Demography of Australia

Last updated

Demographics of
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
IndicatorRankMeasure
Population
Population 53rd25,500,700 [1]
Economy
GDP (PPP) per capita 19th $63,699
GDP 12th $1.56 trillion
Unemployment rate ↓ 57th5.80% [2]
CO2 emissions 11th18.3 t
Electricity consumption 17th213.5 TWh
Economic freedom 3rd82.5
Politics
Human Development Index 3rd0.939
Political freedom 1st (equal)*1
Corruption (A higher score means less (perceived) corruption.) 11th80
Press freedom 18th5.38
Society
Literacy rate 21st99%
Broadband uptake 17th13.8%
Beer consumption 20th [3] 4.49 L
Health
Life expectancy 4th81.2
Birth rate 148th13.8
Fertility rate 137th1.969††
Infant mortality 202nd4.57‡‡
Death rate 122nd7.56
Suicide rate 50th♂ 14.9†‡
♀ 4.4†‡
HIV/AIDS rate 108th0.10%
Notes
↓ indicates rank is in reverse order
(e.g. 1st is lowest)
per capita
per 1000 people
†† per woman
‡‡ per 1000 live births
†‡ per 100,000 people per year
♂ indicates males, ♀ indicates females

The demography of Australia covers basic statistics, most populous cities, ethnicity and religion. The population of Australia is estimated to be 25,500,700 as of 14September2019. [1] Australia is the 52nd most populous country in the world and the most populous Oceanian country. Its population is concentrated mainly in urban areas and is expected to exceed 28 million by 2030. [4]

Ethnic group Socially defined category of people who identify with each other

An ethnic group or ethnicity is a category of people who identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry or on similarities such as common language or dialect, history, society, culture or nation. Ethnicity is often used synonymously with the term nation, particularly in cases of ethnic nationalism, and is separate from but related to the concept of races.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 26 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

Contents

Australia's population has grown from an estimated population of between 300,000 and 1,000,000 at the time of British settlement in 1788 due to numerous waves of immigration during the period since. Also due to immigration from other continents, the European component's share of the population is declining as a percentage. [5]

Immigration to Australia

Immigration to Australia began when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia and New Guinea.

Australia has an average population density of 3.3 persons per square kilometre of total land area, which makes it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. This is generally attributed to the semi-arid and desert geography of much of the interior of the country. Another factor is urbanisation, with 89% of its population living in a handful of urban areas, Australia is one of the world's most urbanised countries. [6] The life expectancy of Australia in 2015–2017 was 83.2 years, among the highest in the world. [7]

Population density A measurement of population numbers per unit area or volume

Population density is a measurement of population per unit area, or exceptionally unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square.

Desert climate deserts climate

The desert climate, is a climate in which there is an excess of evaporation over precipitation. The typically bald, rocky, or sandy surfaces in desert climates hold little moisture and evaporate the little rainfall they receive. Covering 14.2% of earth's land area, hot deserts may be the most common type of climate on earth, after polar climate.

Geography of Australia Geographic features of Australia

The geography of Australia encompasses a wide variety of biogeographic regions being the world's smallest continent but the sixth-largest country in the world. The population of Australia is concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts. The geography of the country is extremely diverse, ranging from the snow-capped mountains of the Australian Alps and Tasmania to large deserts, tropical and temperate forests.

Australia generally doesn't collect data on race, with the exception of Australian Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders, however the Australian census asks respondents to nominate their ancestry.

Torres Strait Islanders Ethnic group

Torres Strait Islanders ( ) are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia. They are distinct from the Aboriginal people of the rest of Australia, and are generally referred to separately. There are also two Torres Strait Islander communities on the nearby coast of the mainland at Bamaga and Seisia.

Cities

Australia contains five cities that consist of over one million people. Most of Australia's population live close to coastlines. [8]

Ancestry

The earliest accepted timeline for the first arrivals of indigenous Australians to the continent of Australia places this human migration to at least 65,000 years ago, [10] most probably from the islands of Indonesia and New Guinea. [11]

Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous peoples on the continent and nearby islands is a matter of debate among researchers. The earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Evidence of fires in South-West Australia suggest 'human presence in Australia 120,000 years ago', although more research is required. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP.

Human migration permanent change of residence of people

Human migration is the movement of people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily at a new location. The movement is often over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form globally. People may migrate as individuals, in family units or in large groups.

Indonesia Republic in Southeast Asia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and 7th in the combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

Captain James Cook claimed the east coast for Great Britain in 1770, the west coast was later settled by Britain also. At that time, the indigenous population was estimated to have been between 315,000 and 750,000, [12] divided into as many as 500 tribes speaking many different languages.

For generations, the vast majority of both colonial-era settlers and post-Federation immigrants came from the British Isles, although the gold rushes also drew migrants from other countries, notably from China. Since the end of World War II, Australia's population more than doubled, spurred by large-scale European immigration during the immediate post-war decades. At this time, the White Australia policy discouraged non-European immigration.

Abolition of the White Australia Policy in the mid-1970s led to a significant increase in non-European immigration, mostly from Asia.

In the 2016 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: [N 1] [13] [14]

At the 2016 census, 649,171 people (2.8% of the total population) identified as being IndigenousAboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders. [N 4] [16]

Immigration and country of birth

In 2018, 29% of the Australian resident population, or 7,341,910 people, were born overseas. [17]

Australia's population has quadrupled since the end of World War I, [18] much of this increase from immigration. Australia has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 29% of the population, a higher proportion than in any other nation with a population of over 10 million. [17] [19] Most immigrants are skilled, [20] but the immigration quota includes categories for family members and refugees. [20]

The Australian resident population consists of people who were born in the following countries:

Country of birth of Australian residents (2016) Australian Residents by Country of Birth 2016 Census.png
Country of birth of Australian residents (2016)
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics (2018) [17]
Place of birthEstimated resident population [upper-alpha 1]
Total Australian-born 17,650,000
Total foreign-born 7,341,910
Flag of England.svg England [upper-alpha 2] 992,000
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Mainland China [upper-alpha 3] 651,000
Flag of India.svg India 592,000
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand 568,000
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines 278,000
Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam 256,000
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa 189,000
Flag of Italy.svg Italy 187,000
Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia 174,000
Flag of Scotland.svg Scotland [upper-alpha 4] 135,000
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka 134,500
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea 116,120
Flag of Germany.svg Germany 114,580
Flag of Greece.svg Greece 108,830
Flag of the United States.svg United States 108,610
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong SAR [upper-alpha 5] 100,620

For more information about immigration see Immigration to Australia and Foreign-born population of Australia.

Religion

Religion in Australia (2016) [22]
ReligionPercent
Christianity (total)
52%
Roman Catholic
22.6%
Other Christian
16.3%
Anglican
13.3%
Islam
2.6%
Buddhism
2.4%
Hinduism
1.9%
Sikhism
0.5%
Judaism
0.4%
Other
0.4%
No religion
30.1%
Undefined or not stated
9.7%

Australia was, historically, a majority Protestant nation with a large Catholic minority. [23] [24] Australia has become a religiously diverse country with 22% being Catholic, 30% having no religion and there are significant numbers of Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and others. While Australia has no official religion, the various governments of Australia refer to the Christian God in their ceremonies, as do the various Australian Courts.

In an optional question on the 2016 Census, 52.1% of the Australian population declared some variety of Christianity. Historically the percentage has been far higher and the religious landscape of Australia is changing and diversifying. [25] Also in 2016, 30.1% of Australians stated "no religion" and a further 9.6% chose not to answer the question. [25] The remaining population is a diverse group which includes Muslims (2.6%), Buddhists (2.4%), Hindus (1.9%), Sikhs (0.5%), and Jews (0.4%). [25] [26]

The Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001 Census Dictionary statement on religious affiliation states the purpose for gathering such information:

Data on religious affiliation are used for such purposes as planning educational facilities, aged persons' care and other social services provided by religion-based organisations; the location of church buildings; the assigning of chaplains to hospitals, prisons, armed services and universities; the allocation of time on public radio and other media; and sociological research.

As in many Western countries, the level of active participation in religious services is lower than would be indicated by the proportion of the population identifying themselves as affiliated with a religion; weekly attendance at Christian church services is about 1.5 million, or about 7.5% of the population. [27] Christian charitable organisations, hospitals and schools play a prominent role in welfare and education services. The Catholic education system is the second biggest sector after government schools, with more than 650,000 students (and around 21 per cent of all secondary school enrolments).

Language

Although Australia has no official language, English has always been entrenched as the de facto national language. [28] Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon, [29] and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling. [30] General Australian serves as the standard dialect.

According to the 2016 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for close to 72.7% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are: [31]

A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual.

Over 250 Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact, of which less than 20 are still in daily use by all age groups. [32] [33] About 110 others are spoken exclusively by older people. [33] At the time of the 2006 census, 52,000 Indigenous Australians, representing 12% of the Indigenous population, reported that they spoke an Indigenous language at home. [34] Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 5,500 deaf people. [35]

Indigenous population

Indigenous Australians as a percentage of the population as of the 2011 census Australian Census 2011 demographic map - Australia by SLA - BCP field 0054 Indigenous Persons Total Persons.svg
Indigenous Australians as a percentage of the population as of the 2011 census

The earliest accepted timeline for the first arrivals of indigenous Australians to the continent of Australia places this human migration to at least 40,000 years ago. [11]

These first inhabitants of Australia were originally hunter-gatherers, who over the course of many succeeding generations diversified widely throughout the continent and its nearby islands. Although their technical culture remained static—depending on wood, bone, and stone tools and weapons—their spiritual and social life was highly complex. Most spoke several languages, and confederacies sometimes linked widely scattered tribal groups. Aboriginal population density ranged from approximately one person per 3 km2 (1 sq mi) along the coasts to one person per 90 km2 (35 sq mi) in the arid interior. Food procurement was usually a matter for the nuclear family, requiring an estimated 3 days of work per week. There was little large game, and outside of some communities in the more fertile south-east, they had no agriculture.

Dutch navigators landed on the coasts of modern Western Australia and Queensland several times during the 17th century. Captain James Cook wrote that he claimed the east coast for Great Britain in 1770 while standing on Possession Island off the west coast of Cape York Peninsula. The west coast was later settled by Britain also. At that time, the indigenous population was estimated to have been between 315,000 and 750,000, [12] divided into many tribes speaking many different languages. In the 2011 census, 495,757 respondents declared they were Aboriginal, 31,407 declared they were Torres Strait Islander, and a further 21,206 declared they were both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. [36]

Since the end of World War II, efforts have been made both by the government and by the public to be more responsive to Aboriginal rights and needs.

Today, most of Australia's Indigenous population live on the east coast of Australia, where almost 60% of Indigenous Australians live in New South Wales (208,476) and Queensland (188,954) which roughly represents 2–5% of those state's populations. The Northern Territory has an Indigenous population of almost 70,000 and represents about 30% of the total Northern Territory population.

States and territories

State/territoryPopulation
(2016 census)
Land areaPopulation density% of population
in capital
Notes
km2 mi2 per km2per mi2
Flag of New South Wales.svg  New South Wales 7,797,800800,642309,1308.64363% [37]
Flag of Victoria (Australia).svg  Victoria 6,244,200227,41687,80623.54971% [38]
Flag of Queensland.svg  Queensland 4,883,7001,730,648668,2072.50146% [39]
Flag of Western Australia.svg  Western Australia 2,567,8002,239,170864,5480.89073.4% [40]
Flag of South Australia.svg  South Australia 1,717,000983,482379,7251.62173.5% [41]
Flag of Tasmania.svg  Tasmania 519,10068,40126,4107.24341% [42]
Flag of the Australian Capital Territory.svg  Australian Capital Territory 406,4002,358910151.4958100% [43]
Flag of the Northern Territory.svg  Northern Territory 245,0001,349,129520,9020.16054% [44]

Historical population

Note that population estimates in the table below do not include the Aboriginal population before 1961. Estimates of Aboriginal population prior to European settlement range from 300,000 to one million, with archaeological finds indicating a sustainable population of around 750,000. [45] Where available, actual population figures from census years are included.

Historic population (estimated)
Pre-1788
YearIndigenous population±%
pre 1788300,000 to 1,000,000    
Source: [46]
Settlement   Federation
YearNon-indigenous population±% p.a.
1788 859    
1798 4,588+18.24%
1808 10,263+8.38%
1818 25,859+9.68%
1828 58,197+8.45%
1838 151,868+10.07%
1848 332,328+8.15%
1858 1,050,828+12.20%
1868 1,539,552+3.89%
1878 2,092,164+3.11%
1888 2,981,677+3.61%
1898 3,664,715+2.08%
Source: [47]
Post-Federation
YearTotal population±%
1901 3,788,123    
1906 4,059,083+7.2%
1911 4,489,545+10.6%
1916 4,943,173+10.1%
1921 5,455,136+10.4%
1926 6,056,360+11.0%
1931 6,526,485+7.8%
1936 6,778,372+3.9%
1941 7,109,898+4.9%
1946 7,465,157+5.0%
1951 8,421,775+12.8%
1956 9,425,563+11.9%
1961 10,548,267+11.9%
1966 11,599,498+10.0%
1971 13,067,265+12.7%
1976 14,033,083+7.4%
1981 14,923,260+6.3%
1986 16,018,350+7.3%
1991 17,284,036+7.9%
1996 18,224,767+5.4%
2001 18,769,249+3.0%
2006 19,855,288+5.8%
2011 21,507,717+8.3%
2016 23,401,892+8.8%
Note: Estimated populations prior to 1961 do not include the Indigenous population.
Source: [48] [49] [50] [51] [52]

Total Fertility Rate from 1850 to 1899

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation. [53]

The following figures show the total fertility rates since the first years of the English colonization.

Years18501851185218531854185518561857185818591860 [53]
Total Fertility Rate in Australia4.945.014.075.034.865.325.195.635.715.755.71
Years1861186218631864186518661867186818691870 [53]
Total Fertility Rate in Australia5.675.85.595.755.645.335.415.435.195.19
Years1871187218731874187518761877187818791880 [53]
Total Fertility Rate in Australia5.094.975.014.934.814.814.694.744.84.73
Years1881188218831884188518861887188818891890 [53]
Total Fertility Rate in Australia4.734.624.664.774.784.744.774.764.654.69
Years189118921893189418951896189718981899 [53]
Total Fertility Rate in Australia4.624.524.44.134.073.813.783.643.66

Crude birth rates from 1860 to 1899

The crude birth rate is the total number of live births per 1,000 population in a year. Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics. [54]

Crude birth rate in Australia [54]
Years18601861186218631864186518661867186818691870
42.642.343.341.742.942.139.840.440.538.738.7
Years1871187218731874187518761877187818791880
38.037.137.436.835.935.935.035.435.835.3
Years1881188218831884188518861887188818891890
35.334.534.835.635.735.435.635.534.735.0
Years189118921893189418951896189718981899
34.533.732.830.830.428.428.227.227.3

Historical percent distribution of the total population by age

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics. [55] [56] [57] [58]

Ages1901191119211931194119511961197119811991200120072016
0-14 years35.131.631.828.524.227.230.328.725.021.920.519.418.6
15-24 years19.420.116.918.117.514.114.317.417.416.013.714.012.8
25-44 years29.428.830.029.330.029.427.727.428.428.630.029.227,9
45-64 years12.014.817.018.020.920.419.920.019.219.323.125.025.1
65 years and over4.04.34.56.17.48.18.58.39.811.312.613.215.8
Total (%)10099.6100100100100100100100100100100100

Historical median age of the population

Median age of the Australia population through history. Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics. [56] [57] [59] [60]

Years19011911192119511961197119811991200120152017
Median age of the total population22.524.025.830.329.327.729.632.435.737.438.7
Median age of males23.624.626.129.928.727.029.031.734.937.9
Median age of females21.523.425.530.830.228.330.233.036.439.5

Vital statistics since 1900

Source: [61]

Average populationLive birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1,000)Crude death rate (per 1,000)Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates [upper-alpha 6] [53] Net overseas migration [62] [63] [64]
19003,715,000102,22144,06058,16127.311.815.53.66
19013,765,000102,94546,33056,61527.112.214.93.64
19023,824,000102,77648,07854,69826.712.514.23.39
19033,875,00098,44347,29351,15025.312.113.23.58
19043,916,000104,11343,57260,54126.411.015.43.54
19053,974,000104,94143,51461,42726.210.915.33.51
19064,032,000107,89044,33363,55726.610.915.73.35
19074,091,000110,34745,30555,04226.711.015.73.35
19084,161,000111,54546,42655,11926.611.115.53.35
19094,232,000114,07144,17259,89926.710.316.43.35
19104,323,000116,80145,59061,21126.710.416.33.35
19114,425,000122,19347,86974,32427.210.616.63.51
19124,573,000133,08852,17780,91128.611.217.43.51
19134,820,172135,71451,78983,92528.210.717.53.51
19144,893,000137,98351,72086,26328.010.517.53.51
19154,971,000134,87152,78282,08927.110.616.53.51
19164,969,000131,42654,19777,21926.611.015.63.07
19174,917,000129,96548,02981,93626.39.716.63.35
19184,982,000125,73950,24975,49025.010.015.03.07
19195,080,000122,29065,93056,36023.612.710.93.07
19205,303,000136,40656,28980,11725.510.515.53.07
19215,411,000136,19854,07682,12224.99.915.03.12
19225,510,000137,49651,31186,18524.79.215.53.11
19235,637,000135,22256,23678,98623.79.913.83.02
19245,755,000134,92754,98079,95323.29.413.82.97
19255,882,000135,79254,65881,13422.99.213.72.95
19266,000,000133,16256,95276,21022.09.412.62.85
19276,124,000133,69858,28275,71621.69.412.22.80
19286,251,000134,07859,37874,70021.39.411.92.77
19296,355,000129,48060,85768,62320.29.510.72.64
19306,436,000128,39955,33173,06819.88.611.22.58
19316,500,000118,50956,56061,94918.28.79.52.36
19326,552,000110,93356,75754,17616.98.68.32.19
19336,603,000111,26959,11752,15216.88.97.92.17
19346,656,000109,47562,22947,24616.49.37.12.11
19356,707,000111,32563,59947,72616.59.47.12.12
19366,755,000116,07363,93252,14117.19.47.72.18
19376,810,000119,13164,49654,63517.49.48.02.21
19386,871,000120,41566,45153,96417.49.67.82.21
19396,935,000122,89169,14753,74417.69.97.72.22
19407,004,000126,34768,38457,96317.99.78.22.26
19417,077,000134,52571,17663,34918.910.08.92.36
19427,143,000136,70875,19161,51719.110.58.62.38
19437,201,000149,29574,48674,80920.610.310.32.57
19447,269,000153,34469,59683,74821.09.511.52.63
19457,347,000160,56070,23190,22921.79.512.22.74
19467,430,000176,37974,661101,71823.610.013.62.99
19477,517,000182,38473,468108,91624.19.714.43.08
19487,637,000177,97676,839101,13723.110.013.12.98
19497,792,000181,26175,260106,00122.99.513.42.99
19508,045,000190,59178,187112,40423.39.613.73.01
19518,307,000193,29881,788111,51023.09.713.33.06
19528,527,000201,65081,597120,05323.49.513.93.15
19538,739,000202,23580,188122,04722.99.113.83.23
19548,902,000202,25681,805120,45122.59.113.43.3
19559,089,000207,67782,036125,64122.68.913.73.35
19569,311,000212,63386,088126,54522.59.113.43.39
19579,530,000220,35884,953135,40522.98.814.13.41
19589,744,000222,50483,723138,48122.68.514.13.42
19599,947,000226,97689,212137,76522.68.913.73.41
196010,160,000230,32688,464141,86222.48.613.83.39
196110,391,000239,98688,961151,02522.88.514.33.35
196210,642,000237,08193,163143,91822.18.713.43.3
196310,846,000235,68994,894140,79521.58.712.83.24
196411,055,000229,149100,594128,55520.58.711.83.17
196511,280,000222,85499,715123,13919.68.810.82.97
196611,505,000223,731103,929119,80219.39.010.32.89
196711,704,000229,796102,703127,09319.48.710.72.85
196811,912,000240,906109,547131,35920.09.110.92.89
196912,145,000250,175106,496143,68120.48.711.72.93
197012,407,000257,516113,048144,46820.59.010.52.94
197112,663,000276,361110,650165,71121.58.612.92.98
197213,067,000271,960110,191161,76920.68.412.22.74
197313,303,000255,848111,336144,51219.18.310.82.49
197413,504,000243,658110,179133,47917.98.19.82.32
197513,722,000239,794114,501125,29317.48.39.12.15
197613,892,000231,135110,610120,52516.67.98.72.06
197714,033,000226,954111,490115,46416.17.98.22.01
197814,192,000226,359108,059118,30015.97.68.31.95
197914,359,000223,370108,315115,05515.57.58.01.91
198014,515,000223,664106,654117,01015.37.38.01.89
198114,695,000230,920109,429121,49115.67.48.21.94
198214,923,000237,076110,990116,08615.77.48.31.93128,100
198315,184,000241,764112,918128,84615.87.48.41.9273,300
198415,393,000240,544110,887129,65715.57.28.31.8449,100
198515,579,000241,814114,197127,61715.47.38.11.9273,800
198615,788,000239,115116,069123,04615.07.37.71.87100,500
198716,018,000242,977116,139126,83815.07.27.81.85125,800
198816,263,000246,200120,463125,73715.07.37.71.83149,400
198916,532,000250,155118,767131,38815.17.18.01.84157,500
199016,814,000257,521125,112132,40915.37.47.91.90124,700
199117,065,000261,158119,572141,58615.27.08.21.8586,500
199217,284,000259,186120,836138,35014.96.98.01.8968,600
199317,494,000259,959121,338138,62114.86.97.91.8630,100
199417,667,000258,314123,496134,81814.57.07.51.8446,600
199517,854,000258,210126,232131,97814.47.07.41.8280,200
199618,071,000250,438126,400124,03813.86.96.91.80104,000
199718,310,000253,660127,298126,36213.76.96.81.7887,200
199818,517,000249,105129,255119,85013.46.96.51.7579,100
199918,711,000249,965128,278121,48713.36.86.51.7596,500
200018,925,000249,310128,392120,91813.16.76.41.75107,200
200119,153,000247,500128,913118,58712.86.76.11.73135,700
200219,413,000250,988133,707117,28112.96.96.01.77110,600
200319,651,000246,663132,239114,42412.56.75.81.75116,500
200419,895,000249,082133,231115,85112.46.75.71.76100,000
200520,127,000255,934131,354124,58012.66.56.11.79123,800
200620,394,000263,540134,041129,49912.86.56.31.82146,700
200720,697,000274,330134,785139,54513.26.46.81.87232,700
200821,015,000302,272143,946158,32614.46.87.62.02277,400
200921,262,000295,700140,760154,94013.96.67.31.90299,800
201022,183,000297,900143,473154,42713.46.47.01.89172,038
201122,340,000301,617146,932156,05013.56.66.91.92205,679
201222,723,000309,582147,098161,78213.66.57.11.91241,151
201323,162,000308,065147,708160,35713.36.46.91.88235,797
201423,413,000299,697153,400146,30012.86.56.31.8179,000
201523,858,000305,377159,052146,32512.86.76.11.81181,000
2016 [65] 311,104158,504152,60012.96.56.41.789243,800
201724,770,700 [66] 309,142160,909148,23312.66.56.11.741241,700
201825,180,200 [67] 314,900185,500156,30012.66.56.11.741248,400

In 2012, the total fertility rate of Australian-born women was 1.94, while for overseas-born women, it was 1.81, [68] while in 2013, it was 1.91 and 1.79 respectively. [69] In 2017, TFR was 1.68 for overseas women (overseas father 1.73) and 1.78 for native women (native father 1.69).

Life expectancy at birth from 1921 to 2015

Sources: Our World In Data and the United Nations.

1921–1950

Years1921192219231924192519261927192819291930 [70]
Life expectancy in Australia61.062.961.762.563.262.962.862.963.164.9
Years1931193219331934193519361937193819391940 [70]
Life expectancy in Australia65.365.665.464.865.165.265.865.865.866.2
Years1941194219431944194519461947194819491950 [70]
Life expectancy in Australia66.165.966.468.068.568.068.668.569.169.0

1950–2015

PeriodLife expectancy in
Years
PeriodLife expectancy in
Years
1950–195569.41985–199076.2
1955–196070.41990–199577.7
1960–196570.91995–200078.8
1965–197070.82000–200580.3
1970–197571.82005–201081.5
1975–198073.62010–201582.3
1980–198575.1

Source: UN World Population Prospects [71]

Other general demographic statistics

As of February 2018, the population growth rate was 0.9%. [72] This rate was based on estimates of (April 2019): [1]

Much of the data that follows has been derived from the CIA World Factbook [64] and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, through censuses.

Population

Estimated resident population of Australia since 1981 ABS-3101.0-AustralianDemographicStatistics-EstimatedResidentPopulationStatesTerritories-EstimatedResidentPopulation-Persons-Australia-A2060842F.svg
Estimated resident population of Australia since 1981
Australia's age and gender structure in 2005, illustrated in a population pyramid. Population Pyramid- Australia 2005.svg
Australia's age and gender structure in 2005, illustrated in a population pyramid.

The following figures are ABS estimates for the resident population of Australia, based on the 2001 and 2006 Censuses and other data.

25,500,700 (as of 14September2019) [1]
23,470,145 (July 2018 est.)
23,232,413 (July 2017 est.)
21,262,641 (July 2009 – CIA World Factbook)

Age structure

Population pyramid of Australia in 2017 Australiapop.svg
Population pyramid of Australia in 2017
Australian babies: 0 year olds as a fraction of total persons, in Australia, according to the 2011 census results. Australian Census 2011 demographic map - Australia by SLA - BCP field 0259 Age years 0 Persons.svg
Australian babies: 0 year olds as a fraction of total persons, in Australia, according to the 2011 census results.
Australian babies: 0-4 year olds as a fraction of total persons, in Australia, according to the 2011 census results Australian Census 2011 demographic map - Australia by SLA - BCP field 0274 Age years 0 4 years Persons.svg
Australian babies: 0-4 year olds as a fraction of total persons, in Australia, according to the 2011 census results
0-14 years: 17.75% (male 2,138,080 /female 2,027,583)
15-24 years: 12.62% (male 1,520,528 /female 1,442,461)
25-54 years: 41.35% (male 4,944,587 /female 4,760,752)
55-64 years: 11.84% (male 1,379,681 /female 1,398,177)
65 years and over: 16.44% (male 1,786,595 /female 2,071,701) (2018 est.)
0–14 years: 17.8% (male 2,122,139/female 2,012,670)
15–24 years: 12.79% (male 1,524,368/female 1,446,663)
25–54 years: 41.45% (male 4,903,130/female 4,725,976)
55–64 years: 11.83% (male 1,363,331/female 1,384,036)
65 years and over: 16.14% (male 1,736,951/female 2,013,149) (2017 est.)

Median age

Map of the median age of Australians by Statistical Local Area in the 2011 census Australian Census 2011 demographic map - Australia by SLA - BCP field 0109 Median age of persons.svg
Map of the median age of Australians by Statistical Local Area in the 2011 census
total: 38.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 58th
male: 38.1 years
female: 39.7 years (2018 est.)
Total: 36.9 years [74]
Male: 36.6 years
Female: 38.1 years (2009 est.)

Birth rate

12 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 165th
12.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
12.47 births/1,000 population (2009 est.) (Rank 164)

Death rate

7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 118th
6.68 deaths/1,000 population (2009 est.) (Rank 146)

Total fertility rate

1.77 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 155th

Net migration rate

5.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 22nd
5.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) (Rank 21)
6.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population. (2009 est.) (Rank 15)

Population growth rate

1.01% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 107th
1.03% (2017 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.7 years (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 79.9 years (2018 est.)
female: 85 years (2018 est.)

At the time of Australian Federation in 1901, the rate of natural increase was 14.9 persons per 1,000 population. The rate increased to a peak of 17.4 per thousand population in the years 1912, 1913 and 1914. During the Great Depression, the rate declined to a low of 7.1 per thousand population in 1934 and 1935. Immediately after World War II, the rate increased sharply as a result of the start of the post–World War II baby boom and the immigration of many young people who then had children in Australia. A rate plateau of over 13.0 persons per 1,000 population occurred for every year from 1946 to 1962.

There has been a fall in the rate of natural increase since 1962 due to falling fertility. In 1971, the rate of natural increase was 12.7 persons per 1,000 population; a decade later it had fallen to 8.5. In 1996 the rate of natural increase fell below seven for the first time, with the downward trend continuing in the late 1990s. Population projections by the Australian Bureau of Statistics indicate that continued low fertility, combined with the increase in deaths from an ageing population, will result in natural increase falling below zero sometime in the mid-2030s. However, in 2006 the fertility rate rose to 1.81, one of the highest rates in the OECD.

Since 1901, the crude death rate has fallen from about 12.2 deaths per 1,000 population, to 6.4 deaths per 1,000 population in 2006. [75]

Urbanisation

urban population: 86% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.43% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Urbanisation population: 89% of total population (2008)
Rate of urbanisation: 1.2% annual rate of change (2005–2010)

Sex ratio

At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 51.1
youth dependency ratio: 28.5
elderly dependency ratio: 22.6
potential support ratio: 4.4 (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS

Adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2017 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 26,000 (2017 est.)
Deaths: fewer than 200 (2017 est.) [76]

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 23 years
male: 23 years
female: 23 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 12.6%. Country comparison to the world: 105th
male: 13.7%
female: 11.5% (2017 est.)

Incarceration and punishment

In March 2019, there was 43,320 adults imprisoned in Australia, which was an incarceration rate of 221 prisoners per 100,000 adult population. [77] , or 169 per 100,000 total population. [78] Additionally, there was 75,544 people in community corrections (various non-custodial punishments such as parole, bail, probation and community service). [79]

In June 2018, there was about 980 minors imprisoned in Australia on an average night. [80]

Literacy

Definition: aged 15 years and over can read and write
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 99% (2003 est.)

Education expenditure

4.9% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 55

Population density

As of June 2016, the population density of Australia was reported as 3.1/km2 (8.0/sq mi). [81] This makes Australia the 3rd least densely populated country in the world, after Namibia and Mongolia. [82]

See also

General
Cities

Notes

  1. Only countries with 100,000 or more are listed here.
  2. The Australian Bureau of Statistics source lists England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland separately although they are all part of the United Kingdom. These should not be combined as they are not combined in the source.
  3. In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, Mainland China, Taiwan and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately.
  4. The Australian Bureau of Statistics source lists England and Scotland separately although they are both part of the United Kingdom. These should not be combined as they are not combined in the source.
  5. In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, Mainland China, Taiwan and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately.
  6. In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and have been marked blue, 2 and below leads an aging population and the result is that the population reduces.
  1. As a percentage of 21,769,209 persons who nominated their ancestry at the 2016 census. The Australian Census collects information on ancestry, but not on race or ethnicity.
  2. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the Anglo-Celtic group. [15]
  3. Of any ancestry. Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.
  4. Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.

Related Research Articles

The indigenous peoples of Oceania are Polynesians, Melanesians, Micronesians, Papuans and Australian Aboriginals. With the notable exceptions of Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, New Caledonia and Guam, indigenous peoples make up the majority of the populations of Oceania.

Aboriginal Australians term used to refer to some groups of Indigenous Australians

Aboriginal Australians are the various indigenous peoples of the Australian mainland, Tasmania, and often the Tiwi Islands. This group contains many distinct peoples that have developed across Australia for over 50,000 years. These peoples have a broadly shared, though complex, genetic history, but it is only in the last two hundred years that they have been defined and started to self identify as a single group. The definition of the term "Aboriginal" has changed over time and place, with the importance of family lineage, self identification and community acceptance all being of varying importance. In the past, Aboriginal Australians lived over large sections of the continental shelf and were isolated on many of the smaller offshore islands when the land was inundated at the start of the inter-glacial. However, they are considered distinct from the Torres Strait Islander people, despite extensive cultural exchange.

Although Australia has no official languages, English has been entrenched as the de facto national language since European settlement. Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon, and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling. General Australian serves as the standard dialect.

Australian Bureau of Statistics Australias principal government institution in charge of statistics and census data

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia. The ABS provides key statistics on a wide range of economic, population, environmental and social issues, to assist and encourage informed decision making, research and discussion within governments and the community.

Demographics of Sydney

Sydney is Australia's most populous city, and is also the most populous city in Oceania. In the 2016 census, 5,005,400 persons declared themselves as residents of the Sydney Statistical Division–about one-fifth (19.41%) of Australia's total population. With a population density of 2037 people per square kilometer the urban core has population density five times that of the greater region.

Nunggubuyu or Wubuy is an Australian Aboriginal language, the traditional language of the Nunggubuyu people. It is the primary traditional language spoken in the community of Numbulwar in the Northern Territory. The language is classified as severely endangered by UNESCO, with only 272 speakers according to the 2016 census. Most children in Numbulwar can understand Nunggubuyu when spoken to, but cannot speak it themselves, having to reply in Kriol. To counter this, starting in 1990, the community has been embarking on a revitalisation programme for the language by bringing in elders to teach it to children at the local school.

Australians nationality

Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens, expatriates and permanent residents may also claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins, religious and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 29% of the population.

Indigenous Australians are convicted of crimes and are imprisoned at a disproportionately high rate in Australia. According to one source, there is "gross overrepresentation of Indigenous offenders at all stages of the criminal justice system". The 2016 Australian Census documented that there were 649,171 Indigenous people, who are either Australian Aborigines or Torres Strait Islanders, in Australia, accounting for 2.8 percent of the population.

Punishment in Australia

Punishment in Australia arises when an individual has been convicted of breaking the law through the Australian criminal justice system. Australia uses prisons, as well as community corrections. The death penalty has been abolished, and corporal punishment is no longer used. Prison labour occurs in Australia, prisoners are involved in many types of work with some paid as little as $0.82 per hour. Before the colonisation of Australia by Europeans, Indigenous Australians had their own traditional punishments, some of which are still practised.

Nakkara (Na-kara) is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken by the Nagara people of Arnhemland.

Jawoyn, or Kumertuo, is an endangered Gunwinyguan language spoken by elders in Arnhem Land, Australia.

Alawa (Galawa) is a moribund Indigenous Australian language spoken by the Alawa people of the Northern Territory. In 1991, it had 18 remaining speakers and 4 semi-speakers.

Mangarla (Mangala) is a Pama–Nyungan language of Western Australia.

Djaru (Tjaru) is a Pama–Nyungan language spoken in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.

Wanman (Warnman) is a possibly extinct Australian Aboriginal language, of the Wati branch of the Pama–Nyungan family. It was spoken near Jigalong in Western Australia by the Wanman people (Warman), who are a subgroup of Martu people (Mardu).

Canberra is Australia's capital and its largest inland city. At the 2016 census, it had 395,790 residents. This amounted to only 1.7% of Australia's population. The population density for Canberra is 443.5 people per sq kilometre.

Indigenous Australian health and wellbeing statistics indicate Aboriginal Australians are much less healthy than the rest of the Australian community. In 1989, the National Aboriginal Health Strategy was created. In 2010–11 the most common cause of hospital admissions for Indigenous Australians in mainland Australia was for kidney dialysis treatment. A 2007 study found that the 11 largest preventable contributions to the indigenous burden of disease in Australia were from tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, high body mass, inadequate physical activity, low intake of fruit and vegetables, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, unsafe sex, child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. The 26% of Indigenous Australians living in remote areas experience 40% of the health gap of Indigenous Australians overall.

Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates that the population of Greater Brisbane is 2,462,637 as of June 2018, and the South East Queensland region, centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3.6 million. The Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the floodplain of the Brisbane River Valley between Moreton Bay and the Great Dividing Range, sprawling across several of Australia's most populous local government areas (LGAs), most centrally the City of Brisbane, which is by far the most populous LGA in the nation. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite.

Section 127 of the Constitution of Australia was the final section within Chapter VII, and mandated the exclusion of Aboriginal Australians from population counts conducted for electoral purposes. It came into effect on 1 January 1901 when the founding states federated into the Commonwealth of Australia, and was repealed effective 10 August 1967 following the 1967 referendum.

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Sources

General references

Further reading