This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (June 2017)
|GDP (PPP) per capita||19th||$63,699|
|Unemployment rate||↓ 57th||5.80%|
|CO2 emissions||11th||18.3 t †|
|Electricity consumption||17th||213.5 TWh|
|Human Development Index||3rd||0.939|
|Political freedom||1st (equal)*||1|
|Corruption (A higher score means less (perceived) corruption.)||11th||80|
|Beer consumption||20th||4.49 L†|
|Suicide rate||50th||♂ 14.9†‡|
|↓ indicates rank is in reverse order|
(e.g. 1st is lowest)
† per capita
‡ per 1000 people
†† per woman
‡‡ per 1000 live births
†‡ per 100,000 people per year
♂ indicates males, ♀ indicates females
The demography of Australia covers basic statistics, most populous cities, ethnicity and religion. The population of Australia is estimated to be 25,500,700 as of 14September2019. Australia is the 52nd most populous country in the world and the most populous Oceanian country. Its population is concentrated mainly in urban areas and is expected to exceed 28 million by 2030.
An ethnic group or ethnicity is a category of people who identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry or on similarities such as common language or dialect, history, society, culture or nation. Ethnicity is often used synonymously with the term nation, particularly in cases of ethnic nationalism, and is separate from but related to the concept of races.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 26 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.
Australia's population has grown from an estimated population of between 300,000 and 1,000,000 at the time of British settlement in 1788 due to numerous waves of immigration during the period since. Also due to immigration from other continents, the European component's share of the population is declining as a percentage.
Immigration to Australia began when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia and New Guinea.
Australia has an average population density of 3.3 persons per square kilometre of total land area, which makes it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. This is generally attributed to the semi-arid and desert geography of much of the interior of the country. Another factor is urbanisation, with 89% of its population living in a handful of urban areas, Australia is one of the world's most urbanised countries. The life expectancy of Australia in 2015–2017 was 83.2 years, among the highest in the world.
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area, or exceptionally unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square.
The desert climate, is a climate in which there is an excess of evaporation over precipitation. The typically bald, rocky, or sandy surfaces in desert climates hold little moisture and evaporate the little rainfall they receive. Covering 14.2% of earth's land area, hot deserts may be the most common type of climate on earth, after polar climate.
The geography of Australia encompasses a wide variety of biogeographic regions being the world's smallest continent but the sixth-largest country in the world. The population of Australia is concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts. The geography of the country is extremely diverse, ranging from the snow-capped mountains of the Australian Alps and Tasmania to large deserts, tropical and temperate forests.
Australia generally doesn't collect data on race, with the exception of Australian Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders, however the Australian census asks respondents to nominate their ancestry.
Torres Strait Islanders ( ) are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia. They are distinct from the Aboriginal people of the rest of Australia, and are generally referred to separately. There are also two Torres Strait Islander communities on the nearby coast of the mainland at Bamaga and Seisia.
Australia contains five cities that consist of over one million people. Most of Australia's population live close to coastlines.
Largest populated areas in Australia
2018 data from Australian Bureau of Statistics
|6||Gold Coast–Tweed Heads||Qld/NSW||679,127||16||Toowoomba||Qld||136,861|
The earliest accepted timeline for the first arrivals of indigenous Australians to the continent of Australia places this human migration to at least 65,000 years ago,most probably from the islands of Indonesia and New Guinea.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous peoples on the continent and nearby islands is a matter of debate among researchers. The earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Evidence of fires in South-West Australia suggest 'human presence in Australia 120,000 years ago', although more research is required. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP.
Human migration is the movement of people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily at a new location. The movement is often over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form globally. People may migrate as individuals, in family units or in large groups.
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and 7th in the combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.
Captain James Cook claimed the east coast for Great Britain in 1770, the west coast was later settled by Britain also. At that time, the indigenous population was estimated to have been between 315,000 and 750,000,divided into as many as 500 tribes speaking many different languages.
For generations, the vast majority of both colonial-era settlers and post-Federation immigrants came from the British Isles, although the gold rushes also drew migrants from other countries, notably from China. Since the end of World War II, Australia's population more than doubled, spurred by large-scale European immigration during the immediate post-war decades. At this time, the White Australia policy discouraged non-European immigration.
Abolition of the White Australia Policy in the mid-1970s led to a significant increase in non-European immigration, mostly from Asia.
In the 2016 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:
At the 2016 census, 649,171 people (2.8% of the total population) identified as being Indigenous — Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.
In 2018, 29% of the Australian resident population, or 7,341,910 people, were born overseas.
Australia's population has quadrupled since the end of World War I,much of this increase from immigration. Australia has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 29% of the population, a higher proportion than in any other nation with a population of over 10 million. Most immigrants are skilled, but the immigration quota includes categories for family members and refugees.
The Australian resident population consists of people who were born in the following countries:
|Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics (2018)|
|Place of birth||Estimated resident population|
For more information about immigration see Immigration to Australia and Foreign-born population of Australia.
Australia was, historically, a majority Protestant nation with a large Catholic minority.Australia has become a religiously diverse country with 22% being Catholic, 30% having no religion and there are significant numbers of Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and others. While Australia has no official religion, the various governments of Australia refer to the Christian God in their ceremonies, as do the various Australian Courts.
In an optional question on the 2016 Census, 52.1% of the Australian population declared some variety of Christianity. Historically the percentage has been far higher and the religious landscape of Australia is changing and diversifying.Also in 2016, 30.1% of Australians stated "no religion" and a further 9.6% chose not to answer the question. The remaining population is a diverse group which includes Muslims (2.6%), Buddhists (2.4%), Hindus (1.9%), Sikhs (0.5%), and Jews (0.4%).
The Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001 Census Dictionary statement on religious affiliation states the purpose for gathering such information:
Data on religious affiliation are used for such purposes as planning educational facilities, aged persons' care and other social services provided by religion-based organisations; the location of church buildings; the assigning of chaplains to hospitals, prisons, armed services and universities; the allocation of time on public radio and other media; and sociological research.
As in many Western countries, the level of active participation in religious services is lower than would be indicated by the proportion of the population identifying themselves as affiliated with a religion; weekly attendance at Christian church services is about 1.5 million, or about 7.5% of the population.Christian charitable organisations, hospitals and schools play a prominent role in welfare and education services. The Catholic education system is the second biggest sector after government schools, with more than 650,000 students (and around 21 per cent of all secondary school enrolments).
Although Australia has no official language, English has always been entrenched as the de facto national language.Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon, and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling. General Australian serves as the standard dialect.
According to the 2016 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for close to 72.7% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are:
A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual.
Over 250 Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact, of which less than 20 are still in daily use by all age groups.About 110 others are spoken exclusively by older people. At the time of the 2006 census, 52,000 Indigenous Australians, representing 12% of the Indigenous population, reported that they spoke an Indigenous language at home. Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 5,500 deaf people.
The earliest accepted timeline for the first arrivals of indigenous Australians to the continent of Australia places this human migration to at least 40,000 years ago.
These first inhabitants of Australia were originally hunter-gatherers, who over the course of many succeeding generations diversified widely throughout the continent and its nearby islands. Although their technical culture remained static—depending on wood, bone, and stone tools and weapons—their spiritual and social life was highly complex. Most spoke several languages, and confederacies sometimes linked widely scattered tribal groups. Aboriginal population density ranged from approximately one person per 3 km2 (1 sq mi) along the coasts to one person per 90 km2 (35 sq mi) in the arid interior. Food procurement was usually a matter for the nuclear family, requiring an estimated 3 days of work per week. There was little large game, and outside of some communities in the more fertile south-east, they had no agriculture.
Dutch navigators landed on the coasts of modern Western Australia and Queensland several times during the 17th century. Captain James Cook wrote that he claimed the east coast for Great Britain in 1770 while standing on Possession Island off the west coast of Cape York Peninsula. The west coast was later settled by Britain also. At that time, the indigenous population was estimated to have been between 315,000 and 750,000,divided into many tribes speaking many different languages. In the 2011 census, 495,757 respondents declared they were Aboriginal, 31,407 declared they were Torres Strait Islander, and a further 21,206 declared they were both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.
Since the end of World War II, efforts have been made both by the government and by the public to be more responsive to Aboriginal rights and needs.
Today, most of Australia's Indigenous population live on the east coast of Australia, where almost 60% of Indigenous Australians live in New South Wales (208,476) and Queensland (188,954) which roughly represents 2–5% of those state's populations. The Northern Territory has an Indigenous population of almost 70,000 and represents about 30% of the total Northern Territory population.
|Land area||Population density||% of population|
|km2||mi2||per km2||per mi2|
Note that population estimates in the table below do not include the Aboriginal population before 1961. Estimates of Aboriginal population prior to European settlement range from 300,000 to one million, with archaeological finds indicating a sustainable population of around 750,000.Where available, actual population figures from census years are included.
|Historic population (estimated)|
The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.
The following figures show the total fertility rates since the first years of the English colonization.
|Total Fertility Rate in Australia||4.94||5.01||4.07||5.03||4.86||5.32||5.19||5.63||5.71||5.75||5.71|
|Total Fertility Rate in Australia||5.67||5.8||5.59||5.75||5.64||5.33||5.41||5.43||5.19||5.19|
|Total Fertility Rate in Australia||5.09||4.97||5.01||4.93||4.81||4.81||4.69||4.74||4.8||4.73|
|Total Fertility Rate in Australia||4.73||4.62||4.66||4.77||4.78||4.74||4.77||4.76||4.65||4.69|
|Total Fertility Rate in Australia||4.62||4.52||4.4||4.13||4.07||3.81||3.78||3.64||3.66|
The crude birth rate is the total number of live births per 1,000 population in a year. Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
|65 years and over||4.0||4.3||4.5||6.1||7.4||8.1||8.5||8.3||9.8||11.3||12.6||13.2||15.8|
Median age of the Australia population through history. Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
|Median age of the total population||22.5||24.0||25.8||30.3||29.3||27.7||29.6||32.4||35.7||37.4||38.7|
|Median age of males||23.6||24.6||26.1||29.9||28.7||27.0||29.0||31.7||34.9||37.9|
|Median age of females||21.5||23.4||25.5||30.8||30.2||28.3||30.2||33.0||36.4||39.5|
|Average population||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1,000)||Crude death rate (per 1,000)||Natural change (per 1,000)||Total fertility rates||Net overseas migration|
In 2012, the total fertility rate of Australian-born women was 1.94, while for overseas-born women, it was 1.81,while in 2013, it was 1.91 and 1.79 respectively. In 2017, TFR was 1.68 for overseas women (overseas father 1.73) and 1.78 for native women (native father 1.69).
Sources: Our World In Data and the United Nations.
|Life expectancy in Australia||61.0||62.9||61.7||62.5||63.2||62.9||62.8||62.9||63.1||64.9|
|Life expectancy in Australia||65.3||65.6||65.4||64.8||65.1||65.2||65.8||65.8||65.8||66.2|
|Life expectancy in Australia||66.1||65.9||66.4||68.0||68.5||68.0||68.6||68.5||69.1||69.0|
|Period||Life expectancy in|
|Period||Life expectancy in|
Source: UN World Population Prospects
As of February 2018, the population growth rate was 0.9%.This rate was based on estimates of (April 2019):
Much of the data that follows has been derived from the CIA World Factbookand the Australian Bureau of Statistics, through censuses.
The following figures are ABS estimates for the resident population of Australia, based on the 2001 and 2006 Censuses and other data.
At the time of Australian Federation in 1901, the rate of natural increase was 14.9 persons per 1,000 population. The rate increased to a peak of 17.4 per thousand population in the years 1912, 1913 and 1914. During the Great Depression, the rate declined to a low of 7.1 per thousand population in 1934 and 1935. Immediately after World War II, the rate increased sharply as a result of the start of the post–World War II baby boom and the immigration of many young people who then had children in Australia. A rate plateau of over 13.0 persons per 1,000 population occurred for every year from 1946 to 1962.
There has been a fall in the rate of natural increase since 1962 due to falling fertility. In 1971, the rate of natural increase was 12.7 persons per 1,000 population; a decade later it had fallen to 8.5. In 1996 the rate of natural increase fell below seven for the first time, with the downward trend continuing in the late 1990s. Population projections by the Australian Bureau of Statistics indicate that continued low fertility, combined with the increase in deaths from an ageing population, will result in natural increase falling below zero sometime in the mid-2030s. However, in 2006 the fertility rate rose to 1.81, one of the highest rates in the OECD.
Since 1901, the crude death rate has fallen from about 12.2 deaths per 1,000 population, to 6.4 deaths per 1,000 population in 2006.
In March 2019, there was 43,320 adults imprisoned in Australia, which was an incarceration rate of 221 prisoners per 100,000 adult population., or 169 per 100,000 total population. Additionally, there was 75,544 people in community corrections (various non-custodial punishments such as parole, bail, probation and community service).
In June 2018, there was about 980 minors imprisoned in Australia on an average night.
As of June 2016 [update] , the population density of Australia was reported as 3.1/km2 (8.0/sq mi). This makes Australia the 3rd least densely populated country in the world, after Namibia and Mongolia.
The indigenous peoples of Oceania are Polynesians, Melanesians, Micronesians, Papuans and Australian Aboriginals. With the notable exceptions of Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, New Caledonia and Guam, indigenous peoples make up the majority of the populations of Oceania.
Aboriginal Australians are the various indigenous peoples of the Australian mainland, Tasmania, and often the Tiwi Islands. This group contains many distinct peoples that have developed across Australia for over 50,000 years. These peoples have a broadly shared, though complex, genetic history, but it is only in the last two hundred years that they have been defined and started to self identify as a single group. The definition of the term "Aboriginal" has changed over time and place, with the importance of family lineage, self identification and community acceptance all being of varying importance. In the past, Aboriginal Australians lived over large sections of the continental shelf and were isolated on many of the smaller offshore islands when the land was inundated at the start of the inter-glacial. However, they are considered distinct from the Torres Strait Islander people, despite extensive cultural exchange.
Although Australia has no official languages, English has been entrenched as the de facto national language since European settlement. Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon, and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling. General Australian serves as the standard dialect.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia. The ABS provides key statistics on a wide range of economic, population, environmental and social issues, to assist and encourage informed decision making, research and discussion within governments and the community.
Sydney is Australia's most populous city, and is also the most populous city in Oceania. In the 2016 census, 5,005,400 persons declared themselves as residents of the Sydney Statistical Division–about one-fifth (19.41%) of Australia's total population. With a population density of 2037 people per square kilometer the urban core has population density five times that of the greater region.
Nunggubuyu or Wubuy is an Australian Aboriginal language, the traditional language of the Nunggubuyu people. It is the primary traditional language spoken in the community of Numbulwar in the Northern Territory. The language is classified as severely endangered by UNESCO, with only 272 speakers according to the 2016 census. Most children in Numbulwar can understand Nunggubuyu when spoken to, but cannot speak it themselves, having to reply in Kriol. To counter this, starting in 1990, the community has been embarking on a revitalisation programme for the language by bringing in elders to teach it to children at the local school.
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens, expatriates and permanent residents may also claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins, religious and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 29% of the population.
Indigenous Australians are convicted of crimes and are imprisoned at a disproportionately high rate in Australia. According to one source, there is "gross overrepresentation of Indigenous offenders at all stages of the criminal justice system". The 2016 Australian Census documented that there were 649,171 Indigenous people, who are either Australian Aborigines or Torres Strait Islanders, in Australia, accounting for 2.8 percent of the population.
Punishment in Australia arises when an individual has been convicted of breaking the law through the Australian criminal justice system. Australia uses prisons, as well as community corrections. The death penalty has been abolished, and corporal punishment is no longer used. Prison labour occurs in Australia, prisoners are involved in many types of work with some paid as little as $0.82 per hour. Before the colonisation of Australia by Europeans, Indigenous Australians had their own traditional punishments, some of which are still practised.
Nakkara (Na-kara) is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken by the Nagara people of Arnhemland.
Jawoyn, or Kumertuo, is an endangered Gunwinyguan language spoken by elders in Arnhem Land, Australia.
Alawa (Galawa) is a moribund Indigenous Australian language spoken by the Alawa people of the Northern Territory. In 1991, it had 18 remaining speakers and 4 semi-speakers.
Mangarla (Mangala) is a Pama–Nyungan language of Western Australia.
Djaru (Tjaru) is a Pama–Nyungan language spoken in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.
Wanman (Warnman) is a possibly extinct Australian Aboriginal language, of the Wati branch of the Pama–Nyungan family. It was spoken near Jigalong in Western Australia by the Wanman people (Warman), who are a subgroup of Martu people (Mardu).
Canberra is Australia's capital and its largest inland city. At the 2016 census, it had 395,790 residents. This amounted to only 1.7% of Australia's population. The population density for Canberra is 443.5 people per sq kilometre.
Indigenous Australian health and wellbeing statistics indicate Aboriginal Australians are much less healthy than the rest of the Australian community. In 1989, the National Aboriginal Health Strategy was created. In 2010–11 the most common cause of hospital admissions for Indigenous Australians in mainland Australia was for kidney dialysis treatment. A 2007 study found that the 11 largest preventable contributions to the indigenous burden of disease in Australia were from tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, high body mass, inadequate physical activity, low intake of fruit and vegetables, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, unsafe sex, child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. The 26% of Indigenous Australians living in remote areas experience 40% of the health gap of Indigenous Australians overall.
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates that the population of Greater Brisbane is 2,462,637 as of June 2018, and the South East Queensland region, centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3.6 million. The Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the floodplain of the Brisbane River Valley between Moreton Bay and the Great Dividing Range, sprawling across several of Australia's most populous local government areas (LGAs), most centrally the City of Brisbane, which is by far the most populous LGA in the nation. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite.
Section 127 of the Constitution of Australia was the final section within Chapter VII, and mandated the exclusion of Aboriginal Australians from population counts conducted for electoral purposes. It came into effect on 1 January 1901 when the founding states federated into the Commonwealth of Australia, and was repealed effective 10 August 1967 following the 1967 referendum.
Australian population: (1919) 5,080,912; (2006) 20,209,993Cite uses deprecated parameter
English has no de jure status but it is so entrenched as the common language that it is de facto the official language as well as the national language.Cite uses deprecated parameter
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