|A point-trick game in which tricks are won by matching cards|
|Players||2 or 2×2|
|Deck||German-suited, Bohemian-pattern cards|
|Playing time||25 min.|
|Ristikontra, Hola, Lusti-Kartl'n, Sedmice, Șeptică, Zsíros|
Sedma is a Czech 4-card trick-and-draw game played by four players in fixed partnerships with a 32-card Bohemian-pattern pack. Card suits do not play a role in this game, and there is no ranking order. A trick is won by the last player to play a card of the same rank as the card led.
The card game gives its name to the 'Sedma group' which includes closely related games such as the Finnish Ristikontra, the Yugoslavian Sedmice, the Romanian Șeptică, the Hungarian Zsírozás (also Zsíros or Zsír), the Bavarian Lusti-Kartl'n, the German Schmierer and the possibly Polish Hola. These games have been described as highly unusual members of the Ace-Ten family, found only in Central and Eastern Europe. 268:
Normally a 32-card, German-suited, Bohemian-pattern pack is used, but as in Skat and other games played with this pack it can be replaced by those of other German-suited patterns or by a French-suited Piquet pack comprising 32 cards from Ace to Seven in each suit.
The most powerful cards in the game are the Sevens because they beat all other cards, however, the only counting cards are Aces and Tens, which are worth 10 points each. 257 to be a simplification of the usual schedule in Ace–Ten card games used, for example, by Ristikontra. Together with the 10 points awarded for winning the last trick, there are 90 points in a deal. The object is to win more than half of them, i.e. at least 50 points. :257ff :321 :99This schedule appears :
Otherwise the rank and suit of the cards has no significance in this game.
In the four-hand game, each pair of players sitting opposite one another forms a team and combines its points at the end. Partners may assist each other, but must not give advice, indicate the composition of their hands, etc.
Every player is dealt 4 cards. The remaining cards form a stock from which the players fill up their hands while it lasts. 99:
Eldest hand leads any card to the first trick. The remaining players are completely free to play any card to the trick. The last player to play a card of the same rank as the card led wins the trick, is the first to replenish his or her cards from the stock, and leads to the next trick. 257ff :321 :99 The Sevens function as wild cards, i.e. they assume the rank of the first card in the trick. However, if a seven is led to a trick, it just represents a seven. :257 :99:
Two can play without further adaptations. 257ff :321 :99:
If three play, 2 non-counting cards (usually an Eight and Nine) are removed from the pack before the game to make the number of cards divisible by three. The player who is dealt the 'Red King' (King of Hearts) or 'Green King' (King of Leaves) plays alone (it is prudent to hide possession of the Red King for as long as possible), against the other two whose points are combined at the end. In a three-player game, the "Red King" also acts as the Seven.
This game is very similar to Sedma, but like its more distant relative Ristikontra it is played with a full deck of 52 French-suited cards. In addition to the sevens, the twos are also wild cards. The multi-trick system is different. The player who led to a trick may always decide to 'fight' by leading to a new trick while the old one is still in the middle of the table. In this case the trick is kept in abeyance. This can be repeated until the players have no cards left. The new trick is won by matching the newly led card, but the winner also collects all the previous tricks that were held in abeyance. 258 :179ff :101:
Each party simply scores the number of points they won, with a bonus of 80 points for hola (naked) if a party won all tricks. If dealer's party scored the majority of points (50 or more), dealer deals again. Otherwise deal passes to the next player. The game is played for 200–500 points. 258 :179ff :101:
For this game also some variations have been described.
Hola is Polish and Ukrainian for naked. The game of this name is played among Ukrainian Canadians, but is believed to be of Polish origin. It has been estimated to date from around the middle of the 20th century, slightly earlier than Sedma. 31:
Sedma and Șeptică are Czech and Romanian for seven and little seven, respectively (referring to the wild cards), and zsírozás is Hungarian for to fatten (referring to the play of aces or tens into tricks). This game may have originated in Hungary or Poland and found its way to Czechoslovakia in the middle of the 20th century 31 or it may have come from Russia. It quickly became one of the most popular games in the country, together with the Crazy Eights variant Prší and a game called Žolík:
Whist is a classic English trick-taking card game which was widely played in the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the rules are simple, there is scope for scientific play.
All Fours is a traditional English card game, once popular in pubs and taverns as well as among the gentry, that flourished as a gambling game until the end of the 19th century. It is a trick-taking card game that was originally designed for two players, but developed variants for more players. According to Cotton, the game originated in Kent, but spread to the whole of England and eventually abroad. It is the eponymous and earliest recorded game of a family that flourished most in 19th century North America and whose progeny include Pitch, Pedro and Cinch, games that even competed with Poker and Euchre. Nowadays the original game is especially popular in Trinidad and Tobago, but regional variants have also survived in England. The game's "great mark of distinction" is that it gave the name 'Jack' to the card previously known as the Knave.
Sixty-Six or 66, sometimes known as Paderbörnern, is a fast 5- or 6-card point-trick game of the marriage type for 2–4 players, played with 24 cards. It is an Ace-Ten game where Aces are high and Tens rank second. It has been described as "one of the best two-handers ever devised".
Polignac is a French 18th century trick-taking card game ancestral to Hearts and Black Maria. It is played by 3-6 players with a 32-card deck. It is sometimes played as a party game with the 52-card pack; however, it is better as a serious game for four, playing all against all. Other names for this game include Quatre Valets and Stay Away. Knaves is a variant and it is also similar to the Austrian and German games, Slobberhannes, Eichelobern and Grasobern.
Cinch, also known as Double Pedro or High Five, is an American trick-taking card game derived from Pitch via Pedro. Developed in Denver, Colorado in the 1880s, it was soon regarded as the most important member of the All Fours family but went out of fashion with the rise of Auction Bridge. The game is primarily played by 4 players in fixed partnerships, but can also be played by 2–6 individual players.
Smear is a North-American trick-taking card game of the All Fours group, and a variant of Pitch (Setback). Several slightly different versions are played in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Minnesota, Northern and Central Iowa, Wisconsin and also in Ontario, Canada.
Mariage or Mariagenspiel is a German 6-card trick-and-draw game for two players in which players score bonus points for the "marriage" of King and Queen of the same suit. The game, first documented in 1715 in Leipzig, spawned numerous offshoots throughout continental Europe and gives its name to the Marriage group of card games, the widest known of which is probably Sixty-Six. Many of these are still the national card games of their respective countries. It is unrelated to the Nepalese game of Marriage.
The Jack–Nine card games, also known as the Jass group, form a family of trick-taking games in which the jack (jass) and nine (manille) of the trump suit are the highest-ranking trumps, and the tens and aces of all suits are the next most valuable cards. Games in this family are typically played by 2 or 4 players with 32 French-suited cards.
Ristikontra or Ristiklappi, sometimes translated as Cross-clap, is a Finnish point-trick game for four players using a standard 52-card pack. Card suits do not play a role in this game, and there is no ranking order. A trick is won by the last player to play a card of the same rank as the card led.
Brusquembille is an historical, French, 3-card trick-and-draw game for two to five players using a 32-card piquet pack. The game has variable trumps. Side-payments are made for keeping or winning aces and tens.
Elfern, also known as Eilfern, Figurenspiel or Elfmandeln, is a very old, German and Austrian 6-card, no-trump, trick-and-draw game for two players using a 32-card, French-suited Piquet pack or German-suited Skat pack. The object is to win the majority of the 20 honours: the Ace, King, Queen, Jack and Ten in a Piquet pack or the Ace, King, Ober, Unter and Ten in a Skat pack. Elfern is at least 250 years old and a possible ancestor to the Marriage family of card games, yet it is still played by German children.
Bohemian Schneider, sometimes Bohemian Tailor, is a card game for two people, which is played with a German-suited Skat pack of 32 cards. Because it is a simple trick-taking game, it is often played by older children and is recommended for age 8 upwards. It was probably developed in Bohemia and spread from there across the south German region and Austria.
Einwerfen or Zählspiel is a German 8-card point-trick game for four players in two teams of two and using a 32-card German-suited pack. Its closest relative is the popular Portuguese game Sueca. Perhaps the most basic and typical representative of the Ace-Ten card games, this game was first described as early as 1811, but may be considerably older.
Triomphe, once known as French Ruff, is a card game dating from the late 15th century. It most likely originated in France or Spain and later spread to the rest of Europe. When the game arrived in Italy, it shared a similar name with the pre-existing game and deck known as trionfi; probably resulting in the latter becoming renamed as Tarocchi (tarot). While trionfi has a fifth suit that acts as permanent trumps, triomphe randomly selects one of the existing four suits as trumps. Another common feature of this game is the robbing of the stock. Triomphe became so popular that during the 16th century the earlier game of trionfi was gradually renamed tarocchi, tarot, or tarock. This game is the origin of the English word "trump" and is the ancestor of many trick-taking games like Euchre and Whist.
Bräus is an old Swedish card game from the island of Gotland that differs from all others in that not all cards are actually playable. The game is descended from the oldest known card game in Europe, Karnöffel, a fact testified by its unusual card ranking and lack of a uniform trump suit.
Lusti-Kartl'n or Lusti-Kartn is a Bavarian trick-taking, card game for four players with an unusual rule for winning the tricks. Like the Czech game of Sedma, the winner of a trick is the last one to play a card of the same rank as the led card. Players form two teams of two and thus are able to smear their partner's tricks or play blanks if they think their opponents will win the trick. The only counters are the Aces and Tens, worth 10 points each, and there are 10 more points for the last trick. The aim is thus to win 50 or more points.
Briscan is an 18th-century, French card game for two players played with a 32-card Piquet pack. It is a member of the Marriage group of games in which the 'marriage' of a King and Queen brings a bonus score, but Briscan takes this simple concept to extraordinary lengths.
Sedmice ("Seven") is a card game of the Sedma family played in the states of the former Yugoslavia. Like other games of this family, tricks are won by matching the led card in rank. In addition, the Sevens are wild, hence the name. In Croatia, the game is called Šuster.
Lorum or Lórum is an old, Hungarian, compendium card game for 4 players. Although it is the ancestor of the French game, Barbu, it is still played today. It uses a German-suited pack of 32 cards and comprises 8 individual contracts, each with different rules, each of which is played four times so that a session consists of a total of 32 individual games and lasts about 1½ hours.
Cucumber is a north European card game of Swedish origin for two or more players. The goal of the game is to avoid taking the last trick. David Parlett describes it as a "delightful Baltic gambling game".