Universal Decimal Classification

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The Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) is a bibliographic and library classification representing the systematic arrangement of all branches of human knowledge organized as a coherent system in which knowledge fields are related and inter-linked. [1] [2] [3] [4] The UDC is an analytico-synthetic and faceted classification system featuring detailed vocabulary and syntax that enables powerful content indexing and information retrieval in large collections. [5] [6] Since 1991, the UDC has been owned and managed by the UDC Consortium, [7] a non-profit international association of publishers with headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands.


Unlike other library classification schemes that have started their life as national systems, the UDC was conceived and maintained as an international scheme. Its translation into other languages started at the beginning of the 20th century and has since been published in various printed editions in over 40 languages. [8] [9] UDC Summary, an abridged Web version of the scheme, is available in over 50 languages. [10] The classification has been modified and extended over the years to cope with increasing output in all areas of human knowledge, and is still under continuous review to take account of new developments. [11] [12]

Albeit originally designed as an indexing and retrieval system, due to its logical structure and scalability, UDC has become one of the most widely used knowledge organization systems in libraries, where it is used for either shelf arrangement, content indexing or both. [13] UDC codes can describe any type of document or object to any desired level of detail. These can include textual documents and other media such as films, video and sound recordings, illustrations, maps as well as realia such as museum objects.


An explanatory schema of the Universal Decimal Classification index formation in French, 1920 La classification Decimale Universelle - Indices composes detaillant l'analyse classificatrice.jpg
An explanatory schema of the Universal Decimal Classification index formation in French, 1920

The UDC was developed by the Belgian bibliographers Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine at the end of the 19th century. In 1895, they created the Universal Bibliographic Repertory (Répertoire Bibliographique Universel) (RBU) which was intended to become a comprehensive classified index to all published information. The idea that the RBU should take the form of a card catalogue came from the young American zoologist Herbert Haviland Field, who was at the time himself setting up a bibliographical agency in Zurich, the Concilium Bibliographicum. [14] A means of arranging the entries would be needed, and Otlet, having heard of the Dewey Decimal Classification, wrote to Melvil Dewey and obtained permission to translate it into French. The idea outgrew the plan of mere translation, and a number of radical innovations were made, adapting the purely enumerative classification (in which all the subjects envisaged are already listed and coded) into one which allows for synthesis (that is, the construction of compound numbers to denote interrelated subjects that could never be exhaustively foreseen); various possible relations between subjects were identified, and symbols assigned to represent them. In its first edition in French "Manuel du Répertoire bibliographique universel" (1905), the UDC already included many features that were revolutionary in the context of knowledge classifications: tables of generally applicable (aspect-free) concepts—called common auxiliary tables; a series of special auxiliary tables with specific but re-usable attributes in a particular field of knowledge; an expressive notational system with connecting symbols and syntax rules to enable coordination of subjects and the creation of a documentation language proper.

The Universal Bibliographic Repertory itself has developed into a remarkable information resource. In the period before World War I it grew to more than eleven million records. The catalogue and its content organized by UDC can still be seen in Mundaneum in Mons, Belgium (in 2013 recommended for inclusion in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register [15] ).

The application of UDC

UDC is used in around 150,000 libraries in 130 countries and in many bibliographical services which require detailed content indexing. In a number of countries it is the main classification system for information exchange and is used in all types of libraries: public, school, academic and special libraries. [16] [17] [18]

UDC is also used in national bibliographies of around 30 countries. Examples of large databases indexed by UDC include: [19]

NEBIS (The Network of Libraries and Information Centers in Switzerland) — 2.6 million records
COBIB.SI (Slovenian National Union Catalogue) — 3.5 million records
Hungarian National Union Catalogue (MOKKA) — 2.9 million records
VINITI RAS database (All-Russian Scientific and Technical Information Institute of Russian Academy of Science) with 28 million records
Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts (MGA) with 600 journal titles
PORBASE (Portuguese National Bibliography) with 1.5 million records

UDC has traditionally been used for the indexing of scientific articles which was an important source of information of scientific output in the period predating electronic publishing. Collections of research articles in many countries covering decades of scientific output contain UDC codes. Examples of journal articles indexed by UDC:

UDC code 663.12:57.06 in the article "Yeast Systematics: from Phenotype to Genotype" in the journal Food Technology and Biotechnology ( ISSN   1330-9862) [20]
UDC code 37.037:796.56, provided in the article "The game method as means of interface of technical-tactical and psychological preparation in sports orienteering" in the Russian journal "Pedagogico-psychological and medico-biological problems of the physical culture and sport" ( ISSN   2070-4798). [21]
UDC code 621.715:621.924:539.3 in the article Residual Stress in Shot-Peened Sheets of AIMg4.5Mn Alloy - in the journal Materials and technology ( ISSN   1580-2949). [22]

The design of UDC lends itself to machine readability, and the system has been used both with early automatic mechanical sorting devices, and modern library OPACs. [23] [24] Since 1993, a standard version of UDC has been maintained and distributed in a database format: UDC Master Reference File (UDC MRF) which is updated and released regularly. [25] The 2011 version of the MRF (released in 2012) contains over 70,000 classes. [1] In the past full printed editions used to have around 220,000 subdivisions. [10]

UDC structure


A notation is a code commonly used in classification schemes to represent a class, i.e. a subject and its position in the hierarchy, to enable mechanical sorting and filing of subjects. UDC uses Arabic numerals arranged decimally. Every number is thought of as a decimal fraction with the initial decimal point omitted, which determines the filing order. An advantage of decimal notational systems is that they are infinitely extensible, and when new subdivisions are introduced, they need not disturb the existing allocation of numbers. For ease of reading, a UDC notation is usually punctuated after every third digit:

NotationCaption (Class description)
539.120Theoretical problems of elementary particles physics. Theories and models of fundamental interactions
539.120.2Symmetries of quantum physics
539.120.22Conservation laws
539.120.222Translations. Rotations
539.120.224Reflection in time and space
539.120.226Space-time symmetries
539.120.23Internal symmetries
539.120.4Unified field theories

In UDC the notation has two features that make the scheme easier to browse and work with:

Basic features and syntax

UDC is an analytico-synthetic and faceted classification. It allows an unlimited combination of attributes of a subject and relationships between subjects to be expressed. UDC codes from different tables can be combined to present various aspects of document content and form, e.g. 94(410)"19"(075) History (main subject) of United Kingdom (place) in 20th century (time), a textbook (document form). Or: 37:2 Relationship between Education and Religion. Complex UDC expressions can be accurately parsed into constituent elements.

UDC is also a disciplinary classification covering the entire universe of knowledge. [26] This type of classification can also be described as aspect or perspective, which means that concepts are subsumed and placed under the field in which they are studied. Thus, the same concept can appear in different fields of knowledge. This particular feature is usually implemented in UDC by re-using the same concept in various combinations with the main subject, e.g. a code for language in common auxiliaries of language is used to derive numbers for ethnic grouping, individual languages in linguistics and individual literatures. Or, a code from the auxiliaries of place, e.g. (410) United Kingdom, uniquely representing the concept of United Kingdom can be used to express 911(410) Regional geography of United Kingdom and 94(410) History of United Kingdom.

Organization of classes

Concepts are organized in two kinds of tables in UDC: [27]

Main classes

The vacant class 4 is the result of a planned schedule expansion. This class was freed by moving linguistics into class 8 in the 1960s to make space for future developments in the rapidly expanding fields of knowledge; primarily natural sciences and technology.

Common auxiliary tables

Common auxiliaries are aspect-free concepts that can be used in combination with any other UDC code from the main classes or with other common auxiliaries. They have unique notational representations that makes them stand out in complex expressions. Common auxiliary numbers always begin with a certain symbol known as a facet indicator, e.g. = (equal sign) always introduces concepts representing the language of a document; (0...) numbers enclosed in parentheses starting with zero always represent a concept designating document form. Thus (075) Textbook and =111 English can be combined to express, e.g.(075)=111 Textbooks in English, and when combined with numbers from the main UDC tables they can be used as follows: 2(075)=111 Religion textbooks in English, 51(075)=111 Mathematics textbooks in English etc.

  • =... Common auxiliaries of language. Table 1c
  • (0...) Common auxiliaries of form. Table 1d
  • (1/9) Common auxiliaries of place. Table 1e
  • (=...) Common auxiliaries of human ancestry, ethnic grouping and nationality. Table 1f
  • "..." Common auxiliaries of time. Table 1g helps to make minute division of time e.g.: "1993-1996"
  • -0... Common auxiliaries of general characteristics: Properties, Materials, Relations/Processes and Persons. Table 1k.
  • -02 Common auxiliaries of properties. Table 1k
  • -03 Common auxiliaries of materials. Table 1k
  • -04 Common auxiliaries of relations, processes and operations. Table 1k
  • -05 Common auxiliaries of persons and personal characteristics. Table 1k this table is repeated

Connecting signs

In order to preserve the precise meaning and enable accurate parsing of complex UDC expressions, a number of connecting symbols are made available to relate and extend UDC numbers. These are:

SymbolSymbol nameMeaningExample
+ plus coordination, additione.g. 59+636 zoology and animal breeding
/ stroke consecutive extensione.g. 592/599 Systematic zoology (everything from 592 to 599 inclusive)
: colon relatione.g. 17:7 Relation of ethics to art
[ ]square brackets subgroupinge.g. 311:[622+669](485) statistics of mining and metallurgy in Sweden (the auxiliary qualifiers 622+669 considered as a unit)
*asteriskIntroduces non-UDC notatione.g. 523.4*433 Planetology, minor planet Eros (IAU authorized number after the asterisk)
A/Zalphabetical extensionDirect alphabetical specificatione.g. 821.133.1MOL French literature, works of Molière

UDC outline

UDC classes in this outline are taken from the Multilingual Universal Decimal Classification Summary (UDCC Publication No. 088) released by the UDC Consortium under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 license (first release 2009, subsequent update 2012). [10]

Main tables

0 Science and knowledge. Organization. Computer science. Information. Documentation. Librarianship. Institution. Publications

 00          Prolegomena. Fundamentals of knowledge and culture. Propaedeutics  001         Science and knowledge in general. Organization of intellectual work  002         Documentation. Books. Writings. Authorship  003         Writing systems and scripts  004         Computer science and technology. Computing  004.2       Computer architecture  004.3       Computer hardware  004.4       Software  004.5       Human-computer interaction  004.6       Data  004.7       Computer communication  004.8       Artificial intelligence  004.9       Application-oriented computer-based techniques  005         Management  005.1       Management Theory  005.2       Management agents. Mechanisms. Measures  005.3       Management activities  005.5       Management operations. Direction  005.6       Quality management. Total quality management (TQM)  005.7       Organizational management (OM)  005.9       Fields of management  005.92      Records management  005.93      Plant management. Physical resources management  005.94      Knowledge management  005.95/.96  Personnel management. Human Resources management  006         Standardization of products, operations, weights, measures and time  007         Activity and organizing. Information. Communication and control theory generally (cybernetics)  008         Civilization. Culture. Progress     01          Bibliography and bibliographies. Catalogues  02          Librarianship  030         General reference works (as subject)  050         Serial publications, periodicals (as subject)  06          Organizations of a general nature  069         Museums  070         Newspapers (as subject). The Press. Outline of journalism  08          Polygraphies. Collective works (as subject)  09          Manuscripts. Rare and remarkable works (as subject)

1 Philosophy. Psychology

 101        Nature and role of philosophy  11         Metaphysics  111        General metaphysics. Ontology  122/129    Special Metaphysics  13         Philosophy of mind and spirit. Metaphysics of spiritual life  14         Philosophical systems and points of view  141        Kinds  of viewpoint. Including:  Monism. Dualism. Pluralism. Ontological Materialism. Metaphysical Idealism. Platonism, etc.  159.9      Psychology  159.91     Psychophysiology (physiological psychology). Mental physiology  159.92     Mental development and capacity. Comparative psychology  159.93     Sensation. Sensory perception  159.94     Executive functions  159.95     Higher mental processes  159.96     Special mental states and processes  159.97     Abnormal psychology  159.98     Applied psychology (psychotechnology) in general  16         Logic. Epistemology. Theory of knowledge. Methodology of logic  17         Moral philosophy. Ethics. Practical philosophy

2 Religion. Theology

The UDC tables for religion are fully faceted. Indicated in italics below, are special auxiliary numbers that can be used to express attributes (facets) of any specific faith. Any special number can be combined with any religion e.g. -5 Worship can be used to express e.g. 26-5 Worship in Judaism, 27-5 Worship in Christianity, 24-5 Worship in Buddhism. The complete special auxiliary tables contain around 2000 subdivisions of various attributes that can be attached to express various aspects of individual faiths to a great level of specificity allowing equal level of detail for every religion.

2-1/-9 Special auxiliary subdivision for religion2-1 Theory and philosophy of religion. Nature of religion. Phenomenon of religion2-2 Evidences of religion2-3 Persons in religion2-4 Religious activities. Religious practice2-5 Worship broadly. Cult. Rites and ceremonies2-6 Processes in religion2-7 Religious organization and administration2-8 Religions characterised by various properties2-9 History of the faith, religion, denomination or church  21/29 Religious systems. Religions and faiths  21 Prehistoric and primitive religions  22 Religions originating in the Far East  23 Religions originating in Indian sub-continent. Hindu religion in the broad sense  24 Buddhism  25 Religions of antiquity. Minor cults and religions  26 Judaism  27 Christianity  28 Islam  29 Modern spiritual movements

3 Social sciences

Universal decimal classification used at the library of the maison Losseau. Etiquettes de classement de la CDU - Bibliotheque de la maison Leon Losseau.jpg
Universal decimal classification used at the library of the maison Losseau.
 303   Methods of the social sciences  304 Social questions. Social practice. Cultural practice. Way of life (Lebensweise)  305 Gender studies  308 Sociography. Descriptive studies of society (both qualitative and quantitative)  311 Statistics as a science. Statistical theory  314/316 Society  314 Demography. Population studies  316 Sociology  32 Politics  33 Economics. Economic science  34 Law. Jurisprudence  35 Public administration. Government. Military affairs  36 Safeguarding the mental and material necessities of life  37 Education  39 Cultural anthropology. Ethnography. Customs. Manners. Traditions. Way of life

4 Currently Vacant

This section is currently vacant.

5 Mathematics. Natural sciences

 502/504  Environmental science. Conservation of natural resources. Threats to the environment and protection against them  502 The environment and its protection  504 Threats to the environment  51 Mathematics  510 Fundamental and general considerations of mathematics  511 Number theory  512 Algebra  514 Geometry  517 Analysis  519.1 Combinatorial analysis. Graph theory  519.2 Probability. Mathematical statistics  519.6 Computational mathematics. Numerical analysis  519.7 Mathematical cybernetics  519.8 Operational research (OR): mathematical theories and methods  52 Astronomy. Astrophysics. Space research. Geodesy  53 Physics  531/534  Mechanics  535 Optics  536 Heat. Thermodynamics. Statistical physics  537 Electricity. Magnetism. Electromagnetism  538.9 Condensed matter physics. Solid state physics  539 Physical nature of matter  54 Chemistry. Crystallography. Mineralogy  542 Practical laboratory chemistry. Preparative and experimental chemistry  543 Analytical chemistry  544 Physical chemistry  546 Inorganic chemistry  547 Organic chemistry  548/549 Mineralogical sciences. Crystallography. Mineralogy  55 Earth sciences. Geological sciences  56 Paleontology  57 Biological sciences in general  58 Botany  59 Zoology 

6 Applied sciences. Medicine. Technology

Class 6 occupies the largest proportion of UDC schedules. It contains over 44,000 subdivisions. Each specific field of technology or industry usually contains more than one special auxiliary table with concepts needed to express operations, processes, materials and products. As a result, UDC codes are often created through the combination of various attributes. Equally, some parts of this class enumerate concepts to a great level of detail e.g. 621.882.212 Hexagon screws with additional shapes. Including: Flank screws. Collar screws. Cap screws

 60    Biotechnology  61 Medical sciences  611/612 Human biology  613 Hygiene generally. Personal health and hygiene  614 Public health and hygiene. Accident prevention  615 Pharmacology. Therapeutics. Toxicology  616 Pathology. Clinical medicine  617 Surgery. Orthopaedics. Ophthalmology  618 Gynaecology. Obstetrics  62 Engineering. Technology in general  620 Materials testing. Commercial materials. Power stations. Economics of energy  621 Mechanical engineering in general. Nuclear technology. Electrical engineering. Machinery  622 Mining  623 Military engineering  624 Civil and structural engineering in general  625 Civil engineering of land transport. Railway engineering. Highway engineering  626/627  Hydraulic engineering and construction. Water (aquatic) structures  629 Transport vehicle engineering  63 Agriculture and related sciences and techniques. Forestry. Farming. Wildlife exploitation  630 Forestry  631/635 Farm management. Agronomy. Horticulture  633/635 Horticulture in general. Specific crops  636 Animal husbandry and breeding in general. Livestock rearing. Breeding of domestic animals  64 Home economics. Domestic science. Housekeeping  65 Communication and transport industries. Accountancy. Business management. Public relations  654 Telecommunication and telecontrol (organization, services)  655 Graphic industries. Printing. Publishing. Book trade  656 Transport and postal services. Traffic organization and control  657 Accountancy  658 Business management, administration. Commercial organization  659 Publicity. Information work. Public relations  66 Chemical technology. Chemical and related industries  67 Various industries, trades and crafts  68 Industries, crafts and trades for finished or assembled articles  69 Building (construction) trade. Building materials. Building practice and procedure

7 The arts. Recreation. Entertainment. Sport

7.01/.09 Special auxiliary subdivision for the arts7.01 Theory and philosophy of art. Principles of design, proportion, optical effect7.02 Art technique. Craftsmanship7.03 Artistic periods and phases. Schools, styles, influences7.04 Subjects for artistic representation. Iconography. Iconology7.05 Applications of art (in industry, trade, the home, everyday life)7.06 Various questions concerning art7.07 Occupations and activities associated with the arts and entertainment7.08 Characteristic features, forms, combinations etc. (in art, entertainment and sport)7.091 Performance, presentation (in original medium)  71 Physical planning. Regional, town and country planning. Landscapes, parks, gardens  72 Architecture  73 Plastic arts  74 Drawing. Design. Applied arts and crafts  745/749 Industrial and domestic arts and crafts. Applied arts  75 Painting  76 Graphic art, printmaking. Graphics  77 Photography and similar processes  78 Music  79 Recreation. Entertainment. Games. Sport  791 Cinema. Films (motion pictures)  792 Theatre. Stagecraft. Dramatic performances  793 Social entertainments and recreations. Art of movement. Dance  794 Board and table games (of thought, skill and chance)  796 Sport. Games. Physical exercises  797 Water sports. Aerial sports  798 Riding and driving. Horse and other animal sports  799 Sport fishing. Sport hunting. Shooting and target sports

8 Language. Linguistics. Literature

Tables for class 8 are fully faceted and details are expressed through combination with common auxiliaries of language (Table 1c) and a series of special auxiliary tables to indicate other facets or attributes in Linguistics or Literature. As a result, this class allows for great specificity in indexing although the schedules themselves occupy very little space in UDC. The subdivisions of e.g. 811 Languages or 821 Literature are derived from common auxiliaries of language =1/=9 (Table 1c) by substituting a point for the equals sign, e.g. 811.111 English language (as a subject of a linguistic study) and 821.111 English literature derives from =111 English language. Common auxiliaries of place and time are also frequently used in this class to express place and time facets of Linguistics or Literature, e.g. 821.111(71)"18" English literature of Canada in 19th century

 80 General questions relating to both linguistics and literature. Philology  801 Prosody. Auxiliary sciences and sources of philology  808 Rhetoric. The effective use of language    81 Linguistics and languages81`1/`4 Special auxiliary subdivision for subject fields and facets of linguistics and languages 81`1 General linguistics81`2 Theory of signs. Theory of translation. Standardization. Usage. Geographical linguistics81`3 Mathematical and applied linguistics. Phonetics. Graphemics. Grammar. Semantics. Stylistics81`4 Text linguistics, Discourse analysis. Typological linguistics81`42 Text linguistics. Discourse analysis81`44 Typological linguistics  811 Languages        Derived from the common auxiliaries of language =1/=9 (Table 1c) by replacing the equal sign = with prefix 811. e.g. =111 English becomes 811.111 Linguistics of English language  811.1/.9 All languages natural or artificial  811.1/.8 Individual natural languages  811.1/.2 Indo-European languages  811.21/.22 Indo-Iranian languages  811.3 Dead languages of unknown affiliation. Caucasian languages  811.4 Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Congo-Kordofanian, Khoisan languages  811.5 Ural-Altaic, Palaeo-Siberian, Eskimo-Aleut, Dravidian and Sino-Tibetan languages. Japanese. Korean. Ainu  811.6 Austro-Asiatic languages. Austronesian languages  811.7 Indo-Pacific (non-Austronesian) languages. Australian languages  811.8 American indigenous languages  811.9 Artificial languages  82 Literature 82-1/-9 Special auxiliary subdivision for literary forms, genres82-1 Poetry. Poems. Verse82-2 Drama. Plays82-3 Fiction. Prose narrative82-31 Novels. Full-length stories82-32 Short stories. Novellas82-4 Essays82-5 Oratory. Speeches82-6 Letters. Art of letter-writing. Correspondence. Genuine letters82-7 Prose satire. Humour, epigram, parody82-8 Miscellanea. Polygraphies. Selections82-9 Various other literary forms82-92 Periodical literature. Writings in serials, journals, reviews82-94 History as literary genre. Historical writing. Historiography. Chronicles. Annals. Memoirs82.02/.09 Special auxiliary subdivision for theory, study and technique of literature82.02 Literary schools, trends and movements82.09 Literary criticism. Literary studies82.091 Comparative literary studies. Comparative literature  821 Literatures of individual languages and language families        Derived from the common auxiliaries of language =1/=9 (Table 1c) by replacing the equal sign = with prefix 821. e.g. =111 English becomes 821.111 English literature

9 Geography. Biography. History

Tables for Geography and History in UDC are fully faceted and place, time and ethnic grouping facets are expressed through combination with common auxiliaries of place (Table 1d), ethnic grouping (Table 1f) and time (Table 1g)

 902/908 Archaeology. Prehistory. Cultural remains. Area studies  902 Archaeology  903 Prehistory. Prehistoric remains, artifacts, antiquities  904 Cultural remains of historical times  908 Area studies. Study of a locality  91 Geography. Exploration of the Earth and of individual countries. Travel. Regional geography  910 General questions. Geography as a science. Exploration. Travel  911 General geography. Science of geographical factors (systematic geography). Theoretical geography  911.2 Physical geography  911.3 Human geography (cultural geography). Geography of cultural factors  911.5/.9 Theoretical geography  912 Nonliterary, nontextual representations of a region  913 Regional geography  92 Biographical studies. Genealogy. Heraldry. Flags  929 Biographical studies  929.5 Genealogy  929.6 Heraldry  929.7 Nobility. Titles. Peerage  929.9 Flags. Standards. Banners  93/94 History  930 Science of history. Historiography  930.1 History as a science  930.2 Methodology of history. Ancillary historical sciences  930.25 Archivistics. Archives (including public and other records)  930.85 History of civilization. Cultural history  94 General

Common auxiliary tables

Common auxiliaries of language. Table 1c

 =1/=9 Languages (natural and artificial)  =1/=8 Natural languages  =1/=2 Indo-European languages  =1 Indo-European languages of Europe  =11 Germanic languages  =12 Italic languages  =13 Romance languages  =14 Greek (Hellenic)  =15 Celtic languages  =16 Slavic languages  =17 Baltic languages  =18 Albanian  =19 Armenian  =2 Indo-Iranian, Nuristani (Kafiri) and dead Indo-European languages  =21/=22 Indo-Iranian languages  =21 Indic languages  =22 Iranian languages  =29 Dead Indo-European languages (not listed elsewhere)  =3 Dead languages of unknown affiliation. Caucasian languages  =34 Dead languages of unknown affiliation, spoken in the Mediterranean and Near East (except Semitic)  =35 Caucasian languages  =4 Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Congo-Kordofanian, Khoisan languages  =41 Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) languages  =42 Nilo-Saharan languages  =43 Congo-Kordofanian (Niger-Kordofanian) languages  =45 Khoisan languages  =5 Ural-Altaic, Palaeo-Siberian, Eskimo-Aleut, Dravidian and Sino-Tibetan languages. Japanese. Korean. Ainu  =51 Ural-Altaic languages  =521 Japanese  =531 Korean  =541 Ainu  =55 Palaeo-Siberian languages  =56 Eskimo-Aleut languages  =58 Sino-Tibetan languages  =6 Austro-Asiatic languages. Austronesian languages  =61 Austro-Asiatic languages  =62 Austronesian languages  =7 Indo-Pacific (non-Austronesian) languages. Australian languages  =71 Indo-Pacific (non-Austronesian) languages  =72 Australian languages  =8 American indigenous languages  =81 Indigenous languages of Canada, USA and Northern-Central Mexico  =82 Indigenous languages of western North American Coast, Mexico and Yucatán  =84/=88 Central and South American indigenous languages  =84 Ge-Pano-Carib languages. Macro-Chibchan languages  =85 Andean languages. Equatorial languages  =86 Chaco languages. Patagonian and Fuegian languages  =88 Isolated, unclassified Central and South American indigenous languages  =9 Artificial languages  =92 Artificial languages for use among human beings. International auxiliary languages (interlanguages)  =93 Artificial languages used to instruct machines. Programming languages. Computer languages

(0...) Common auxiliaries of form. Table 1d

(0.02/.08) Special auxiliary subdivision for document form(0.02) Documents according to physical, external form(0.03) Documents according to method of production(0.032) Handwritten documents (autograph, holograph copies). Manuscripts. Pictorial documents (drawings, paintings)(0.034) Machine-readable documents(0.04) Documents according to stage of production(0.05) Documents for particular kinds of user(0.06) Documents according to level of presentation and availability(0.07) Supplementary matter issued with a document(0.08) Separately issued supplements or parts of documents  (01) Bibliographies  (02) Books in general  (03) Reference works  (04) Non-serial separates. Separata  (041) Pamphlets. Brochures  (042) Addresses. Lectures. Speeches  (043) Theses. Dissertations  (044) Personal documents. Correspondence. Letters. Circulars  (045) Articles in serials, collections etc. Contributions  (046) Newspaper articles  (047) Reports. Notices. Bulletins  (048) Bibliographic descriptions. Abstracts. Summaries. Surveys  (049) Other non-serial separates  (05) Serial publications. Periodicals  (06) Documents relating to societies, associations, organizations  (07) Documents for instruction, teaching, study, training  (08) Collected and polygraphic works. Forms. Lists. Illustrations. Business publications  (09) Presentation in historical form. Legal and historical sources  (091) Presentation in chronological, historical form. Historical presentation in the strict sense  (092) Biographical presentation  (093) Historical sources  (094) Legal sources. Legal documents

(1/9) Common auxiliaries of place. Table 1e

 (1) Place and space in general. Localization. Orientation  (1-0/-9) Special auxiliary subdivision for boundaries and spatial forms of various kinds(1-0) Zones(1-1) Orientation. Points of the compass. Relative position(1-11) East. Eastern(1-13) South. Southern(1-14) South-west. South-western(1-15) West. Western(1-17) North. Northern(1-19) Relative location, direction and orientation(1-2) Lowest administrative units. Localities(1-5) Dependent or semi-dependent territories(1-6) States or groupings of states from various points of view(1-7) Places and areas according to privacy, publicness and other special features(1-8) Location. Source. Transit. Destination(1-9) Regionalization according to specialized points of view  (100) Universal as to place. International. All countries in general  (2) Physiographic designation  (20) Ecosphere  (21) Surface of the Earth in general. Land areas in particular. Natural zones and regions  (23) Above sea level. Surface relief. Above ground generally. Mountains  (24) Below sea level. Underground. Subterranean  (25) Natural flat ground (at, above or below sea level). The ground in its natural condition, cultivated or inhabited  (26) Oceans, seas and interconnections  (28) Inland waters  (29) The world according to physiographic features  (3) Places of the ancient and mediaeval world  (31) Ancient China and Japan  (32) Ancient Egypt  (33) Ancient Roman Province of Judaea. The Holy Land. Region of the Israelites  (34) Ancient India  (35) Medo-Persia  (36) Regions of the so-called barbarians  (37) Italia. Ancient Rome and Italy  (38) Ancient Greece  (39)   Catalan regions  (399) Other regions. Ancient geographical divisions other than those of classical antiquity  (4/9) Countries and places of the modern world  (4) Europe  (5) Asia  (6) Africa  (7) North and Central America  (8) South America  (9) States and regions of the South Pacific and Australia. Arctic. Antarctic

(=...) Common auxiliaries of human ancestry, ethnic grouping and nationality. Table 1f

They are derived mainly from the common auxiliaries of language =... (Table 1c) and so may also usefully distinguish linguistic-cultural groups, e.g. =111 English is used to represent (=111) English speaking peoples

 (=01) Human ancestry groups  (=011) European Continental Ancestry Group  (=012) Asian Continental Ancestry Group  (=013) African Continental Ancestry Group  (=014) Oceanic Ancestry Group  (=017) American Native Continental Ancestry Group  (=1/=8) Linguistic-cultural groups, ethnic groups, peoples [derived from Table 1c]  (=1:1/9) Peoples associated with particular places                e.g. (=111:71) Anglophone population of Canada

"..." Common auxiliaries of time. Table 1g

 "0/2" Dates and ranges of time (CE or AD) in conventional Christian (Gregorian) reckoning  "0" First millennium CE  "1" Second millennium CE  "2" Third millennium CE  "3/7" Time divisions other than dates in Christian (Gregorian) reckoning  "3" Conventional time divisions and subdivisions: numbered, named, etc.  "4" Duration. Time-span. Period. Term. Ages and age-groups  "5" Periodicity. Frequency. Recurrence at specified intervals.  "6" Geological, archaeological and cultural time divisions  "61/62" Geological time division  "63" Archaeological, prehistoric, protohistoric periods and ages  "67/69" Time reckonings: universal, secular, non-Christian religious  "67" Universal time reckoning. Before Present  "68" Secular time reckonings other than universal and the Christian (Gregorian) calendar  "69" Dates and time units in non-Christian (non-Gregorian) religious time reckonings  "7" Phenomena in time. Phenomenology of time

-0 Common auxiliaries of general characteristics. Table 1k

-02 Common auxiliaries of properties  -021 Properties of existence  -022 Properties of magnitude, degree, quantity, number, temporal values, dimension, size  -023 Properties of shape  -024 Properties of structure. Properties of position  -025 Properties of arrangement  -026 Properties of action and movement  -027 Operational properties  -028 Properties of style and presentation  -029 Properties derived from other main classes  -03 Common auxiliaries of materials  -032 Naturally occurring mineral materials  -033 Manufactured mineral-based materials  -034 Metals  -035 Materials of mainly organic origin  -036 Macromolecular materials. Rubbers and plastics  -037 Textiles. Fibres. Yarns. Fabrics. Cloth  -039 Other materials  -04 Common auxiliaries of relations, processes and operations  -042 Phase relations  -043 General processes  -043.8/.9 Processes of existence  -045 Processes related to position, arrangement, movement, physical properties, states of matter  -047/-049 General operations and activities  -05 Common auxiliaries of persons and personal characteristics  -051 Persons as agents, doers, practitioners (studying, making, serving etc.)  -052 Persons as targets, clients, users (studied, served etc.)  -053 Persons according to age or age-groups  -054 Persons according to ethnic characteristics, nationality, citizenship etc.  -055 Persons according to gender and kinship  -056 Persons according to constitution, health, disposition, hereditary or other traits  -057 Persons according to occupation, work, livelihood, education  -058 Persons according to social class, civil status

See also

Special classifications based on or used in combination with UDC

Other faceted classifications:

Other library classifications

Related Research Articles

The Bliss bibliographic classification (BC) is a library classification system that was created by Henry E. Bliss (1870–1955) and published in four volumes between 1940 and 1953. Although originally devised in the United States, it was more commonly adopted by British libraries. A second edition of the system (BC2) has been in ongoing development in Britain since 1977.

Colon classification (CC) is a library classification system developed by Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan. It was an early faceted classification system. The first edition of colon classification was published in 1933, followed by six more editions. It is especially used in libraries in India.

The Cutter Expansive Classification system is a library classification system devised by Charles Ammi Cutter. The system was the basis for the top categories of the Library of Congress Classification.

Dewey Decimal Classification Library classification system

The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), colloquially known as the Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system which allows new books to be added to a library in their appropriate location based on subject. It was first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876. Originally described in a forty-four-page pamphlet, it has been expanded to multiple volumes and revised through 23 major editions, the latest printed in 2011. It is also available in an abridged version suitable for smaller libraries. OCLC, a non-profit cooperative that serves libraries, currently maintains the system and licenses online access to WebDewey, a continuously updated version for catalogers.

Library classification Systems of coding and organizing documents or library materials

A library classification is a system of knowledge distribution by which library resources are arranged and ordered systematically. Library classifications are a notational system that represents the order of topics in the classification and allows items to be stored in that order. Library classification systems group related materials together, typically arranged as a hierarchical tree structure. A different kind of classification system, called a faceted classification system, is also widely used, which allows the assignment of multiple classifications to an object, enabling the classifications to be ordered in many ways.

Classification is a process related to categorization, the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated and understood. Classification is the grouping of related facts into classes. It may also refer to:

A faceted classification is a classification scheme used in organizing knowledge into a systematic order. A faceted classification uses semantic categories, either general or subject-specific, that are combined to create the full classification entry. Many library classification systems use a combination of a fixed, enumerative taxonomy of concepts with subordinate facets that further refine the topic.

Library Hotel by Library Hotel Collection is a 60-room boutique hotel in New York City, located at 299 Madison Avenue, near the New York Public Library Main Branch, Bryant Park, and Grand Central Terminal. The hotel was designed by architect Stephen B. Jacobs.

Document classification or document categorization is a problem in library science, information science and computer science. The task is to assign a document to one or more classes or categories. This may be done "manually" or algorithmically. The intellectual classification of documents has mostly been the province of library science, while the algorithmic classification of documents is mainly in information science and computer science. The problems are overlapping, however, and there is therefore interdisciplinary research on document classification.

Paul Otlet Belgian author, entrepreneur, lawyer and activist

Paul Marie Ghislain Otlet was a Belgian author, entrepreneur, lawyer and peace activist; predicting the arrival of the internet before World War II, he is among those considered to be the father of information science, a field he called "documentation". Otlet created the Universal Decimal Classification, which would later become a faceted classification. Otlet was responsible for the development of an early information retrieval tool, the "Repertoire Bibliographique Universel" (RBU) which utilized 3x5 inch index cards, used commonly in library catalogs around the world. Otlet wrote numerous essays on how to collect and organize the world's knowledge, culminating in two books, the Traité de Documentation (1934) and Monde: Essai d'universalisme (1935).

Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing schemes, subject headings, thesauri, taxonomies and other knowledge organization systems. Controlled vocabulary schemes mandate the use of predefined, authorised terms that have been preselected by the designers of the schemes, in contrast to natural language vocabularies, which have no such restriction.

The Korean Decimal Classification (KDC) is a system of library classification used in South Korea. The structure and main level classes of the KDC are based on the Dewey Decimal Classification. The KDC is maintained and published by the Classification Committee of the Korean Library Association. The first edition of the classification was published in 1964; the most recent edition is the sixth edition published in 2013. Almost all school and public libraries in South Korea use the KDC to organize their collections, as well as the National Library of Korea and some university libraries.

Knowledge organization (KO), organization of knowledge, organization of information, or information organization is an intellectual discipline concerned with activities such as document description, indexing, and classification that serve to provide systems of representation and order for knowledge and information objects. According to The Organization of Information by Joudrey and Taylor, information organization:

examines the activities carried out and tools used by people who work in places that accumulate information resources for the use of humankind, both immediately and for posterity. It discusses the processes that are in place to make resources findable, whether someone is searching for a single known item or is browsing through hundreds of resources just hoping to discover something useful. Information organization supports a myriad of information-seeking scenarios.

The British Catalogue of Music Classification is a faceted classification that was commissioned from E. J. Coates by the Council of the British National Bibliography to organize the content of the British Catalogue of Music. The published schedule (1960) was considerably expanded by Patrick Mills of the British Library up until its use was abandoned in 1998. Entries in the catalogue were organized by BCM classmark from the catalogue's inception in 1957 until 1982. From that year the British Catalogue of Music was organized instead by Dewey Decimal Classification number, though BCM classmarks continued to be added to entries up to the 1998 annual cumulation.

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Ingetraut Dahlberg German philosopher, information scientist and librarian

Ingetraut Dahlberg was a German information scientist and philosopher who developed the universal Information Coding Classification covering some 6,500 subject fields. Her career spanned various roles in research, teaching, editing, and publishing. Dahlberg founded the journal International Classification as well as both the scientific Society for Classification and International Society for Knowledge Organization.

The British National Bibliography (BNB) was established at the British Museum in 1949 to publish a list of the books, journals and serials that are published in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. It also includes information on forthcoming titles. This is the single most comprehensive listing of UK titles. UK and Irish publishers are obliged by legal deposit to send a copy of all new publications, including serial titles, to the BNB for listing. The BNB publishes the list weekly in electronic form: the last printed weekly list appeared in December 2011.

The Information Coding Classification (ICC) is a classification system covering almost all extant 6500 knowledge fields. Its conceptualization goes beyond the scope of the well known library classification systems, such as Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), and Library of Congress Classification (LCC), by extending also to knowledge systems that so far have not afforded to classify literature. ICC actually presents a flexible universal ordering system for both literature and other kinds of information, set out as knowledge fields. From a methodological point of view, ICC differs from the above-mentioned systems along the following three lines:

  1. Its main classes are not based on disciplines but on nine live stages of development, so-called ontical levels.
  2. It breaks them roughly down into hierarchical steps by further nine categories which makes decimal number coding possible.
  3. The contents of a knowledge field is earmarked via a digital position scheme, which makes the first hierarchical step refer to the nine ontical levels, and the second hierarchical step refer to nine functionally ordered form categories.

Ia Cecilia McIlwaine was a British librarian and Emeritus Professor of Library and Information Studies at University College London.


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