Howard, is an Australian former politician who served as the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 1996 to 2007. He is the second-longest serving Australian Prime Minister, behind only Sir Robert Menzies, who was in office for over 18 years. He is also the oldest living former Australian Prime Minister, as of 16 May 2019. Howard was leader of the Liberal Party from 1985 to 1989 and from 1995 to 2007.

In 2007, with Helen Coonan as communications minister, there were two significant changes.

Foreign ownership limits were scrapped, government changed the cross-media ownership rules to allow ownership of two out of three media types. [3]

Pay TV

Approximately 25% of Australian households had access to pay television services by the end of 2005. The main provider is Foxtel in both metropolitan, regional and rural areas offering nearly all Australian channels via cable & satellite TV in capital cities, and mostly the same channels are offered by Foxtel via satellite TV (predominantly) in regional areas with the recent merger with Austar in 2012.

There are several smaller competitors offer a subset of channels - with Fetch TV entering the market in 2010 with a subscription service over a few ADSL2+ networks, and TransACT offering TV via its own VDSL, VDSL2 and FTTP/FTTH networks in Canberra and its Neighborhood Cable network in parts of Victoria. Other providers of Internet television in Australia offer free content or PPV, but don't offer a subscription product. UBI World TV offers a number of ethnic satellite TV and Radio channels nationwide, and other small companies offer some channels via satellite, especially foreign services or free-to-air channels, and some channels are available over the Internet.

Newspapers and news websites

There are 2 national and 10 state/territory daily newspapers, 37 regional dailies and 470 other regional and suburban newspapers. All major newspapers are owned either by News Corp Australia (formerly News Limited) or Nine Entertainment Co (formerly Fairfax Media). The national daily newspaper is The Australian . Also with nationwide circulation is The Australian Financial Review , the most prominent financial newspaper. Notable newspapers and news websites are: News.com.au ( News Corp Australia ), abc.net.au ( ABC Online ), The Age , au.yahoo.com ( Yahoo!7 ), sbs.com.au ( Special Broadcasting Service ), Crikey , smh.com.au ( The Sydney Morning Herald ), The Daily Telegraph (Sydney), the Herald Sun (Melbourne), Ninemsn , theguardian.com/au ( Guardian Australia ), New Matilda, The New Daily, The Saturday Paper and The Spectator . [4]

Radio

Australia's first regular radio broadcasts began on 13 November 1923 with station 2SB (later to become 2BL) in Sydney. The ABC began broadcasting in 1932. Talkback radio was first broadcast with 2UE in Sydney, just after midnight on 17 April 1967 [5] . ABC began experimenting with FM stations in the 1960s, but it wasn't until July 1980 that the first FM station commenced full operations [6] . Melbourne-based 3EON (now known as 3MMM) [7] was the first to air. [6]

Currently there are 274 operational commercial stations (funded by advertising) and 341 community (publicly funded) radio stations. [8]

Regulation

Regulation of the media in Australia is limited to a narrow range of specific areas. The Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) is the broadcasting regulator for radio and television in Australia, and also the co-regulatory Online Content Scheme. Consumers who have complaints about programs on television and radio or certain types of content on the Internet can apply to the ACMA. The Commercial Television Code of Practice is a set of regulatory guidelines, registered with the ACMA, with which commercial television broadcasters should comply.

The Australian Press Council is the self-regulatory body of the print media. The Council deals with complaints from the public about editorial material in newspapers and magazines published in Australia, and aims to maintain the freedom of the press.

Media ownership

Controls over media ownership in Australia are laid down in the Broadcasting Services Act 1992 , administered by the ACMA. Even with laws in place Australia has a high concentration of media ownership compared to other western countries. Ownership of national and the newspapers of each capital city are dominated by two corporations, Rupert Murdoch's News Corp, (which was founded in Adelaide but is now based from the United States) and Nine Entertainment – Murdoch-owned titles account for nearly two-thirds (64.2 per cent) of metropolitan circulation [9] and Nine-owned papers account for a further quarter (26.4 per cent). [9]

News Corp, Nine and Seven West Media co-own Australian Associated Press (AAP) which distributes the news and then sells it on to other outlets such as the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Although much of the everyday mainstream news is drawn from the AAP, all the privately owned media outlets still compete with each other for exclusive pop culture news.

Rural and regional media is dominated by Australian Community Media (formerly Rural Press), with significant holdings in all states and territories. Rural Press received a takeover offer from John Fairfax Holdings in late 2006, and completed the merger on 8 May 2007. [10]

There are rules governing foreign ownership of Australian media and these rules were loosened by Helen Coonan under the Howard Government via Act No. 129 of 2006 which allowed for changes to the cross-media and foreign ownership laws with the Broadcasting Services Amendment (Media Ownership) Bill 2006 . These changes came into effect in 2007 and are still In Force. The changes relaxed restrictions against cross-media ownership & control by a single company.

According to Reporters Without Borders in 2006, Australia was in 35th position on a list of countries ranked by Press Freedom; well behind New Zealand (19th) and United Kingdom (27th) (but well ahead of the USA, ranked 53rd). This ranking was primarily due to the restrictions imposed by the recent anti-terrorism laws. The problem, and the concentration of media ownership, was one of many mentioned on the television show Media Watch , broadcast on the government funded ABC. As of 2018 these rankings have changed with Australia moving up to 19th, New Zealand moving up to 8th and the United Kingdom falling to 40th [11] .

Media freedom

On June 4 2019 the Australian Federal Police conducted a raid on the home of News Corp journalist, Annika Smethurst’s home looking for information connected to a story she had written a years earlier about new laws that would give the security forces new powers for surveillance over Australian citizens. [12] Radio host, Ben Fordham also claimed that he was under investigation for some of his reporting. [13]

The next day the police raided the ABC over a story about alleged war crimes in Afghanistan. [14] The search warrant allowed the police to "add, copy, delete or alter" any files they found on the computers. [15]

The incidents caused an outcry of condemnation, even from the Reporters Without Borders, BBC and The New York Times. [16]

See also

References and notes

  1. "2018 World Press Freedom Index | Reporters Without Borders". RSF. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  2. "Australian television history and trivia". Australian Broadcasting Authority. Archived from the original on 10 December 2005. Retrieved 31 December 2005.
  3. "The history of media regulation in Australia". Radio National. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  4. "Top Sites by Category: Regional/Oceania/Australia/News and Media". Alexa.
  5. Arneil, Chris; Butler, Rod (12 April 2017). "50 years of talkback radio". National Film and Sound Archive of Australia. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  6. 1 2 "25 years of Commercial FM". Radioinfo. 12 July 2005. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  7. Mishkind, Barry (26 November 2000). "Australian Broadcast History". The Broadcast Archive. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  8. Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy Archived 30 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine Updated: 3/5/10
  9. 1 2 Calculated from circulation figures of metropolitan newspapers quoted in Wikipedia.
  10. Rural Press, Fairfax officially merged, The Age , 9 May 2007.
  11. https://rsf.org/en/ranking#
  12. "PM defends AFP raid on journalist Annika Smethurst's home". ABC News. 5 June 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  13. "Ben Fordham targeted after AFP raid journo's home". NewsComAu. 4 June 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  14. Knowles, Lorna; Worthington, Elise; Blumer, Clare; Investigations, A. B. C. (5 June 2019). "Police leave ABC headquarters with files after hours-long raid over special forces stories". ABC News. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  15. "Australia: ABC offices raided by police in connection with 'Afghan Files' series". www.msn.com. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  16. https://www.sbs.com.au/news/world-media-condemns-australian-federal-police-raids-targeting-journalists

Related Research Articles

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is Australia's national broadcaster founded in 1929. It is currently principally funded by direct grants from the Australian government, but is expressly independent of government and partisan politics. The ABC plays a leading role in journalistic independence and is fundamental in the history of broadcasting in Australia.

A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay television providers. Until the mid-1980s, television programming in most countries of the world was dominated by a small number of terrestrial networks. Many early television networks evolved from earlier radio networks.

News Corporation (1980–2013) media corporation

The original incarnation of News Corporation was an American multinational mass media corporation operated and owned by media mogul, Rupert Murdoch, headquartered in New York City. Prior to its split in 2013, it was the world's fourth-largest media group in terms of revenue, and News Corporation had become a media powerhouse since its inception, almost dominating the news, television, film and print industries.

Television broadcasting in Australia

As early as 1929, two Melbourne commercial radio stations, 3UZ and 3DB were conducting experimental mechanical television broadcasts - these were conducted in the early hours of the morning, after the stations had officially closed down. In 1934 Dr Val McDowall at amateur station 4CM Brisbane conducted experiments in electronic television.

Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. In much of the world, funding comes from the government, especially via annual fees charged on receivers. In the United States, public broadcasters may receive some funding from both federal and state sources, but generally most financial support comes from underwriting by foundations and businesses ranging from small shops to corporations, along with audience contributions via pledge drives. The great majority are operated as private not-for-profit corporations.

ABC Radio Melbourne Radio station in Melbourne, Victoria

ABC Radio Melbourne is an ABC Local Radio station in Melbourne, Australia. Originally known by its callsign 3LO, it began transmission on 13 October 1924 – Melbourne's second radio station after 3AR.

Television in Australia Wikimedia list article

Television in Australia began experimentally as early as 1929 in Melbourne with radio stations 3DB and 3UZ, and 2UE in Sydney, using the Radiovision system by Gilbert Miles and Donald McDonald, and later from other locations, such as Brisbane in 1934.

Mediacorp Pte. Ltd. is a Singaporean commercial broadcasting conglomerate. It holds interests in radio, television and digital content creation. It runs 6 television channels and 11 radio stations, making it the largest media business in Singapore; it holds a monopoly on free-to-air television in Singapore. It is owned by Temasek Holdings, a state-owned investment arm.

Media of the United Kingdom

There are several different types of media in the United Kingdom: television, radio, newspapers, magazines and websites. The country also has a strong music industry. The United Kingdom has a diverse range of providers, the most prominent being the publicly owned public service broadcaster, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The BBC's largest competitors are ITV plc, which operates 13 of the 15 regional television broadcasters that make up the ITV Network, and American global media conglomerate Comcast, which owns the broadcaster Sky Ltd. Regional media is covered by local radio, television and print newspapers. Trinity Mirror operates 240 local and regional newspapers, as well as national newspapers such as the Daily Mirror and the Sunday Mirror.

ABC Australia (Southeast Asian TV channel)

ABC Australia is a Southeast Asian pay television channel, launched in 1993 and operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. The channel broadcasts a mix of programming, including lifestyle, drama, sports, English-language learning programs, children's programming and news and current affairs.

In the broadcasting industry, an owned-and-operated station usually refers to a television or radio station that is owned by the network with which it is associated. This distinguishes such a station from an affiliate, which is independently owned and carries network programming by contract.

Digital terrestrial television in Australia commenced on 1 January 2001 in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth using DVB-T standards. The phase out of analogue PAL transmissions began in 2010 and was completed by 10 December 2013.

MTN is a television station licensed to serve Griffith and the surrounding Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (M.I.A.). The station is owned and operated by WIN Corporation as a Seven Network affiliate.

Television frequency allocation has evolved since the start of television in Australia in 1956, and later in New Zealand in 1960. There was no coordination between the national spectrum management authorities in either country to establish the frequency allocations. The management of the spectrum in both countries is largely the product of their economical and political situation. New Zealand didn't start to develop television service until 1965 due to World War 2 and its economic harm in the country's economy.

ABC Television is a service of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation launched in 1956. As a public service broadcaster, the ABC provides four non-commercial channels within Australia, and a partially advertising-funded satellite channel overseas. ABC is one of five main free-to-air networks in Australia.

This timeline of Australian television lists important station launches, programs, major television events, and technological advancements that have significantly changed the forms of broadcasting available to viewers of television in Australia. The history of television in Australia can be traced back to an announcement from the Menzies' government concerning plans for television services in Sydney and Melbourne.

Media in Colombia refers to media available in Colombia consisting of several different types of communications media: television, radio, cinema, newspapers, magazines, and Internet-based Web sites. Colombia also has a national music industry.

The Viewer Access Satellite Television service, or VAST, is a satellite television platform in Australia, providing digital television and radio services to remote and rural areas, as well as viewers in terrestrial black spots. The service using the Optus C1 and Optus D3 satellites. It is partly funded by the Australian Government and managed through a joint-venture between Southern Cross Media and Imparja Television. It is an even more restricted free-to-view replacement for Optus Aurora providing channels which have been absent on the remote service until now. The platform uses only H.264 video encoding and 8PSK, which allows for more lower bit rate channels on the limited transponder space that's available. The EPG uses an MHEG-5 guide instead of the usual more compatible DVB EIT.

Television (TV) started broadcasting in Afghanistan in 1977, flourishing until the 1990s, when hostilities in the capital Kabul destroyed broadcasting infrastructure. Between 1996 and 2000, the Taliban government outlawed television, though some stations in areas outside Taliban control continued to broadcast. After their removal, country-wide television broadcasting was resumed beginning with the government-run channel Afghanistan National Television. It was reported that Afghanistan currently has over 200 local and international television channels, 96 in Kabul and 107 in other provinces of the country. In 2014, the country commenced a switched from analog to digital TV transmission.