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Russian Orthodox bell ringing has a history starting from the baptism of Rus in 988 and plays an important role in the traditions of the Russian Orthodox Church.
The Russian Orthodox Church, alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate, is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. The Primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'. The ROC, as well as the primate thereof, officially ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of precedence, immediately below the four ancient patriarchates of the Greek Orthodox Church, those of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. Since 15 October 2018, the ROC is not in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, having unilaterally severed ties in reaction to the establishment of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, which was finalised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate on 5 January 2019.
The ringing of bells is one of the most essential elements of an Orthodox church.Church bells are rung to:
A church bell in the Christian tradition is a bell which is rung in a church for a variety of ceremonial purposes, and can be heard outside the building. Traditionally they were used to call worshippers to the church for a communal service, and to announce times of daily prayer, called the canonical hours. They are also rung on special occasions such as a wedding, or a funeral service. In some religious traditions they are used within the liturgy of the church service to signify to people that a particular part of the service has been reached. The ringing of church bells, in the Christian tradition, was also believed to drive out demons.
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health.
The use of bells is not only practical, but is also considered to be spiritual. Bells are sometimes referred to as "singing icons", because they establish the acoustic space of an Orthodox temple just as painted icons and hymnography define its visual and noetic space, respectively. Icons are considered "scripture in image" as bells are "scripture in sound".
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical engineer. The application of acoustics is present in almost all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries.
A temple is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. It is typically used for such buildings belonging to all faiths where a more specific term such as church, mosque or synagogue is not generally used in English. These include Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism among religions with many modern followers, as well as other ancient religions such as Ancient Egyptian religion.
An icon is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, in the cultures of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Roman Catholic, and certain Eastern Catholic churches. The most common subjects include Christ, Mary, saints and angels. Though especially associated with "portrait" style images concentrating on one or two main figures, the term also covers most religious images in a variety of artistic media produced by Eastern Christianity, including narrative scenes.
There are several liturgical services which point out the importance of bells in the Russian Orthodox Church: Blessing the Foundation of a New Bell Tower , Blessing a New Bell Tower (after construction is completed), Blessing, Naming, and Chrismating a Bell. There is also a service for the blessing of a bell ringer.
In religion, a blessing is the infusion of something with holiness, spiritual redemption, or divine will.
In engineering, a foundation is the element of a structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the ground. Foundations are generally considered either shallow or deep. Foundation engineering is the application of soil mechanics and rock mechanics in the design of foundation elements of structures.
A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none. Such a tower commonly serves as part of a church, and will contain church bells, but there are also many secular bell towers, often part of a municipal building, an educational establishment, or a tower built specifically to house a carillon. Church bell towers often incorporate clocks, and secular towers usually do, as a public service.
Bells are blessed with a ritual containing many of the elements of the Rite of Baptism. The new bell is blessed with holy water and censed, both outside and inside, and the priest lays hands on the bell to bless it. During the rite, the bell is "named" (that is, consecrated in honour of a saint, whose icon has often been molded into the side of the bell when it was cast at the foundry—but though a bell may be called the "Gabriel" bell, it would never be called the "St. Gabriel" bell, because a bell is not a saint).
Baptism is a Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. The synoptic gospels recount that John the Baptist baptised Jesus. Baptism is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others. Baptism is also called christening, although some reserve the word "christening" for the baptism of infants. It has also given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations.
Holy water is water that has been blessed by a member of the clergy or a religious figure. The use for cleansing prior to a baptism and spiritual cleansing is common in several religions, from Christianity to Sikhism. The use of holy water as a sacramental for protection against evil is common among Anglicans, Roman Catholics, and Eastern Christians.
The laying on of hands is a religious practice. In Christian churches, this practice is used as both a symbolic and formal method of invoking the Holy Spirit primarily during baptisms and confirmations, healing services, blessings, and ordination of priests, ministers, elders, deacons, and other church officers, along with a variety of other church sacraments and holy ceremonies.
The bell is also anointed with chrism, just as an Orthodox Christian is at chrismation. The theological understanding of bells as "weapons" in spiritual warfare, and their role in the Christian life is emphasized during the rite by the scripture lesson from Numbers 10:1-10:
"And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: Make for yourself two silver trumpets … And they shall be for you for the calling of the assembly … When you sound an alarm … And if you shall go forth to war … And in the days of your rejoicing …"
The use of bells is symbolic of the proclamation of the Gospel. Sometimes Orthodox churches and monasteries will combine the use of bells with the striking of a wooden or metal semantron, with the semantron being sounded first, then the bells being rung later. The quieter and simpler sound of the semantron is understood to symbolize the Old Testament prophets, for it is the symbol only of a coming event, whereas the ringing of the bells is spread far into the air symbolizing the annunciation of the Gospel throughout the world.
After the conversion of Kievan Rus to Christianity in the 10th century, bells came gradually into use everywhere. Originally, a flat piece of wood or metal called a semantron would be beaten rhythmically with a mallot to summon the faithful to services. This was especially true in monasteries, some of which still to this day use both semantrons and bells.
While the semantron was inherited from Greece, the use of church bells was imported into Russia from Western Europe.The Russian word for bell is kolokol, which comes from the German word glocke, derived from the Latin clocca, which in turn appears to come from the Irish clog. The word for bell in Church Slavonic is kampan, which is derived from Latin campana. During the fifteenth century the semantron began to be gradually replaced by bells. At that time, several foundries for bell making were established in Russia. Russian church bells are commonly cast using a mixture of bronze and tin, often with silver added to the bell metal, to produce their unique sonority and resonance. Russian bells also tend to differ from Western bells in the proportion of their height to width, and the method of varying the thickness of the walls of the bell. The clapper ("tongue") of the bell also follows a different design than that used in the West.
The art of bellfounding reached its pinnacle in the 18th century, with the production of unimaginably huge bells. The largest bell in the world, the Tsar Bell (218 tons) was cast in 1733 for the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in Moscow. Unfortunately, the Tsar Bell was damaged in a fire in 1737 before it could be successfully hung, and stands today at the base of the tower. The largest working bell in the world is the Dormition Bell (144,000 lb) which hangs in the same Ivan the Great Bell Tower.
After the Bolshevik Revolution, the Soviet Union severely persecuted Christianity. Numerous bells were destroyed and during certain periods the production of church bells all but stopped. After the fall of the Iron Curtain the production of bells resumed, and has experienced a surge of activity as many of the churches that were destroyed are being rebuilt.
Technically, bells rung in the Russian tradition are sounded exclusively by chiming (i.e., moving only the clapper so that it strikes the side of a stationary bell) and never by swinging the bell. For the Russian tradition a special complex system of ropes is used, designed individually for each belltower. All the ropes are gathered at approximately one point, where the bell-ringer (zvonar) stands. Some ropes (the smaller ones) are played by hand, the bigger ropes are played by foot. The major part of the ropes (usually - all ropes) are not actually pulled, but rather pressed. Since one end of every rope is fixed, and the ropes are kept in tension, a press or even a punch on a rope makes a clapper strike the side of its bell.
The secrets of this technique have passed from generation to generation, but by the 20th century this art was almost lost. Training took place only at workshops until 2008, then the first permanent traditional bell-ringing school opened in Moscow, under the leadership of Drozdihin Ilya.
No melody is employed, as in the Western carillon, but rather a complicated polyrhythmical sequence of sounds is produced. "The foundation of Orthodox bell ringing lies not in melody but in rhythm, with its intrinsic dynamic, and in the interaction of the timbres of [various] bells."These sequences have a very special harmony, since Russian bells (unlike Western European ones) are not tuned to a single note. Western bells usually have an octave between the loudest upper tone ("ring") and the loudest lower tone ("hum"). Russian bells have a seventh between these sounds. Generally, a good Russian bell is tuned to produce a whole scale of sounds (up to several dozen of them). This effect is accomplished both by the composition of the alloy from which the bell is cast and the sculpting of the sides of the bell in the mold.
The Russian Orthodox typicon provides for different types of bell ringing. Different ringing is used on different days (on working days, on Sunday, on holy days, during fasts, Lent, Easter etc.) Different ringing is required for different services (for morning service, service for the dead, Liturgy, etc.). These differences are accomplished by ringing particular bells in particular ways.
To understand the Russian Orthodox method of bell ringing, it is necessary to recognize a few items of terminology. The bells in an Orthodox bell tower (zvonnitsa) are organized into three groups:
Within each of these three groups there may be several bells of varying size, all within the general range of the group. The larger the bell, the deeper its voice.
A zvon is a toll on any bell or bells.
A zvonar is a bell ringer. In the Orthodox church, this is a tonsured (clerical) position, and there is a distinct service of the "Setting Apart of a Bell Ringer". The use of electric bells is forbidden in the Orthodox Church, because it is a sacred function, and may only be performed by a member of the church. Before he goes into the belltower, the zvonar will go to the priest (or the igumen if it is a monastery) for a blessing to ring the bells.
Different ringing is used at different moments of the service (before the service, during the most essential parts of the All-Night Vigil or Divine Liturgy, while the departed is being carried to the cemetery, etc.). Four kinds of canonical tolls are distinguished, which, rung separately or in combination, comprise all the diversity of Orthodox bell-ringing: Blagovest, Perebor, Perezvon, and Trezvon.
The blagovest is the measured striking of a single large bell (called the blagovestnik). Blagovest means "annunciation", or "good news" because with this ringing the believers are notified that the divine service is about to begin in the church.
As a separate toll before the beginning of a divine service, the blagovest commences with three slow strokes (i.e., with rather long pauses between), and thereafter continues with more frequent, measured strokes, sometimes ending with three more slow strokes. According to the Typikon, the blagovest should last for as long as it takes to read through Psalm 118 (Septuagint; KJV: Psalm 119) once, or Psalm 50 (KJV: Psalm 51) twelve times.
Depending on the type of the divine service, the blagovest is classified as "regular" (obyknovenny, i.e., fast and often accomplished by swinging the clapper to both sides of the bell), or "Lenten" (postny, i.e., slow, and on only one side of the bell). On Great Feasts the blagovest is tolled on the largest blagovestnik in the tower and the toll as a rule is faster, louder, and longer.
Besides the normal blagovest, in Orthodox ringing there is another, named “tidal” (valovoy) or "great" (bolshoi), when strokes on the largest blagovestnik are mixed with tolls on another blagovestnik.
The Blagovest can be sounded on different bells, depending on the day. Large bell towers typically have five Blagovestniki (ranged from larger to smaller):
The Perebor Russian : Перебор ) is the funeral zvon. Each individual bell is struck once, from the smallest to the largest, in a slow, steady peal. After that, all of the bells are struck together at the same time. Striking the bells from the smallest to the largest symbolizes the stages of a person’s life from birth to death; the final striking of all the bells together symbolizes the end of earthly life. During the perebor, each stroke of a bell should not be made until the sound of the previous bell has died away. The perebor may be repeated as many times as necessary, and is tolled as the body of the deceased is carried from the temple (church building) to the grave.
The Perezvon (Russian : Перезвон ) is the striking of each of the bells, once or several times, from largest to the smallest, with a final stroke on all at once. The pattern may be repeated many times, but the final stroke on all bells is made only at the very end.
This peal symbolizes what the Orthodox Church holds to be the kenosis (self-emptying) of God the Son when he became incarnate (Philippians 2:7-8), and is sounded only twice a year, on Great Friday and Great Saturday during those moments which recount Jesus' death on the cross and his burial.
The Trezvon (triple-peal) is the rhythmical ringing of multiple bells, using all the major groups of the bell scale. The trezvon is the most joyous of the various types of rings. The order of ringing the different bells is not fixed, but may be composed by the bell-ringer himself and prompted by his creativity and self-expression. For the trezvon, the elaborate pattern is repeated three times, with a short pause between each repetition. All three groups of bells participate in the trezvon (soprano, alto, bass), and each group has its own part in the peal. Traditionally, the meter for a trezvon is 3/4 or 4/4. The largest bell which can participate in it is the blagovestnik which was used to ring the blagovest for the given service, or a smaller bell, but not a larger one.
The trezvon is usually rung in three stages: the beginning, the zvon itself, and the finale. The beginning usually consists of three slow tolls on the blagovestnik for that day, symbolizing the Holy Trinity. The main part of the trezvon, the zvon, is often performed in several movements— one, two, or three, often called “verses”— each of which is finished with one, two, or three chords (formed by striking several select bells at once), corresponding to the number of verses. Each movement might have its own particular rhythm, dynamic, and composition. The trezvon is usually finished with three chords. The length of the trezvon is normally the length of the time it takes to read of Psalm 50; but on more festive occasions it should be longer.
The Dvuzvon (double-peal) is the same as a Trezvon, except the pattern is repeated only twice instead of three times.
The above types of zvons may be combined and rung at particular times during the same service, or used exclusively on certain occasions. The following are general guidelines, and cannot accommodate the full richness and diversity of the Russian Orthodox Church. There are also variations in local tradition.
Change ringing is the art of ringing a set of tuned bells in a controlled manner to produce variations in their striking sequences. This may be by method ringing in which the ringers commit to memory the rules for generating each change, or by call changes, where the ringers are instructed how to generate each new change by calls from a conductor. This creates a form of bell music which cannot be discerned as a conventional melody.
The Whitechapel Bell Foundry was a business in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. At the time of the closure of its Whitechapel premises, it was the oldest manufacturing company in Great Britain. The bell foundry primarily made church bells and their fittings and accessories, although it also provided single tolling bells, carillon bells and handbells. The foundry was notable for being the original manufacturer of the Liberty Bell, a famous non-religious symbol of United States independence, and for re-casting Big Ben, which rings from the north clock tower at the Houses of Parliament in London.
Campanology is the study of bells. It encompasses the technology of bells – how they are cast, tuned, rung, and sounded – as well as the history, methods, and traditions of bell-ringing as an art.
The Royal Sigismund Bell is the largest of the five bells hanging in the Sigismund Tower of the Wawel Cathedral in the Polish city of Kraków. It was cast in 1520 by Hans Behem and named after King Sigismund I of Poland, who commissioned it. The bell weighs almost 13 tonnes and requires 12 bell-ringers to swing it. It tolls on special occasions, mostly religious and national holidays, and is regarded as one of Poland's national symbols.
A handbell is a bell designed to be rung by hand. To ring a handbell, a ringer grasps the bell by its slightly flexible handle - traditionally made of leather, but often now made of plastic – and moves the arm to make the hinged clapper inside the bell strike. An individual handbell can be used simply as a signal to catch people's attention or summon them together, but handbells are also often heard in tuned sets.
A "Ring of bells" is the name bell ringers give to a set of bells hung for English full circle ringing. The term "peal of bells" is often erroneously used, as a peal refers to a change ringing performance of more than about 5,000 changes.
In campanology, a peal is the special name given to a specific type of performance of change ringing which meets certain exacting conditions for duration, complexity and quality.
The semantron or semandron, or semanterion (σημαντήριον), also called a xylon (ξύλον) is a percussion instrument used in monasteries to summon the monastics to prayer or at the start of a procession.
The North American Guild of Change Ringers, also known as the NAGCR, was founded in 1972 after the hanging of a ring of bells in the Washington National Cathedral in Washington, D.C., United States in 1964. The NAGCR has now grown and expanded to 52 bell towers across the United States and Canada as well as one mini-ring and 9 hand-bell groups with more than 500 members residing in North America. This organization performs the art of change ringing or method ringing, a form of campanology, in the towers and on hand-bells. This art uses mathematical sequences and patterns to change bell orders to carry out these sequences. Change ringing began in England in the 17th century.
The Funeral tolling of a bell is the technique of sounding a single bell very slowly, with a significant gap between strikes. It is used to mark the death of a person at the funeral or burial service.
A bell-ringer is a person who rings a bell, usually a church bell, by means of a rope or other mechanism. A well known a popular Bell Ringer is Essex Born Lee Daines, he is a prized bell ringer.
The Bolognese bell ringing system took shape during the Middle Ages, and was perfected in the 19th century. It is a form of full circle ringing.
The blagovest is a type of peal in Russian Orthodox bell ringing. Its name means Annunciation or Good News, and is the call to prayer rung before the beginning of divine services, as well as during the services. The bells are also rung at the carrying out of the deceased. The rules of ringing and the bell used are specified by the rules of the Orthodox divine liturgy.
A Death Knell was the ringing of a bell immediately after a death to announce it. Historically it was the second of three bells rung around death; the first being the "Passing Bell" to warn of impending death, and the last was the "Lych Bell", or "Corpse Bell", which survives today as the Funeral toll.
Full circle ringing is a method of ringing a bell such that it swings in a complete circle from mouth upwards around to mouth upwards and then back again repetitively.
Veronese bellringing art is a style of ringing church bells that developed around Verona, Italy from the eighteenth century. The bells are rung full circle, being held up by a rope and wheel until a note is required.
Albert John Pitman is regarded by change ringing campanologists as a remarkable and versatile composer of peals in bell ringing methods. Described as 'perhaps the greatest of all time' in the Central Council of Church Bell Ringers biography of him, An Unassuming Genius, he was an extraordinary talent in the field of peal composition.