|United States Ambassador to the United Nations|
Seal of the Department of State
|United States Department of State|
|Member of||National Security Council|
|Reports to||Secretary of State|
|Seat|| United Nations Headquarters |
New York City, New York
|Appointer||The President |
with Senate advice and consent
|Term length||No fixed term|
|Formation||December 21, 1945|
|First holder||Edward Stettinius Jr.|
|Salary||Executive Schedule, level IV|
The United States ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations. The position is more formally known as the "Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, and Representative of the United States of America in the Security Council of the United Nations"; it is also known as the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations. There is also a deputy ambassador who assumes the duties of the ambassador in his or her absence. Like all United States ambassadors, the ambassador to the UN and the deputy ambassador are nominated by the U.S. president and confirmed by the Senate. The ambassador serves at the pleasure of the president.
The U.S. permanent representative is charged with representing the United States on the U.N. Security Council and during almost all plenary meetings of the General Assembly, except in the rare situation in which a more senior officer of the United States (such as the U.S. secretary of state or the president of the United States) is present.
Jonathan Cohen, the deputy permanent representative since June 8, 2018, a career diplomat, became the acting U.S. ambassador on January 1, 2019, after the resignation of Nikki Haley came into effect. On December 7, 2018, President Donald Trump named Heather Nauert to become the permanent ambassador, subject to Senate confirmation.On February 16, 2019, after a lengthy period where Nauert had retreated from the public gaze, it was announced that she had withdrawn her name from consideration. On February 22, 2019, President Trump nominated Kelly Knight Craft to become the ambassador. The Senate confirmed her nomination on July 31, 2019.
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., a leading moderate Republican who lost his seat in the United States Senate to John F. Kennedy in the 1952 elections, was appointed ambassador to the United Nations in 1953 by Dwight D. Eisenhower in gratitude for the defeated senator's role in the new president's defeat of conservative leader Robert A. Taft for the 1952 Republican nomination and subsequent service as his campaign manager in the general election; Eisenhower raised the ambassadorship to cabinet rank in order to give Lodge direct access to him without having to go through the State Department.
The ambassadorship continued to hold this status through the Reagan administration but was removed from cabinet rank by George H. W. Bush, who had previously held the position himself. It was restored under the Clinton administration. It was not a cabinet-level position under the George W. Bush administration (from 2001 to 2009),but was once again elevated under the Obama administration, and retained as such by the Trump administration.
Former UN ambassador and national security advisor John R. Bolton has publicly opposed the granting of cabinet-level status to the office, stating "One, it overstates the role and importance the U.N. should have in U.S. foreign policy, second, you shouldn't have two secretaries in the same department".
In December 2018, it was reported by several news organizations that along with the nomination of Heather Nauert to replace Nikki Haley, the Trump administration would once again downgrade the position to non-Cabinet rank.
The following is a chronological list of those who have held the office:
|#||Ambassador||Years served||U.S. President|
|1||Edward Stettinius Jr.||January 17, 1946 – June 3, 1946||Harry Truman|
|—||Herschel Johnson||June 3, 1946 – January 14, 1947|
|2||Warren Austin||January 14, 1947 – January 22, 1953|
|Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|3||Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.||January 26, 1953 – September 3, 1960|
|4||James Jeremiah Wadsworth||September 8, 1960 – January 21, 1961|
|5||Adlai Stevenson||January 23, 1961 – July 14, 1965|
|Lyndon B. Johnson|
|6||Arthur Goldberg||July 28, 1965 – June 24, 1968|
|7||George W. Ball||June 26, 1968 – September 25, 1968|
|8||James Russell Wiggins||October 7, 1968 – January 20, 1969|
|9||Charles Yost||January 23, 1969 – February 25, 1971||Richard Nixon|
|10||George H. W. Bush||March 1, 1971 – January 18, 1973|
|11||John A. Scali||February 20, 1973 – June 29, 1975|
|12||Daniel Patrick Moynihan||June 30, 1975 – February 2, 1976|
|13||William Scranton||March 15, 1976 – January 19, 1977|
|14||Andrew Young||January 30, 1977 – September 23, 1979||Jimmy Carter|
|15||Donald McHenry||September 23, 1979 – January 20, 1981|
|16||Jeane Kirkpatrick||February 4, 1981 – April 1, 1985||Ronald Reagan|
|17||Vernon A. Walters||May 22, 1985 – March 15, 1989|
|George H. W. Bush|
|18||Thomas R. Pickering||March 20, 1989 – May 7, 1992|
|19||Edward J. Perkins||May 12, 1992 – January 27, 1993|
|20||Madeleine Albright||January 27, 1993 – January 21, 1997|
|21||Bill Richardson||February 18, 1997 – August 18, 1998|
|—||Peter Burleigh||August 18, 1998 – September 7, 1999|
|22||Richard Holbrooke||September 7, 1999 – January 20, 2001|
|—||James B. Cunningham||January 20, 2001 – September 19, 2001|
|George W. Bush|
|23||John Negroponte||September 19, 2001 – June 23, 2004|
|24||John Danforth||July 23, 2004 – January 20, 2005|
|—||Anne W. Patterson||January 20, 2005 – August 2, 2005|
|25||John R. Bolton||August 2, 2005 – December 31, 2006|
Recess appointment, not confirmed by the U.S. Senate
|—||Alejandro Daniel Wolff||December 31, 2006 – April 30, 2007|
|26||Zalmay Khalilzad||April 30, 2007 – January 22, 2009|
|27||Susan Rice||January 26, 2009 – June 30, 2013|
|—||Rosemary DiCarlo||June 30, 2013 – August 5, 2013|
|28||Samantha Power||August 5, 2013 – January 20, 2017|
|–||Michele J. Sison||January 20, 2017 – January 27, 2017|
|29||Nikki Haley||January 27, 2017 – December 31, 2018|
|–||Jonathan Cohen||January 1, 2019 – September 12, 2019 |
|30||Kelly Craft||September 12, 2019 – present|
As of March 2020, there are twelve living former U.S. ambassadors to the United Nations (with all ambassadors that have served since 2001 still living), the oldest being Edward J. Perkins (served 1992–1993, born 1928). The most recent ambassador to die was George H. W. Bush (served 1971–1973, born 1924), on November 30, 2018. The most recently serving ambassador to die was Richard Holbrooke (served 1999–2001, born 1941), on December 13, 2010.
The head of the United Nations Foundation, a Washington-based advocacy group, released a statement praising Rice as well as Obama's decision to make the post of U.N. ambassador a Cabinet-level position once again—as it was during the Clinton years.
Ms. Rice could get the post of United States ambassador to the United Nations, a cabinet-level position under President Clinton. President Bush downgraded the position when he came into office
The Cabinet of the United States is part of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. The members of the Cabinet are the vice president and the Secretary of State and other heads of the federal executive departments, all of whom — if eligible — are in the presidential line of succession.
The secretary of state is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America and the head of the United States Department of State. The secretary of state's duties are principally concerned with foreign policy, and he or she is considered to be the U.S. government's minister of foreign affairs.
Daniel Ray Coats is an American politician and former diplomat. From 2017 to 2019, he served as the Director of National Intelligence in the Trump administration. A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as a United States Senator from Indiana from 1989 to 1999 and again from 2011 to 2017. He was the United States Ambassador to Germany from 2001 to 2005, and was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1981 to 1989. Coats served on the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence while in the U.S. Senate.
Ambassadors of the United States are persons nominated as ambassadors by the President to serve as United States diplomats to individual nations of the world, to international organizations, and as ambassadors-at-large. Their appointment needs to be confirmed by the United States Senate. An ambassador can be appointed during a recess, but he or she can only serve as ambassador until the end of the next session of Congress unless subsequently confirmed. Ambassadors serve "at the pleasure of the President", meaning they can be dismissed at any time. Appointments change regularly for various reasons, such as reassignment or retirement.
The United States order of precedence lists the ceremonial order for domestic and foreign government officials at diplomatic, ceremonial, and social events within the United States and abroad. Former presidents, vice presidents, first ladies, second ladies, and secretaries of state and retired Supreme Court justices are also included in the list. The order is established by the president, through the Office of the Chief of Staff, and is maintained by the State Department's Office of the Chief of Protocol. It is only used to indicate ceremonial protocol and has no legal standing; it does not reflect the presidential line of succession or the co-equal status of the branches of government under the Constitution. The Office of the Chief of Protocol posted an updated order of precedence on November 3, 2017.
John Robert Bolton is an American attorney, political commentator, Republican consultant, former diplomat and national security advisor.
Pierre-Richard Prosper is an American lawyer, prosecutor and former government official. He served as the second United States Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005.
Dina Habib Powell is an American financial executive, philanthropist, and political advisor, best known for having been the United States Deputy National Security Advisor for Strategy to President Donald Trump.
Susan Elizabeth Rice is a former American public official who served as the 24th U.S. National Security Advisor from 2013 to 2017. Rice was on the staff of the National Security Council and was the Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs during President Bill Clinton's second term. A Brookings Institution fellow, she served as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations from 2009 to 2013. The U.S. Senate confirmed her as ambassador by unanimous consent on January 22, 2009.
Nimrata "Nikki" Haley is an American diplomat, businesswoman, author, and politician. A Republican, Haley is a former South Carolina state legislator, a former governor of South Carolina, and a former United States ambassador to the United Nations. She was the first female governor of South Carolina and is the first Sikh American to serve as governor in the United States.
Heather Ann Nauert is an American broadcast journalist and former government official who served as Spokesperson for the United States Department of State from 2017 to 2019. She is currently a senior fellow at the Hudson Institute.
Richard Allen Grenell is an American diplomat, civil servant, and media consultant. Grenell is the acting Director of National Intelligence, the U.S. Ambassador to Germany, and the Special Presidential Envoy for Serbia and Kosovo Peace Negotiations.
The United States Mission to the United Nations (USUN) serves as the United States’ delegation to the United Nations. USUN is responsible for carrying out the nation’s participation in the world body. In 1947 the United States Mission was created by an act of Congress to assist the President and the Department of State in conducting United States policy at the United Nations. Since that time, USUN has served a vital role as the Department of State’s UN branch. Today, USUN has approximately 150 people on staff who serve to represent the United States’ political, economic and social, legal, military, public diplomacy and management interests at the United Nations.
Joseph Estey Macmanus is an American diplomat who served as Executive Secretary of the United States Department of State from 2014 to 2017. Prior to that, he served as the U.S. Ambassador to International Organizations in Vienna from 2012 to 2014, as well as interim coordinator for efforts to implement President Barack Obama's Iran Nuclear Deal in 2015. He was President Donald Trump's nominee to become United States Ambassador to Colombia. This nomination was reported favorably by the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in May 2018, but was returned to the President at the close of the 115th Congress without consideration by the full Senate. In May 2019, it was announced that Philip Goldberg would replace Macmanus as nominee to be the next United States Ambassador to Colombia.
This article lists the members of President Donald Trump's Cabinet. Trump assumed office on January 20, 2017 and the President has the authority to nominate members of his Cabinet to the United States Senate for confirmation under the Appointments Clause of the United States Constitution.
A general election wad be held in the U.S. state of South Carolina on November 6, 2018. All of South Carolina's executive officers were up for election as well as all of South Carolina's seven seats in the United States House of Representatives.
Kelly Dawn Knight Craft is an American diplomat who is the United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
Jonathan Raphael Cohen is an American diplomat serving as the United States Ambassador to Egypt and as the United States Deputy Representative to the United Nations. He previously served as a Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs, from August 2016 to June 2018. He was nominated by President Donald Trump in early 2018 to become United States Deputy Representative to the United Nations and was unanimously confirmed by the Senate on May 24, 2018. On January 1, 2019, Cohen assumed acting duties of Ambassador to the United Nations following the resignation of Nikki Haley the previous day; with the installation of her successor in September, he relinquished those duties.
John Edward James is an American businessman and combat veteran, and was the Republican nominee for United States Senate for Michigan in 2018.