Penryn and Falmouth (UK Parliament constituency)

Last updated
Penryn and Falmouth
Former County constituency
for the House of Commons
County Cornwall
Major settlements Penryn and Falmouth
19181950
Number of membersOne
Replaced by Truro and Falmouth & Camborne
Created fromPenryn and Falmouth, St Austell and Truro
18321918
Number of members1832-1885: Two;
1885-1918: One
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Replaced byPenryn and Falmouth
Created from Cornwall and Penryn

Penryn and Falmouth was the name of a constituency in Cornwall, England, UK, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1832 until 1950. From 1832 to 1918 it was a parliamentary borough, initially returning two Members of Parliament (MPs), elected by the bloc vote system.

Contents

Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, its representation was reduced to one member, elected by the first past the post system. In 1918 the borough was abolished and the name was transferred to a county constituency electing one MP.

Boundaries

1918–1950: The Municipal Boroughs of Falmouth, Penryn, and Truro, the Urban District of St Austell, and parts of the Rural Districts of East Kerrier, Truro, and St Austell.

History

The constituency was created by the Reform Act 1832 (the "Great Reform Act") as a replacement for the Penryn constituency, which had become a notoriously rotten borough. The new borough consisted of Penryn, Falmouth and parts of Budock and St Gluvias parishes, giving it a mostly urban population of nearly 12,000, of whom 875 were registered to vote at its first election in 1832.

Initially Penryn and Falmouth elected two MPs, but this was reduced to one in 1885. It was one of the smallest constituencies in England for the next thirty years. At this period its voters were politically unpredictable; though generally among the more Conservative Cornish constituencies, they were influenced by personal factors and often swung against the national tide of opinion. Falmouth, which had a stronger non-conformist presence, was the more Liberal part of the constituency in the late 19th century, but was thought to become more Conservative as it developed its economy as a destination seaside resort.

In 1918 the borough was abolished, but the Penryn and Falmouth name was applied to the county constituency in which the two towns were placed. This was a much more extensive constituency, covering the whole of south central Cornwall, including the towns of Truro and St Austell as well a long stretch of coastline. The constituency had a more industrial character (a sixth of the population were engaged in tin mining); the area suffered badly from unemployment in the 1930s, and in 1935 the Labour Party came within 3,031 votes of winning what would have been their first seat in Cornwall.

The constituency was abolished for the 1950 general election, most of its area being moved into the Truro constituency. Penryn and Falmouth were assigned to the new Falmouth and Camborne division.

Members of Parliament

Penryn & Falmouth borough 1832–1885

Election1st Member1st Party2nd Member2nd Party
1832 Sir Robert Rolfe Whig [1] [2] [3] Lord Tullamore Tory [1]
1834 Conservative [1]
1835 James William Freshfield Conservative [1]
1840 Edward John Hutchins [4] Whig [1] [5] [6] [7]
1841 John Vivian Whig [1] [8] [9] [10] James Hanway Plumridge Whig [1] [10]
1847 Howel Gwyn Conservative Francis Mowatt Radical [11] [12]
1852 James William Freshfield Conservative
1857 Thomas Baring Whig [13] [14] Samuel Gurney [15] Ind. Liberal
1859 Liberal
1866 Jervoise Smith Liberal
1868 Robert Fowler Conservative Edward Eastwick Conservative
1874 David James Jenkins Liberal Henry Thomas Cole Liberal
1880 Reginald Brett Liberal
1885 Representation reduced to one member

Penryn & Falmouth borough 1885–1918

ElectionMemberParty
1885 David James Jenkins Liberal
1886 William George Cavendish-Bentinck Conservative
1895 Frederick John Horniman Liberal
1906 Sir John Barker Liberal
1910 Charles Sydney Goldman Unionist
1918 Borough abolished; name transferred to county division

Penryn & Falmouth division of Cornwall 1918–1950

ElectionMemberParty
1918 Sir Edward Nicholl Coalition Conservative
1922 Capt Denis Shipwright Conservative
1923 Sir Courtenay Mansel Liberal
1924 George Pilcher [16] Conservative
1929 Sir Tudor Walters Liberal
1931 Maurice Petherick Conservative
1945 Evelyn King Labour
1950 constituency abolished

Elections

St Austell area election results St Austell election results.png
St Austell area election results

Elections in the 1840s

Rolfe resigned after being appointed a Judge of the Court of the Exchequer, causing a by-election.

By-election, 23 January 1840: Penryn and Falmouth [17] [1]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Green check.svgY Edward John Hutchins 46266.0
Conservative William Carne23834.0
Majority22432.0
Turnout 70079.1
Registered electors 885
Whig hold Swing
General election 1841: Penryn and Falmouth [17] [1]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Green check.svgY John Vivian 46230.5
Whig Green check.svgY James Hanway Plumridge 43228.5
Conservative Howel Gwyn 38125.1
Conservative Edward John Sartoris 24015.8
Majority513.4
Turnout 76886.9
Registered electors 884
Whig hold Swing
Whig gain from Conservative Swing
General election 1847: Penryn and Falmouth [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Green check.svgY Howel Gwyn 54854.2+29.1
Radical Green check.svgY Francis Mowatt 37737.321.7
Conservative Peter Borthwick [18] 878.67.2
Turnout 506 (est)58.6 (est)28.3
Registered electors 884
Majority17116.9N/A
Conservative gain from Whig Swing +20.0
Majority29028.7N/A
Radical gain from Whig Swing 21.8

Elections in the 1850s

General election 1852: Penryn and Falmouth [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Green check.svgY Howel Gwyn 46437.516.7
Conservative Green check.svgY James William Freshfield 43535.1+26.5
Whig Thomas Baring 33927.49.9
Majority967.8+9.1
Turnout 789 (est)87.0 (est)+28.4
Registered electors 906
Conservative hold Swing 5.9
Conservative gain from Radical Swing +15.7
General election 1857: Penryn and Falmouth [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Green check.svgY Thomas Baring Unopposed
Independent Liberal Green check.svgY Samuel Gurney Unopposed
Registered electors 856
Whig gain from Conservative
Independent Liberal gain from Conservative

Baring was appointed a Civil Lord of the Admiralty, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 27 May 1857: Penryn and Falmouth [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Green check.svgY Thomas Baring Unopposed
Whig hold
General election 1859: Penryn and Falmouth [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Green check.svgY Thomas Baring 38930.2N/A
Independent Liberal Green check.svgY Samuel Gurney 37329.0N/A
Conservative Howel Gwyn 32425.2N/A
Conservative John Fitzgerald Leslie Foster [19] 20015.6N/A
Turnout 643 (est)77.4 (est)N/A
Registered electors 856
Majority161.2N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Majority493.8N/A
Independent Liberal hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1860s

General election 1865: Penryn and Falmouth [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Green check.svgY Thomas Baring Unopposed
Independent Liberal Green check.svgY Samuel Gurney Unopposed
Registered electors 837
Liberal hold
Independent Liberal hold

Baring succeeded to the peerage, becoming Lord Northbrook and causing a by-election.

By-election, 15 October 1866: Penryn and Falmouth [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Green check.svgY Jervoise Smith 37654.6N/A
Conservative Robert Fowler 31345.4N/A
Majority639.1N/A
Turnout 68982.3N/A
Registered electors 837
Liberal hold Swing N/A
General election 1868: Penryn and Falmouth (2 seats) [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Green check.svgY Robert Fowler 73227.9N/A
Conservative Green check.svgY Edward Eastwick 68326.0N/A
Liberal Jervoise Smith 61123.3N/A
Liberal Kirkman Hodgson [20] 59722.8N/A
Majority722.7N/A
Turnout 1,312 (est)72.5 (est)N/A
Registered electors 1,808
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A
Conservative gain from Independent Liberal Swing N/A

Elections in the 1870s

General election 1874: Penryn and Falmouth (2 seats) [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Green check.svgY David James Jenkins 85128.1
Liberal Green check.svgY Henry Thomas Cole 78425.9
Conservative Robert Fowler 74324.6
Conservative Edward Eastwick 64621.4
Majority411.4
Turnout 1,51281.3
Registered electors 1,860
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1880s

General election 1880: Penryn and Falmouth (2 seats) [21] [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Green check.svgY David James Jenkins 1,17630.2+2.1
Liberal Green check.svgY Reginald Brett 1,07127.5+1.6
Conservative Julius Vogel 88222.71.9
Conservative John D. Mayne 76519.61.8
Majority1894.9+3.5
Turnout 1,947 (est)88.4 (est)+7.1
Registered electors 2,202
Liberal hold Swing +2.0
Liberal hold Swing +1.7
General election 1885: Penryn and Falmouth [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal David James Jenkins 1,17052.35.4
Conservative William Cavendish-Bentinck 1,06947.7+5.4
Majority1014.60.3
Turnout 2,23987.41.0 (est)
Registered electors 2,562
Liberal hold Swing 5.4
General election 1886: Penryn and Falmouth [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Cavendish-Bentinck 1,08952.2+4.5
Liberal David James Jenkins 99847.8-4.5
Majority914.4N/A
Turnout 2,08781.55.9
Registered electors 2,562
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +4.5

Elections in the 1890s

General election 1892: Penryn and Falmouth [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Cavendish-Bentinck 1,21858.1+5.9
Liberal Arthur Serena88041.95.9
Majority33816.2+11.8
Turnout 2,09881.30.2
Registered electors 2,580
Conservative hold Swing +5.9
F.J.Horniman Frederick John Horniman.jpg
F.J.Horniman
General election 1895: Penryn and Falmouth [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Frederick John Horniman 1,15051.1+9.2
Conservative William Cavendish-Bentinck 1,10148.9-9.2
Majority492.2N/A
Turnout 2,25186.0+4.7
Registered electors 2,616
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +9.2

Elections in the 1900s

General election 1900: Penryn and Falmouth [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Frederick John Horniman 1,18450.40.7
Conservative Nathaniel Louis Cohen1,16449.6+0.7
Majority200.81.4
Turnout 2,34885.20.8
Registered electors 2,756
Liberal hold Swing 0.7
John Barker Johnbarker.jpg
John Barker
General election 1906: Penryn and Falmouth [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal John Barker 1,34551.9+1.5
Conservative D B Hall1,24848.11.5
Majority973.8+3.0
Turnout 2,59388.6+3.4
Registered electors 2,926
Liberal hold Swing +1.5

Elections in the 1910s

General election January 1910: Penryn and Falmouth [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Charles Sydney Goldman 1,59353.0+4.9
Liberal John Barker 1,41247.04.9
Majority1816.0N/A
Turnout 3,00593.5+4.9
Registered electors 3,215
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +4.9
General election December 1910: Penryn and Falmouth [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Charles Sydney Goldman 1,58555.1+2.1
Liberal Walter Burt1,29144.92.1
Majority29410.2+4.2
Turnout 2,87689.54.0
Registered electors 3,215
Conservative hold Swing +2.1

General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

General election 1918: Penryn and Falmouth, [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
C Unionist Edward Nicholl 10,05050.64.5
Liberal Arthur Carkeek [24] 9,81549.4+4.5
Majority2351.29.0
Turnout 19,86556.632.9
Unionist hold Swing 4.5
Cindicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920s

General election 1922: Penryn and Falmouth [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Denis Shipwright 11,56642.7-7.9
Liberal Courtenay Mansel 8,87932.8-16.6
Labour Joseph Harris 4,48216.6n/a
National Liberal George Hay Morgan 2,1297.9n/a
Majority2,6879.9+8.7
Turnout 72.5+15.9
Unionist hold Swing +4.3
General election 1923: Penryn and Falmouth [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Courtenay Mansel 17,01562.0+23.2
Unionist Denis Shipwright 10,42938.0-4.7
Majority6,58624.0+33.9
Turnout 73.0+0.5
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing +17.0
General election 1924: Penryn and Falmouth [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist George Pilcher12,48543.3+5.3
Liberal Courtenay Mansel 9,91334.3-27.7
Labour Frederick Jesse Hopkins 6,46222.4n/a
Majority2,5729.0+33.0
Turnout 74.7+1.7
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +16.5
General election 1929: Penryn and Falmouth, [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Tudor Walters 14,27437.0+2.7
Unionist Maurice Petherick 13,13634.1-9.2
Labour Frederick Jesse Hopkins 11,16628.9+6.5
Majority1,1382.911.9
Turnout 78.4+3.7
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing +6.0

Elections in the 1930s

General election 1931: Penryn and Falmouth, [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Maurice Petherick 16,38840.5+6.4
Liberal Ernest Simon 14,00634.6-2.4
Labour A.L.Rowse 10,09824.9-4.0
Majority2,3825.98.8
Turnout 40,49279.8
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +4.4
General election 1935: Penryn and Falmouth, [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Maurice Petherick 16,13639.6-0.9
Labour A.L.Rowse 13,10532.1+7.2
Liberal Ronald Wilberforce Allen 11,53728.3-6.3
Majority3,0317.4
Turnout 40,77877.6
Conservative hold Swing -4.0

A General election was due to take place before the end of 1940, but was postponed due to the Second World War. By 1939, the following candidates had been selected to contest this constituency;

Elections in the 1940s

General election 1945: Penryn and Falmouth, [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Evelyn King 17,96243.8
Conservative Maurice Petherick 15,16936.9
Liberal Percy Harris7,91719.3
Majority2,7936.8
Turnout 73.0
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

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References

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  16. Hansard website gives dates of George Pilcher, MP as 1882 – 8 December 1962, in Parliament 29 October 1924 – 30 May 1929. The National Portrait Gallery, London has two photographic portraits of him, taken in 1927. He is described as journalist, barrister and politician. Rayment says he was born 26 February 1882. He was Secretary of the Royal Empire Society. The Times , 16 March 1935; pg. 9; Issue 47014; col D Notes his resignation as Secretary of the RES, after six years' service and his previous work as a journalist. The Times, 13 December 1962; pg. 12; Issue 55573; col E includes an Obituary, giving further information.
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  21. "Penryn And Falmouth". The Cornishman (90). 1 April 1880. p. 5.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 by FWS Craig
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