2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis

Last updated

2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis
Part of the Crisis in Venezuela
Juan Guaido in Group of Lima 2019 collage crop.jpg
Nicolas Maduro, president of Venezuela (2016) cropped.jpg
Juan Guaidó (left), Nicolás Maduro (right)
Date10 January 2019 (2019-01-10) – ongoing
(3 months and 7 days)
Location
Caused by
Methods Protests, support campaigns, foreign diplomatic pressure and sanctions
StatusOngoing
Parties to the civil conflict

A crisis concerning who is the legitimate President of Venezuela has been underway since 10 January 2019, when the opposition-majority National Assembly declared that incumbent Nicolás Maduro's 2018 reelection was invalid and the body declared its president, Juan Guaidó, to be acting president of the nation.

President of Venezuela head of state and head of government of Venezuela

The President of Venezuela, officially known as the President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is the head of state and head of government in Venezuela. The president leads the National Executive of the Venezuelan government and is the commander-in-chief of the National Bolivarian Armed Forces. Presidential terms were set at six years with the adoption of the 1999 Constitution of Venezuela, and presidential term limits were removed in 2009.

National Assembly (Venezuela) Parliament of Venezuela

The National Assembly is the de jure legislature for Venezuela that was first elected in 2000. It is a unicameral body made up of a variable number of members, who were elected by a "universal, direct, personal, and secret" vote partly by direct election in state-based voting districts, and partly on a state-based party-list proportional representation system. The number of seats is constant, each state and the Capital district elected three representatives plus the result of dividing the state population by 1.1% of the total population of the country. Three seats are reserved for representatives of Venezuela's indigenous peoples and elected separately by all citizens, not just those with indigenous backgrounds. For the 2010-2015 period the number of seats was 165. All deputies serve five-year terms. The National Assembly meets in the Federal Legislative Palace in Venezuela's capital, Caracas.

Nicolás Maduro 46th President of Venezuela

Nicolás Maduro Moros is a Venezuelan politician serving as President of Venezuela since 2013, and disputed president since January 2019. AP News reported that "familiar geopolitical sides" had formed in the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis, with allies Russia, China, Iran, Syria, and Cuba supporting Maduro, and the US, Canada, and most of Western Europe supporting Juan Guaidó as interim president.

Contents

The process and results of the May 2018 Venezuelan presidential election were widely disputed. [1] The National Assembly declared Maduro illegitimate on the day of his second inauguration, citing the 1999 Constitution of Venezuela enacted under Hugo Chávez, Maduro's predecessor; in response, the pro-Maduro Supreme Tribunal of Justice said the National Assembly's declaration was unconstitutional. [2]

2018 Venezuelan presidential election Election in Venezuela

Presidential elections were held in Venezuela on 20 May 2018, with incumbent Nicolás Maduro being re-elected for a second six-year term. The original electoral date was scheduled for December 2018 but was subsequently pulled ahead to 22 April before being pushed back to 20 May. Some analysts described the poll as a show election, with the elections having the lowest voter turnout in the country's democratic era.

Constitution of Venezuela the current and twenty-sixth constitution of Venezuela

The Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is the current and twenty-sixth constitution of Venezuela. It was drafted in mid-1999 by a constitutional assembly that had been created by popular referendum. Adopted in December 1999, it replaced the 1961 Constitution, the longest-serving in Venezuelan history. It was primarily promoted by then President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez and thereafter received strong backing from diverse sectors, including figures involved in promulgating the 1961 constitution such as Luis Miquilena and Carlos Andrés Pérez. Chávez and his followers (chavistas) refer to the 1999 document as the "Constitución Bolivariana" because they assert that it is ideologically descended from the thinking and political philosophy of Simón Bolívar and Bolivarianism. Since the creation of the Constituent National Assembly in August 2017, the Bolivarian government has declared the 1999 constitution suspended until a new constitution is created.

Hugo Chávez 48th President of Venezuela

Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013. Chávez was also leader of the Fifth Republic Movement political party from its foundation in 1997 until 2007, when it merged with several other parties to form the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV), which he led until 2012.

Minutes after Maduro took the oath as president of Venezuela, the Organization of American States (OAS) approved a resolution in a special session of its Permanent Council declaring Maduro's presidency illegitimate and urging new elections. [4] Special meetings of the OAS on 24 January and in the United Nations Security Council on 26 January were held but no consensus was reached. Secretary-General of the United Nations António Guterres called for dialogue. [5]

Organization of American States international organization

The Organization of American States, or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states. Headquartered in the United States capital Washington, D.C., the OAS's members are the 35 independent states of the Americas.

United Nations Security Council one of the six principal organs of the UN, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international peace and security, accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its charter. Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations and international sanctions as well as the authorization of military actions through resolutions – it is the only body of the United Nations with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states. The council held its first session on 17 January 1946.

Secretary-General of the United Nations head of the United Nations Secretariat

The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. The Secretary-General serves as the chief administrative officer of the United Nations. The role of the United Nations Secretariat, and of the Secretary-General in particular, is laid out by Chapter XV of the United Nations Charter.

Maduro's government states that the crisis is a "coup d'état led by the United States to topple him and control the country's oil reserves." [6] [7] Guaidó denies the coup allegations, saying peaceful volunteers back his movement. [8] As of March 2019, Guaidó has been recognized as the interim president of Venezuela by 54 countries, [9] "including the US and most Latin American and European countries". [10] AP News reported that "familiar geopolitical sides" had formed with allies Russia, China, Iran, Syria, and Cuba supporting Maduro, and the US, Canada, and most of Western Europe supporting Guaidó as interim president. [11]

Coup détat Sudden deposition of a government; illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus

A coup d'état, also known as a putsch, a golpe, or simply as a coup, means the overthrow of an existing government; typically, this refers to an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a dictator, the military, or a political faction.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Oil reserves in Venezuela

The proven oil reserves in Venezuela are recognized as the largest in the world, totaling 297 billion barrels (4.72×1010 m3) as of 1 January 2014. In early 2011, then-president Hugo Chávez and the Venezuelan government announced that the nation's oil reserves had surpassed that of the previous long-term world leader, Saudi Arabia. OPEC said that Saudi Arabia's reserves stood at 265 billion barrels (4.21×1010 m3) in 2009.

Background

Since 2010, Venezuela has been suffering a socioeconomic crisis under Nicolás Maduro (and briefly under his predecessor, Hugo Chávez), as rampant crime, hyperinflation and shortages diminish the quality of life. [12] [13] As a result of discontent with the government, the opposition was elected to hold the majority in the National Assembly for the first time since 1999 following the 2015 parliamentary election. [14] After the election, the lame duck National Assembly—consisting of Bolivarian officials—filled the Supreme Tribunal of Justice, the highest court in Venezuela, with Maduro allies. [14] [15] The tribunal stripped three opposition lawmakers of their National Assembly seats in early 2016, citing alleged "irregularities" in their elections, thereby preventing an opposition supermajority which would have been able to challenge President Maduro. [14]

Crime in Venezuela is widespread, with violent crimes such as murder and kidnapping increasing annually. The United Nations has attributed crime to the poor political and economic environment in the country, which has the second highest murder rate in the world.

Hyperinflation very high and rapidly accelerating inflation

In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation. It quickly erodes the real value of the local currency, as the prices of all goods increase. This causes people to minimize their holdings in that currency as they usually switch to more stable foreign currencies, often the US Dollar. Prices typically remain stable in terms of other relatively stable currencies.

Shortages in Venezuela shortages of basic goods and others commodities due to the economic crisis in Venezuela

Shortages in Venezuela of regulated food staples and basic necessities have been widespread following the enactment of price controls and other policies under the government of Hugo Chávez and exacerbated by the policy of withholding United States dollars from importers under the government of Nicolás Maduro. The severity of the shortages has led to the largest refugee crisis ever recorded in the Americas.

In January 2016, the National Assembly declared a "health humanitarian crisis" given the "serious shortage of medicines, medical supplies and deterioration of humanitarian infrastructure", asking Maduro's government to "guarantee immediate access to the list of essential medicines that are basic and indispensable and that must be accessible at all times". [16]

External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Human Rights Watch multimedia report regarding the 2017 protests on YouTube

The tribunal approved several actions by Maduro and granted him more powers in 2017. [14] As protests mounted against Maduro, he called for a constituent assembly that would draft a new constitution to replace the 1999 Venezuela Constitution created under Chávez. [17] Many countries considered these actions a bid by Maduro to stay in power indefinitely, [18] and over 40 countries stated that they would not recognize the 2017 Constituent National Assembly (ANC). [19] [20] The Democratic Unity Roundtable the opposition to the incumbent ruling partyboycotted the election, saying that the ANC was "a trick to keep [the incumbent ruling party] in power". [21] Since the opposition did not participate in the election, the incumbent Great Patriotic Pole, dominated by the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, won almost all seats in the assembly by default. [22] On 8 August 2017, the ANC declared itself to be the government branch with supreme power in Venezuela, banning the opposition-led National Assembly from performing actions that would interfere with the assembly while continuing to pass measures in "support and solidarity" with President Maduro, effectively stripping the National Assembly of all its powers. [23]

Maduro disavowed the National Assembly in 2017; [24] [25] as of 2018, some considered the National Assembly the only "legitimate" institution left in the country, [lower-alpha 1] and human rights organizations said there were no independent institutional checks on presidential power. [lower-alpha 2]

2018 election and calls for transitional government

In February 2018, Maduro called for presidential elections four months before the prescribed date. [37] He was declared the winner in May 2018 after multiple major opposition parties were banned from participating, among other irregularities; many said the elections were invalid. [38] Politicians both internally and internationally said Maduro was not legitimately elected, [39] and considered him an ineffective dictator. [40] In the months leading up to his 10 January 2019 inauguration, Maduro was pressured to step down by nations and bodies including the Lima Group (excluding Mexico), the United States, and the OAS; this pressure was increased after the new National Assembly of Venezuela was sworn in on 5 January 2019. [41] [42] Between the May 2018 presidential election and Maduro's inauguration, there were calls to establish a transitional government. [43] [44]

In December 2018, Guaidó had traveled to Washington D.C. and met with OAS Secretary General Luis Almagro, and then on 14 January 2019 to Colombia for a Lima Group meeting, in which Maduro's mandate was rejected. [45] According to an article in El País , the January Lima Group meeting and the stance taken by Canada's Chrystia Freeland were key. [45] El País describes Donald Trump's election—coinciding with the election of conservative presidents in Colombia and Brazil, along with deteriorating conditions in Venezuela—as "a perfect storm", with decisions influenced by US vice-president Mike Pence, United States Secretary of State Pompeo, National Security advisor John R. Bolton, and legislators Mario Díaz-Balart and Marco Rubio. [45] Venezuelans Carlos Vecchio, Julio Borges and Gustavo Tarre were consulted, and the Trump administration decision to back Guaidó formed on 22 January, according to El País. [45] Díaz-Balart said that the decision was the result of two years of planning. [45]

Justification for the challenge

A June 2018 video with United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Raad Al Hussein discussing the crisis in Venezuela

The Venezuelan opposition bases its actions on the 1999 Venezuelan Constitution, specifically Articles 233, 333 and 350. The first paragraph of Article 233 states: "The President of the Republic shall become permanently unavailable to serve by reason of any of the following events: death; resignation; removal from office by decision of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice; permanent physical or mental disability; ... abandonment of his position, duly declared by the National Assembly; and recall by popular vote." [46]

Later paragraphs describe what to do in the event of a vacancy due to "permanent unavailability to serve", depending on when the vacancy occurs: [46]

Article 233 was invoked after death of Hugo Chávez, which took place soon after his inauguration, and extraordinary elections were called within thirty days. In 2019, the National Assembly invoked Article 233 due to abandonment of [President's] position, arguing that "de facto dictatorship" means no democratic leader. [47] Invoked by the National Assembly, Guaidó was declared acting president until elections could be held; Diego A. Zambrano, an assistant professor of law at Stanford Law School, says that "Venezuelan lawyers disagree on the best reading of this provision. Some argue Guaidó can serve longer if the electoral process is scheduled within a reasonable time". [48] The National Assembly announced that it will designate a committee to appoint a new National Electoral Council, in anticipation of free elections. [49]

Article 333 calls for citizens to restore and enforce the Constitution if it is not followed. Article 350 calls for citizens to "disown any regime, legislation or authority that violates democratic values". The National Assembly argues that both the national and international community must unite behind a transitional government that will guarantee humanitarian aid, bring the restoration of Venezuela's rule of law, and will hold democratic elections. [50]

Events

January: Inauguration of Maduro

The Supreme Court chamber during the inauguration ceremony The TSJ chamber at Maduro 2019 inauguration.jpg
The Supreme Court chamber during the inauguration ceremony

Signs of impending crisis showed when a Supreme Court Justice and Electoral Justice seen as close to Maduro defected to the United States just a few days before the 10 January 2019 second inauguration of Nicolás Maduro. The justice, Christian Zerpa  [ es ], said that Nicolás Maduro was "incompetent" and "illegitimate". [41] [42] [51] Minutes after Maduro took the oath as president of Venezuela, the OAS approved a resolution in a special session of its Permanent Council declaring Maduro's presidency illegitimate and urging new elections. [4] Maduro's election was supported by Turkey, Russia, China, and the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA); [52] [53] other small Caribbean nations reliant on economic assistance from the Maduro government (such as Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Trinidad and Tobago) attended his inauguration. [54]

Maduro's government stated that the positions against him were the "result of imperialism perpetrated by the United States and allies" that put Venezuela "at the centre of a world war". [55]

Juan Guaido surrounded by members of the opposition during the public assembly on 11 January 2019 Juan Guaido open cabildo 11 January 2019.jpg
Juan Guaidó surrounded by members of the opposition during the public assembly on 11 January 2019

Juan Guaidó, the newly appointed President of the National Assembly of Venezuela, began motions to form a provisional government shortly after assuming his new role on 5 January 2019, stating that whether or not Maduro began his new term on the 10th, the country would not have a legitimately elected president in either case. [56] On behalf of the National Assembly, he stated that the country had fallen into a de facto dictatorship and had no leader, [57] declaring that the nation faced a state of emergency. [47] He called for "soldiers who wear their uniforms with honor to step forward and enforce the Constitution", and asked "citizens for confidence, strength, and to accompany us on this path". [47]

Guaidó announced a public assembly, referred to as an open cabildo, on 11 January [58] —a rally in the streets of Caracas, where the National Assembly announced that Guaidó was assuming the role of the acting president under the Constitution of Venezuela and announcing plans to remove President Maduro. [59] Leaders of other political parties, trade unions, women, and the students of Venezuela were given a voice at the rally; other parties did not speak of a divide, but of what they saw as a failed Bolivarian Revolution that needed to end. [59]

Maduro's response was to call the opposition a group of "little boys", describing Guaidó as "immature". The Minister for Prison Services, Iris Varela, threatened that she had picked out a prison cell for Guaidó and asked him to be quick in naming his cabinet so she could prepare prison cells for them as well. [60]

National Assembly declares Guaidó acting president

Agreement approved by the National Assembly to declare the usurpation of the presidency by Nicolas Maduro on 15 January. Acuerdo sobre la declaratoria de usurpacion de la presidencia de la republica por parte de Nicolas Maduro Moros y el restablecimiento de la vigencia de la constitucion - Pagina 1.jpg
Agreement approved by the National Assembly to declare the usurpation of the presidency by Nicolás Maduro on 15 January.

Following Guaidó's speech, the National Assembly released a press statement saying that Guaidó had assumed the role of acting president. A later statement clarified the position of Guaidó as "willing to assume command ... only possible with the help of Venezuelans". [61] The opposition did not consider this a coup d'état based on the acknowledged "illegitimacy" of Maduro by many governments, and the constitutional processes that the National Assembly said they were following, [62] specifically invoking Articles 233, 333, and 350 of the Constitution. [59] The president of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice of Venezuela in exile (based in Panama) wrote to Guaidó, requesting him to become acting president of Venezuela. [63]

On 15 January 2019, the National Assembly approved legislation to work with dozens of foreign countries to request that these nations freeze Maduro administration bank accounts. [64] Guaidó wrote a 15 January 2019 opinion piece in The Washington Post entitled "Maduro is a usurper. It's time to restore democracy in Venezuela"; he outlined Venezuela's erosion of democracy and his reasoning for the need to replace Maduro on an interim basis according to Venezuela's constitution. [65]

Guaidó announced nationwide protests to be held on 23 January—the same day as the removal of Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958—using a slogan chant of ¡Sí se puede!. [62] [66] The National Assembly worked with a coalition (Frente Amplio Venezuela Libre) to create a plan for the demonstrations, organizing a unified national force. [67] On 11 January, plans to offer incentives for the armed forces to disavow Maduro were revealed. [68]

OAS Secretary-General Luis Almagro was the first to give official support to this action, tweeting "We welcome the assumption of Juan Guaidó as interim President of Venezuela in accordance with Article 233 of the Political Constitution. You have our support, that of the international community and of the people of Venezuela." [62] Later that day, Brazil and Colombia gave their support to Guaidó as acting president of Venezuela. [69]

Detention of Guaidó and rebellion within the National Guard

Guaidó was detained on 13 January by the Bolivarian Intelligence Service (SEBIN) [70] and released 45 minutes later. [71] The SEBIN agents who intercepted his car and took him into custody were fired. [72] [73] The Information Minister, Jorge Rodríguez, said the agents did not have instructions and the arrest was orchestrated by Guaidó as a "media stunt" to gain popularity; BBC News correspondents said that it appeared to be a genuine ambush to send a message to the opposition. [72] Almagro condemned the arrest, which he called a "kidnapping", while Pompeo referred to it as an "arbitrary detention". [74]

After his detention, Guaidó said that Rodríguez's admission that the SEBIN agents acted independently showed that the government had lost control of its security forces; he called Miraflores (the presidential house and office) "desperate". [72] [74] In a later announcement, he declared himself acting president, his most direct claim to the position. [75]

In early 2019, a group of Venezuelan ex-army and police officers in Peru announced support for Guaidó, disclaiming Maduro. [76] Multiple groups of similarly retired or displaced soldiers said that they would return to fight Maduro if needed. [77] Early on 21 January, at least 27 soldiers of the Venezuelan National Guard stationed near Miraflores Palace mutinied against Maduro. After overnight fighting, the soldiers were taken by authorities. [78] [79]

Guaidó swears oath as acting president

23 January march in Caracas

On 23 January, Guaidó swore to serve as Acting President. [3] On that morning, Guaidó tweeted, "The world's eyes are on our homeland today." [80] [81] On that day, millions of Venezuelans [82] demonstrated across the country and world in support of Guaidó, [83] [84] described as "a river of humanity", [85] with a few hundred supporting Maduro outside Miraflores. [86] [87] At one end of the blocked street was a stage where Guaidó spoke and took an oath to serve as interim president, [88] [89] swearing himself in. [90]

Before the protest began, the Venezuelan National Guard used tear gas on gathering crowds at other locations. [88] Another area of the capital was blocked off at Plaza Venezuela, a large main square, with armored vehicles and riot police on hand before protestors arrived. [80] Photographic reports showed that some protests grew violent, resulting in injuries to both protesters and security. [91] By the end of the day, at least 13 people were killed. [92] Michelle Bachelet of the United Nations expressed concern that so many had been killed and requested a UN investigation into the security forces' use of violence. [93]

Mike Pence meets with Carlos Vecchio, Julio Borges, and other Washington-based Venezuelan representatives on 29 January 2019 Mike Pence meets with Carlos Vecchio, Julio Borges y Venezuelan gov't in exile.png
Mike Pence meets with Carlos Vecchio, Julio Borges, and other Washington-based Venezuelan representatives on 29 January 2019

Guaidó began to appoint individuals in late January to serve as aides or diplomats, including Carlos Vecchio as the Guaidó administration's diplomatic envoy to the US, [94] Gustavo Tarre to the OAS, [95] and Julio Borges to represent Venezuela in the Lima Group. [96] He announced that the National Assembly had approved a commission to implement a plan for the reconstruction of Venezuela, [97] [98] called Plan País (Plan for the Country). [99] He offered an Amnesty law, approved by the National Assembly, for military personnel and authorities who help to restore constitutional order. [100] [101] The Statute Governing the Transition to Democracy was approved by the National Assembly on 5 February. [102]

Maduro's response

Maduro accused the US of backing a coup, and said he would cut ties with them. [103] He said Guaidó's actions were part of a "well-written script from Washington" to create a puppet state of the United States, [104] and appealed to the American people in a 31 January video, asking them not to convert Venezuela into another Vietnam. [105]

Maduro asked for dialogue with Guaidó, saying "if I have to go meet this boy in the Pico Humboldt at three in the morning I am going, [...] if I have to go naked, I am going, [I believe] that today, sooner rather than later, the way is open for a reasonable, sincere dialogue". [106] He stated he would not leave the presidential office, saying that he was elected in compliance with the Venezuelan constitution. [107] With the two giving speeches to supporters at the same time, Guaidó replied to Maduro's call for dialogue, saying he would not initiate diplomatic talks with Maduro because he believed it would be a farce and fake diplomacy that couldn't achieve anything. [108]

On 18 February, Maduro's government expelled a group of Members of the European Parliament that planned to meet Juan Guaidó. [109] The expulsion was condemned by Guaidó as well as Pablo Casado, president of the Spanish People's Party, and the Colombian government. [110] Maduro's Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza defended the expulsions, [111] saying that the constitutional government of Venezuela "will not allow the European extreme right to disturb the peace and stability of the country with another of its gross interventionist actions" and added that "Venezuela must be respected." [112]

February: Humanitarian aid

Venezuela location map (+claimed).svg
Red pog.svg
Flag of Colombia.svg Cúcuta
Red pog.svg
Flag of Brazil.svg Pacaraima
Red pog.svg
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Curaçao
Location of the proposed entry points for humanitarian aid.

Shortages in Venezuela have occurred since 2007 during the presidency of Hugo Chávez. [113] In 2016, the National Assembly of Venezuela had declared a humanitarian crisis considering "serious shortage of medicines, medical supplies and deterioration of humanitarian infrastructure", asking Maduro's government to provide access to essential medicines and medical supplies. [16] Before the presidential crisis, the Maduro government denied several offers of aid, stating that there was not a humanitarian crisis and that such claims were used to justify foreign intervention. [114] Maduro's refusal of aid worsened the effects of Venezuela's crisis. [114] During the presidential crisis, Maduro initially refused aid, stating that Venezuela is not a country of "beggars". [115]

Guaidó has made bringing humanitarian aid to the "hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans who could die if aid does not arrive" a priority. [116] Maduro prevented the American-sponsored aid from entering Venezuela; [116] [117] As the first trucks with aid, escorted by Colombian police, approached the border on 7 February, human rights activists received them, and Venezuela's communications minister, Jorge Rodriguez said there was a plot between Colombia, the CIA and exiled Venezuelan politician Julio Borges to oust Maduro. [118] Guaidó issued an ultimatum to the Venezuelan Armed Forces on 12 February, stating that humanitarian aid will enter Venezuela on 23 February and that the armed forces "will have to decide if it will be on the side of the Venezuelans and the Constitution or the usurper". [119]

Humanitarian aid intended for Venezuela was also stockpiled on the Brazilian border. [120] Groups of indigenous Pemon peoples blocked the entry of military vehicles into the region, [121] and members of armed forces loyal to Maduro fired upon them with live ammunition on 22 February. [121] Fifteen Pemon were injured, four seriously, and two Pemon were killed. [122] [123]

Venezuelan Dragoon 300s were deployed in Gran Sabana, near Pemon areas Tanqueta militar.JPG
Venezuelan Dragoon 300s were deployed in Gran Sabana, near Pemon areas

With what he declared was the help of the Venezuelan military, [124] Guaidó defied the restriction imposed by the Maduro administration on him leaving Venezuela, secretly crossed the border, [125] and showed up at the Venezuela Aid Live concert organized by Richard Branson in Cúcuta, Colombia on 22 February, [126] also to be present for the planned delivery of humanitarian aid. [124] [127] Testing Maduro's authority, he was met by presidents Iván Duque of Colombia, [126] [128] Sebastián Piñera from Chile, [129] and Mario Abdo Benítez from Paraguay, [130] as well as the OAS Secretary General Almagro. [128]

On 23 February, trucks with humanitarian aid attempted to pass into Venezuela from Brazil and Colombia, opposed by Maduro's administration. [131] [132] At the Colombia–Venezuela border, the caravans were tear-gassed or shot at with rubber bullets by Venezuelan personnel. [133] [134] Near the Brazil–Venezuela border, more than 2,000 indigenous people from Gran Sabana gathered to assist with the entrance of international aid. [135] The Venezuelan National Guard repressed demonstrations near Brazil, while colectivos attacked protesters in San Antonio del Táchira and Ureña, [136] leaving at least four dead and about 20 injured. [137] [138] A ship originating from Puerto Rico attempted to deliver humanitarian aid to Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, but the vessel, carrying civilians, returned after the Bolivarian Navy of Venezuela threatened to "open fire" on it. [139]

By the end of the day, a preliminary report by the OAS stated there were more than 285 injured. [140] Guaidó said the world "had 'been able to see with their own eyes' how Maduro had violated international law. 'The Geneva protocols clearly state that destroying humanitarian aid is a crime against humanity,' he said." [141] Venezuelan Vice President Delcy Rodríguez declared that "they saw only a little piece of what we are willing to do", [142] and Diosdado Cabello stated "we showed the tip of the iceberg". [143]

Lima Group meeting and Latin American tour

Guaido, Colombia president Duque, and US vice president Pence during the February 2019 Lima Group meeting in Colombia Vice President Mike Pence Travels to Colombia (32269091507).jpg
Guaidó, Colombia president Duque, and US vice president Pence during the February 2019 Lima Group meeting in Colombia

After a joint announcement with Almagro and Duque, where Guaidó asked that the international community continue to support "all options on the table", [144] Guaidó traveled from Cúcuta to Bogotá for a 24 February meeting with US vice president Pence. [145] [144]

With the failure to bring humanitarian aid into Venezuela, the Lima Group met in Bogotá on 25 February amid continuing tension. [146] [147] Guaidó and Pence attended the meeting; [148] [146] Mexico, Costa Rica, Guyana and Saint Lucia did not attend. [149] The group urged the International Criminal Court to pursue charges of crimes against humanity for the Maduro administration's use of violence against civilians and blockade of humanitarian aid. [149] [150]

Pence did not rule out the use of US military force. [146] The Venezuelan government responded saying that Pence was trying to order others to take the country's assets, and saying that its basic rights were being disregarded in a campaign to unseat Maduro. [147] The European Union and Brazil announced strong opposition to military intervention; Brazil's vice president said it would not permit its territory to be used to invade Venezuela, [151] and the European Union cautioned against the use of military force. [147] [152] The Lima Group rejected the use of force. [149] The US FAA warned pilots not to fly below 26,000 feet over Venezuela, [153] and US military officials said they had flown reconnaissance flights off the coast of Venezuela to gather classified intelligence about Maduro. [154]

From Bogotá, Guaidó embarked on a regional tour to meet with the presidents of Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Ecuador, [155] to discuss ways to rebuild Venezuela and defeat Maduro. [156] Guaidó's trip was approved by Venezuela's National Assembly, as required by the Constitution of Venezuela. [157] Because of the travel restriction placed upon him by the Maduro administration, he could face prison when returning to Venezuela; [155] Maduro said that Guaidó was welcome to return, but would have to face justice in the courts for breaching his travel ban. [158] Guaidó announced that he planned to return to Venezuela despite the threats of imprisonment, and said Maduro's "regime [was] weak, lacking support in Venezuela and international recognition". [159] He re-entered Venezuela on 4 March, via Simón Bolívar International Airport in Maiquetía; [160] he was received at the airport by diplomats from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United States, [160] and in Caracas by a crowd of supporters. [161]

Two days after Guaidó's return, Arreaza declared German ambassador Daniel Kriener persona non grata and gave him 48 hours to leave the country because of his role in helping Guaidó re-enter; only Kriener was targeted for expulsion. [160] The Venezuelan Foreign Ministry accused Kriener of interference in internal affairs and called it unacceptable for a foreign diplomat to act "in clear alignment with the conspiracy agenda of extremist sectors of the Venezuelan opposition". [160] German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas denounced the expulsion as an incomprehensible decision that escalates the situation instead of easing tensions. [162] Guaidó called on European governments to tighten financial sanctions against the Maduro government in response to its expulsion of the German ambassador. [163]

March: Blackouts, UN delegation visit, detention of Guaidó aide

Guri Dam that supplies most of Venezuela's power Guri Dam in Venezuela.JPG
Guri Dam that supplies most of Venezuela's power

In March 2019, Venezuela experienced a near total electrical blackout, and Maduro accused the US of "masterminding a 'demonic' plot to force him from power by crippling the country's electricity system with an imperialist 'electromagnetic attack'," according to The Guardian. [165] There were at least 43 reported deaths. [166] Four more people died in a second large blackout that lasted from 25 to 28 March. [167] [168]

Venezuela once produced over 3 million barrels per day (BPD) of crude oil. [169] Production "has been declining for years due to economic collapse"; in March, Venezuela lost another 150,000 barrels per day in production. [170] An oil expert told France 24 that production completely ceased at one point during the blackouts. [169] The lack of power caused most of Venezuela's oil rigs to be shut down, and for a short time, cut the country's production in half; production for the month dropped below 900,000 BPD. [lower-alpha 3] Wills Rangel, a former director of PDVSA, said the Orinoco Belt has not yet recovered from the blackouts, and full recovery could take months. [172]

Maduro prosecutor Tarek Saab called for an investigation of Guaidó, alleging that he had "sabotaged" the electric sector. [174] Guaidó said that Venezuela's largest-ever power outage was "the product of the inefficiency, the incapability, the corruption of a regime that doesn't care about the lives of Venezuelans", [174] and The Guardian reported that "many specialists believe the calamitous nationwide blackout (...) is the result of years of mismanagement, corruption and incompetence". [175]

Maduro called on the colectivos saying, "The time has come for active resistance". [175] [176] The US withdrew all embassy personnel from Venezuela. [177]

While Maduro visited hydroelectric facilities in Ciudad Guayana on 16 March, promising to restructure the state-run power company Corpoelec, his Vice President Delcy Rodríguez announced that Maduro would restructure his administration, asking the "entire executive Cabinet to put their roles up for review". [178] Guaidó announced he would embark on a tour of the country beginning 16 March, to organize committees for Operation Freedom with the goal to claim the presidential residence, Miraflores Palace. [179] From the first rally in Carabobo state, he said, "We will be in each state of Venezuela and for each state we have visited the responsibility will be yours, the leaders, the united, [to] organize ourselves in freedom commands." [179]

On 12 March, the National Assembly approved cutting Venezuela's oil supply to Cuba, saving about US$2.6M daily, according to Guaidó. [180] In the education sector, AVERU (Venezuelan Association of University Rectors) stated on 18 March that salaries for employees of public universities would be conditioned on the employee recognizing Maduro as president; AVERU said that by placing this condition, the Ministry of University Education was violating the Constitution and university autonomy. [181]

Following the February Lima Group meeting, Chilean President Sebastián Piñera criticized United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) commissioner Michelle Bachelet on 3 March for her failure to condemn Maduro, and called on her "to fulfill the role as high commissioner to defend human rights in a country where they are being brutally overrun". [182] Her office sent a five-person delegation to Venezuela from 11 to 22 March; the visit occurred during the nationwide blackout. [183] [184] Government officials began to repair hospitals, [185] and the Lara state College of Physicians denounced that a "farce" was underway "to give an express makeover to the hospital, knowing that here people die due to lack of supplies". [186] On 20 March, Bachelet delivered a preliminary oral report before the UN Human Rights Council, [187] [188] in which she outlined a devastating and deteriorating human rights situation in Venezuela, expressed concern that sanctions would worsen the situation, and called on authorities to show a true commitment to recognizing and resolving the situation. [189]

Roberto Marrero—Guaidó's chief of staff and Leopoldo López's attorney—was arrested by SEBIN during a raid on his home on 21 March. [190] The US had repeatedly warned Maduro not to go after Guaidó; Haaretz reported that the arrest of Guaidó's number-two person was a test of the US. [190] Just hours after Marrero's detention, the United States Department of the Treasury responded by placing sanctions on the Venezuelan bank BANDES and its subsidiaries. [191] [192] Bolton told Univision the sanctions were a direct response to Marrero's arrest. [193]

Following Guaidó's Latin American tour in February 2019, Elvis Amoroso, comptroller for the Maduro administration, alleged in March that Guaidó had not explained how he paid for the trip, claimed there were inconsistencies between his level of spending and income, [194] [195] and said Guaidó would be barred from running for public office for fifteen years. [194] [196] The comptroller general is not a judicial body; according to constitutional lawyer José Vicente Haro, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled in 2011 that an administrative body cannot disallow a public servant from running. Constitutional law expert Juan Manuel Raffalli stated that Article 65 of Venezuela's Constitution provides that such determinations may only be made by criminal courts, after judgment of criminal activity. [197]

April: Red Cross aid effort, OAS representative and parliamentary immunity

US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo speaks at the OAS Permanent Council in January 2019 Secretary Pompeo Delivers Remarks at the Organization of American States Headquarters (46863388441).jpg
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo speaks at the OAS Permanent Council in January 2019

Francesco Rocca, president of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, announced in March that the Red Cross was preparing to bring humanitarian aid to the country in April to help ease both the chronic hunger and the medical crisis. [198] The Wall Street Journal said that the acceptance of humanitarian shipments by Maduro was his first acknowledgement that Venezuela is "suffering from an economic collapse". [199] Guaidó said the acceptance of humanitarian aid was the "result of our pressure and insistence", [199] and called on Venezuelans to "stay vigilant to make sure incoming aid is not diverted for 'corrupt' purposes". [200] Maduro and Arreaza met with representative of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) on 9 April, [201] and Maduro, for the first time, indicated he was prepared to accept international aid—although denying a humanitarian crisis exists. [202] Red Cross was allowed access to prisons in Venezuela for first time since before Chávez died, ranging from prisons holding largely foreigners to prisons holding largely political prisoners to military detention centers. [203]

Following the joint report from Human Rights Watch and Johns Hopkins in April 2019, increasing announcements from the United Nations about the scale of the humanitarian crisis, and the softening of Maduro's position on receiving aid, the ICRC tripled its budget for aid to Venezuela. [204] The increased Red Cross aid would focus in four areas: the migration crisis, the health care system collapse, water and sanitation, and prisons and detention centers. [204]

The first Red Cross delivery of supplies for hospitals arrived on 16 April, offering an encouraging sign that the Maduro administration would allow more aid to enter. [205] According to the Associated Press, having long denied that there was a humanitarian crisis in Venezuela, Maduro positioned the delivery "as a necessary measure to confront punishing U.S. economic sanctions"; having "rallied the international community", Guaidó "quickly claimed credit for the effort". [206] According to The New York Times, "armed pro-government paramilitaries" fired weapons to disrupt the first Red Cross delivery, and officials associated with Maduro's party told the Red Cross to leave. [207]

TSJ supreme justice Maikel Moreno asked that the Constituent Assembly (ANC), "controlled by Chavismo", remove Guaidó's parliamentary immunity as president of the National Assembly, [208] moving the Maduro administration a step closer towards prosecuting Guaidó. [209] Supporters of Guaidó disagree that the Maduro-backed institutions have the authority to ban Guaidó from leaving the country, and consider acts of the ANC "null and void". [208] The Venezuelan Constitution provides that only the National Assembly can bring the President to trial by approving the legal proceeding in a "merit hearing". [208] On 2 April, after the ANC voted to remove his parliamentary immunity; Guaidó promised to continue fighting "Maduro’s 'cowardly, miserable and murderous' regime". [210]

On 9 April, the OAS voted 18 to 9, with six abstentions, to accept Guaidó's envoy, Gustavo Tarre Briceño, as the ambassador from Venezuela until new elections can be held. The permanent council approved a text stating that "Nicolas Maduro's presidential authority lacks legitimacy and his designations for government posts, therefore, lack the necessary legitimacy." Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Dominica, Grenada, Mexico, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela voted against the change. [211] Maduro's administration responded calling Tarre a "loud-mouth political usurper" and the decision a "criminal and rampant violation of international law and the OAS Charter", saying they do not intend to respect decisions made by Tarre. [212] The nomination was accepted 20 days before the deadline on Venezuela leaving the organization, after they triggered the process in 2017. According to the Washington Post, this acceptance undermines Maduro's presence internationally and marks a step in the official recognition of Guaidó's government. [213]

Recognition, reactions, and public opinion

Nations recognizing presidential power as of 28 February 2019:
Venezuela
Vocal neutrality
No statement
Support National Assembly
Recognize Guaido
Recognize Maduro Venezuela president recognition map 2019.svg
Nations recognizing presidential power as of 28 February 2019:
  Venezuela
  Vocal neutrality
  No statement
  Support National Assembly
  Recognize Guaidó
  Recognize Maduro

As of March 2019, Guaidó is recognized as the interim president of Venezuela by 54 countries, [9] "including the US and most Latin American and European countries". [10] Other countries are divided between a neutral position, support for the National Assembly in general without endorsing Guaidó, and support for Maduro's presidency. The United States was the first country to recognize Guaidó on 23 January; [152] US President Donald Trump quickly recognized him and US vice president Mike Pence sent support and solidarity as well. [214] AP News reported that "familiar geopolitical sides" had formed by 24 January, with Russia, China, Iran, Syria, and Cuba supporting Maduro, and the US, Canada, and most of Western Europe supporting Guaidó. [11] [215]

Russia has been a vocal supporter of Maduro, as well as being a military and economic ally. [216] Domestic reactions in Russia have been mixed with some publications praising Russia's support of Maduro and its willingness to confront the US, and others criticizing economic aid to Venezuela which they deem an economic black hole. [216] Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan offered immediate support, [217] and according to Haaretz, pledged investments in Venezuela's economy as well. [218] China was quick to support Maduro after the 2018 Venezuelan presidential election, [219] and voted against a UN resolution calling for new presidential elections. [220]

The European Parliament recognized Guaidó as interim president. [221] The European Union unanimously recognized the National Assembly, [222] but Italy dissented on recognizing Guaidó. [223] The OAS approved a resolution on 10 January 2019 "to not recognize the legitimacy of Nicolas Maduro's new term". [224] In a 24 January special OAS session, sixteen countries including the US recognized Guaidó as interim president, but they did not achieve the majority needed for a resolution. [225] The United Nations called for dialogue and deescalation of tension, but could not agree on any other path for resolving the crisis. [226] Twelve of the fourteen members of the Lima Group recognize Guaidó; [227] Mexico called for non-intervention in Venezuelan internal affairs, [228] and Uruguay supports Maduro, but calls for new elections. [229] [230]

Public opinion polls taken after 23 January show more than 80% of Venezuelans support Guaidó as acting president. [231] [232] [233] The Venezuelan Observatory of Social Conflict stated that there were on average 69 protests daily in Venezuela during the first three months of 2019, for a total of 6,211 protests, representing a significant increase over previous years (157% of protests for the same period in 2018, and 395% relative to the number in 2017). [234]

Defections

The Miami Herald reported that the Maduro regime feared a military uprising and defections, had made many arrests, and Defense Minister Vladimir Padrino López ordered a counterintelligence effort to locate conspiracists or possible defectors. [232] According to France 24, Maduro declared "military deserters who fled to Colombia have become mercenaries" as part of a US-backed coup. [235] Guaidó declared that the opposition had held secret meetings with military officials to discuss the Amnesty Law. [77]

Hugo Carvajal, the head of Venezuela's military intelligence for ten years during Hugo Chávez's presidency and "one of the government's most prominent figures", [236] publicly broke with Maduro and endorsed Guaidó as acting president. [237]

Several top military figures recognized Guaidó, [238] [239] and hundreds of military personnel have defected to Colombia, but top military command has not broken ranks with Maduro as of mid-April 2019. [240]

Following the 23 January events, some Venezuelan diplomats in the United States supported Guaidó; the majority returned to Venezuela on Maduro's orders. [241]

Foreign military involvement

On 18 February, President Donald Trump warned Venezuelan soldiers to renounce loyalty to Nicolas Maduro. President Trump Delivers Remarks to the Venezuelan American Community (46422484424).jpg
On 18 February, President Donald Trump warned Venezuelan soldiers to renounce loyalty to Nicolás Maduro.

In early 2019, with Cuban and Russian-backed security forces in the country, United States military involvement became the subject of speculation. [243] Senior U.S. officials have declared that "all options are on the table", [244] but have also said that "our objective is a peaceful transfer of power". [245] Maduro announced that state funds would be used to purchase new military equipment, saying "we are going to make enough investment so that Venezuela has all the anti-aircraft and anti-missile defense systems ... even the most modern in the world, Venezuela will have them because Venezuela wants peace". [246]

Colombian guerrillas from National Liberation Army (ELN) have also vowed to defend Maduro, with ELN leaders in Cuba stating that they are drafting plans to provide military assistance to Maduro. [247] The Redes Foundation denounced in the Colombian Public Ministry that armed groups made up of ELN members and FARC dissidents, supported by the Bolivarian National Police and FAES officials, murdered two Venezuelans, Eduardo José Marrero and Luigi Ángel Guerrero, during a protest in the frontier city of San Cristóbal, on Táchira state. [248]

Michael Shifter, president of the Inter-American Dialogue think tank, stated that "a military action of the United States against Venezuela would be contrary to the movements of the Trump administration to retire troops from Syria or Afghanistan." [249] According to professor Erick Langer of Georgetown University, "Cuba and Russia have already intervened". [243] A Cuban military presence of at least 15,000 personnel was in Venezuela in early 2018, [250] while estimates ranging from hundreds to thousands of Cuban security forces were reported in 2019. [243]

According to Giancarlo Fiorella, writing in Foreign Affairs , the "loudest calls for intervention are coming not from the White House and its media mouthpieces but from some members of the Venezuelan opposition and from residents of the country desperate for a solution—any solution—to their years-long plight." [244] Fiorella states that "talk of invoking article 187(11) has become commonplace" in Venezuela, adding that "the push for a military intervention in Venezuela is most intense not among hawks in Washington but inside the country itself". [244] Article 187(11) of the Constitution of Venezuela provides: "It shall be the function of the National Assembly: (11) To authorize the operation of Venezuelan military missions abroad or foreign military missions within the country." [46] [244] Following the unsuccessful attempt to bring humanitarian aid into Venezuela on 23 February, a political faction supported by National Assembly deputy María Corina Machado began to demand application of article 187, to "open the way" for "foreign intervention in order to prevent crimes against humanity". [244] Former mayor of Caracas, Antonio Ledezma has also called for application of 187, and the calls for intervention have taken hold outside of the political realm, with a March poll showing 87.5% support for foreign intervention. [lower-alpha 4] [244] Guaidó has said he will call for intervention "when the time comes", but in media interviews, he has not stated he supports removing Maduro by force. [244]

Russian presence

Reuters reported that Russian mercenaries associated with the Wagner Group were in Venezuela to defend Maduro's government. [251] Professor Robert Ellis of the United States Army War College described 400 Wagner Group mercenaries provided by Russia as the "palace guard of Nicolás Maduro". [243] Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov denied the deployment of Russian mercenaries, calling it "fake news". [252] [253]

Two nuclear weapon-capable Russian planes landed in Venezuela in December 2018 in what Reuters called a "show of support for Maduro's socialist government". [254] On 3 March 2019, Russian Federation Council speaker Valentina Matviyenko told Venezuelan Vice President Delcy Rodríguez that Russia will make every effort to prevent military intervention in Venezuela and believes that the crisis was artificially created by the US, which can be solved only through dialogue. [255]

On 23 March 2019, two Russian planes landed in Venezuela carrying 99 troops [256] and 35 tonnes of matériel. [254] Alexey Seredin from the Russian Embassy in Caracas said the two planes were "part of an effort to maintain Maduro's defense apparatus, which includes Sukhoi fighter jets and antiaircraft systems purchased from Russia". [256] On 29 March, a flight simulation center for Russian helicopters was launched in Venezuela, [257] and another flight simulator center is planned, as is a plant to produce Russian arms. [256] Russia supplies arms, special forces, and military advisors to Venezuela, and a base for cyber warfare is under construction on a Venezuelan island. [258]

Diosdado Cabello said the arrival of the planes was approved and authorized by Maduro. [259] Russian Foreign Affairs spokeswoman Maria Zakharova also confirmed the presence of military personnel in Venezuela, arguing that the countries had a bilateral agreement on military cooperation signed by Presidents Putin and Chávez in May 2001. [260] [261] Seredin said Russian investments in Venezuelan mining, agriculture and transportation is also contemplated. [256]

National Assembly deputy Williams Dávila said the National Assembly would investigate the "penetration of foreign forces in Venezuela", since Venezuela's Constitution requires that the legislature authorize foreign military missions and the arrival of Russian military was a "violation of Venezuelan sovereignty". [262] Guaidó declared that foreign soldiers have been imported because Maduro's government does not trust the Venezuelan Armed Forces. [263] US Secretary of State Pompeo accused Russia of "reckless escalation" of the situation in Venezuela, [259] and warned Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov that the US would "not stand idly by", but did not say what the US response to Russian troops in Venezuela would be. [264] Lavrov responded by accusing the Trump administration of organizing a coup in Venezuela. [265] A United States Southern Command spokesperson said Russia's deployment of troops "directly undercuts the democratic aspirations of the Venezuelan people"; the OAS called it "a harmful act to Venezuelan sovereignty". [266] In late March, US National Security Advisor Bolton said the US considered Russia's involvement a "direct threat to international peace and security in the region". [256]

Assets and reserves

Venezuela's third-largest export (after crude oil and refined petroleum products) is gold. [267] The World Gold Council reported in January 2019 that Venezuela's foreign-held gold reserves had fallen by 69% to US$8.4 billion during Maduro's presidency. [268]

In mid-December 2018, a Venezuelan delegation went to London to arrange for the Bank of England to return the $1.2 billion in gold bullion that Venezuela stores at the bank. Unnamed sources told Bloomberg that the Bank of England declined the transfer due to a request from US Secretary of State Pompeo and National Security Adviser Bolton, who wanted to "cut off the regime from its overseas assets". [269] In an interview with the BBC, Maduro asked Britain to return the gold instead of sending humanitarian aid, saying that the gold was "legally Venezuela's, it belongs to the Central Bank of Venezuela" and could be used to solve the country's problems. Guaidó asked the British government to ensure that the Bank of England does not provide the gold to the Maduro government. Maduro also said that US sanctions have frozen $10 billion in Venezuelan overseas accounts. [270]

In mid-February 2019, a National Assembly legislator Angel Alvarado said that eight tonnes of gold worth over US$340 million [267] had been taken from the vault while the head of the Central Bank was abroad. [271] In March, Ugandan investigators reported that the gold could have been smuggled into that country. [272] Government sources said another eight tonnes of gold was taken out of the Central Bank in the first week of April 2019; the government source said that there were 100 tonnes left. The gold was removed while minimal staff was present and the bank was not fully operational because of the ongoing, widespread power outages; the destination of the gold was not known. [273] [274]

In 2009, Venezuela's foreign reserves peaked at US$43 billion; by July 2017, they had fallen below $10 billion "for the first time in 15 years", [275] and as of March 2019, they had dropped to US$8 billion. [276] About two-thirds of Venezuela's reserves are in gold. [277] Part of Venezuela's remaining reserves are held by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in financial instruments called SDRs. In 2018, Venezuela had almost $1 billion in IMF SDRs, but it had drawn US$600 million in one year. To access SDR reserves, IMF rules require than a government be recognized by a majority of IMF members, and there is no majority recognition for either man claiming the Venezuelan presidency; the IMF denied Maduro access to the remaining US$400 million—"one of the regime’s last remaining sources of cash" according to Bloomberg. [277] The IMF has not recognized Guaidó; [278] Ricardo Hausmann—Guaidó's representative recognized by the Inter-American Development Bank—said the "IMF is safeguarding the assets until a new government takes over. 'Those funds will be available when this usurpation ends.'" The US has given Guaidó control of "key Venezuelan bank accounts", [277] and has said it will give Guaidó control of US assets once his administration is in power. [270]

The Portuguese bank Novo Banco stopped Maduro's attempt to transfer over US$1 billion [279] through BANDES subsidiary, Banco Bandes Uruguay, in early 2019. [280] Over two months later, Maduro responded that Portugal had illegally blocked the money, and asked that it be returned to buy food and medicine. [281]

Sanctions

Bomba PDV.jpg
Rosneft-azs.jpg
Station service Repsol.jpg
Filling stations
Top: Venezuela's PDVSA; bottom: Russia's Rosneft, Spain's Repsol

During the crisis in Venezuela, the United States, the European Union, Canada, Mexico, Panama and Switzerland have applied individual sanctions against people associated with Maduro's administration, including government officials, members of the military and security forces, and private individuals alleged to be involved in human rights abuses, corruption, degradation in the rule of law and repression of democracy. Public Radio International (PRI) said the sanctions targeted Maduro and Chavismo "elites", while "they've done little to make an impact on ordinary Venezuelans, whose lives have spiraled into a humanitarian crisis as hyperinflation has driven nearly 3 million to flee." [282] As of 27 March 2018, the Washington Office on Latin America said 78 Venezuelans associated with Maduro had been sanctioned by several countries. [283]

In 2018, Trump signed an order that prohibits people in the U.S. from making any type of transaction with digital currency emitted by or in the name of the government of Venezuela as of 9 January 2018. The executive order referenced "Petro", a crypto-currency also known as petromoneda. [284]

As the humanitarian crisis deepened and expanded, the Trump administration levied more serious economic sanctions against Venezuela, and "Maduro accused the US of plunging Venezuelan citizens further into economic crisis." [282] In January 2019, during the presidential crisis, the United States imposed sanctions on the Venezuelan state-owned oil and natural gas company PDVSA to pressure Maduro to resign. [285] Reuters said the sanctions are expected to reduce Venezuela's ability to purchase food and other imports which could result in further shortages and worsen its economic position. [285] PRI said that "sanctions against PDVSA are likely to yield stronger and more direct economic consequences". [282] Companies including India's Reliance Industries Limited, Russia's Rosneft, Spain's Repsol, and commodity trading companies Trafigura and Vitol continue to supply Venezuela's oil industry as of 11 April 2019. [286] On 17 April, Reuters reported that Repsol was in discussion with the Trump administration and had suspended its swaps with PDVSA. [287]

The United States Department of the Treasury placed sanctions affecting Venezuela's gold industry in March 2019, explaining that Maduro's government "is pillaging the wealth of Venezuela while imperiling indigenous people by encroaching on protected areas and causing deforestation and habitat loss". [288] After the detention of Guaidó's chief of staff, Roberto Marrero, in March 2019, the US also sanctioned the Venezuelan bank BANDES and its subsidiaries. [191] The Maduro administration issued a statement saying that it "energetically rejects the unilateral, coercive, arbitrary and illegal measures" that would affect banking for millions of people. [280]

Censorship and media control

Univision anchor Jorge Ramos was detained by the Maduro administration in February 2019 after a live interview. NASA Univision Hispanic Education Campaign DVIDS858679 (cropped).jpg
Univision anchor Jorge Ramos was detained by the Maduro administration in February 2019 after a live interview.

Between 12 January and 18 January, [289] [290] internet access to Wikipedia (in all languages) was blocked in Venezuela [291] [292] after Guaidó's page on the Spanish Wikipedia was edited to show him as president. [293]

Later on 21 January, the day of a National Guard mutiny in Cotiza, internet access to some social media was reported blocked for CANTV users. The Venezuelan government denied it had engaged in blocking. [294] [295] During the 23 January protests, widespread internet outages for CANTV users were reported. [296] [297]

Live streams of the National Assembly sessions and Guaidó's speeches have been regularly disrupted for CANTV users. [298] Since 22 January, some radio programs have been ordered off air; other programs have been temporarily canceled or received censorship warnings, including a threat to close private television and radio stations if they recognize Guaidó as acting president or interim president of Venezuela. [299]

The website "Voluntarios X Venezuela" was promoted by Guaidó and the National Assembly to gather volunteers for humanitarian aid. [300] Between 12 and 13 February, CANTV users that tried to access were redirected to a mirror site with a different URL address. The mirror site asked for personal information: names, ID, address and telephone numbers. The phishing website used the .ve domain controlled by Conatel. This manipulation was denounced as a technique to identify dissidents to the government. [301] Following the phishing incident, the official site was completely blocked for CANTV users on 16 February. [302]

The Venezuelan press workers union denounced that in 2019, 40 journalists had been illegally detained as of 12 March; the National Assembly Parliamentary Commission for Media declared that there had been 173 aggressions against press workers as of 13 March. The commission planned to report these aggressions to the International Criminal Court. [303]

See also

Notes

  1. Sources reporting on claims of the National Assembly being the "only democratically elected" or "only legitimate" political body in Venezuela include: Financial Times , [26] the BBC, [27] Economic Times , [28] CTV, [29] Business Times , [30] Reuters agency, [31] CBC, [32] etc.
  2. On unchecked power of the executive: Human Rights Watch 2018 report, [33] Human Rights Watch 2017 report, [34] Amnesty International, [35] and Amnesty International on opposition. [36]
  3. The International Energy Agency said Venezuela's March production was 870,000 BPD. [171] Bloomberg says it averaged 890,000 BPD for the month of March. [172] Venezuela told OPEC it produced 960,000 BPD. [173]
  4. Foreign Affairs states "this figure is likely inflated—the surveys do not define what a military intervention under 187(11) would look like. [244]

Related Research Articles

Censorship in Venezuela

Censorship in Venezuela refers to all actions which can be considered as suppression in speech in the country. Reporters Without Borders ranked Venezuela 137th out of 180 countries in its World Press Freedom Index 2015 and classified Venezuela's freedom of information in the "difficult situation" level.

Crisis in Venezuela Economic, political and social crisis in Venezuela

A socioeconomic and political crisis that began in Venezuela during the presidency of Hugo Chávez, has continued into the presidency of Nicolás Maduro. It is marked by hyperinflation, climbing hunger, disease, crime and death rates, and massive emigration from the country. The situation is the worst economic crisis in Venezuela's history, and among the worst in the world since 2014.

2017 Constituent National Assembly Venezuelan Constituent Assembly

The Constituent National Assembly is a constituent assembly elected in 2017 to draft a new constitution for Venezuela. Its members were elected in a special 2017 election that was condemned by over forty mostly Latin American and Western states. The Democratic Unity Roundtable—the opposition to the incumbent ruling party—also boycotted the election claiming that the Constituent Assembly was "a trick to keep [the incumbent ruling party] in power." Since the opposition did not participate in the election, the incumbent Great Patriotic Pole, dominated by the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, won almost all seats in the assembly by default.

The Supreme Tribunal of Justice of Venezuela (TSJ) in exile is the highest court of law in the Venezuela and the head of the judicial branch established on 21 July 2017 following the 2017 Venezuelan constitutional crisis.

Juan Guaidó Venezuelan politician and engineer

Juan Gerardo Guaidó Márquez is a Venezuelan politician who is the President of the National Assembly of Venezuela and is recognized as acting President of Venezuela by 54 governments. He is a member of the centrist social-democratic Popular Will party, and serves as a federal deputy to the National Assembly, representing the state of Vargas.

Second inauguration of Nicolás Maduro The Presidential inauguration of Venezuelas Nicolás Maduro on 10 January 2019

The second inauguration of Nicolás Maduro as President of Venezuela took place on Thursday, 10 January 2019. The inauguration involved the swearing-in of Nicolás Maduro for his second term, and, especially within the context of Maduro's election, has been controversial and contested by various figures and organizations.

Block of Wikipedia in Venezuela Ongoing censorship

The block of Wikipedia in Venezuela is the censoring of all versions of Wikipedia by the Venezuelan state company CANTV, the main telecommunications provider to Venezuela. CANTV has 1.5 million users, all of whom were affected by the decision.

Timeline of the 2019 Venezuelan protests Overview of events

The 2019 Venezuelan protests began in the first days of January as a result of the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis. Protests against the legitimacy of the Nicolás Maduro's presidency began at the time of his second inauguration following a controversial presidential election in 2018. Rallies of support were also held for President of the National Assembly, Juan Guaidó, with some Venezuelans and foreign government's recognizing him as the interim President of Venezuela.

2019 Venezuelan protests Ongoing protests

The 2019 Venezuelan protests are a collection of protests that have been organised, since 11 January, as a coordinated effort to remove Nicolás Maduro from the presidency. Demonstrations began following Maduro's controversial second inauguration, developing into a presidential crisis between Maduro and National Assembly president Juan Guaidó. The protests also include counter-demonstrations organised by those who support Maduro and have taken to the street to support him.

Venezuela Aid Live benefit concert organized by Richard Branson & Bruno Ocampo to raise money for aid in Venezuela

Venezuela Aid Live was a concert to benefit Venezuela in Cúcuta, Colombia, a city near the Venezuelan border, on 22 February 2019. The all-day concert, called Música por Venezuela: Ayuda y Libertad, was organized by Richard Branson and Bruno Ocampo, and featured over thirty of the best known Latin American artists from nine countries. The concert's slogan was, "Let the stars shine for all".

2019 shipping of humanitarian aid to Venezuela

During the presidential crisis between the Venezuelan governments of Nicolás Maduro and Juan Guaidó, a coalition of Colombia, Brazil, the United States and the Netherlands attempted to bring essential goods as a response to shortages in Venezuela. The three main bases used for the operation are: the Colombian city of Cúcuta, the Brazilian state of Roraima,, and the island of Curaçao, of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Responses to the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis political crisis

During the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis concerning who is the legitimate President of Venezuela, reactions and responses to the crisis have been divided.

The Statute Governing the Transition to Democracy to Re-establish the Validity of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is a statute adopted by the Venezuelan National Assembly that defines the "duration of a transition government and its political and economic responsibilities". Approved on 5 February 2019, through its seven chapters and thirty-nine articles, the Transition Statute "governs the installation of a provisional Government and the convocation of free elections", and "establishes the election of new rectors of the National Electoral Council, new magistrates of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice and new representatives of the Citizen Power." It also establishes that – in the absence of a constitutionally elected president – the National Assembly President is the Acting President of Venezuela.

2019 Venezuelan blackouts Nationwide power outages

Nationwide recurring electrical blackouts in Venezuela began in March 2019. Nicolás Maduro's administration attributes the electricity shortages to sabotage; experts and state-run Corpoelec sources attribute them to lack of maintenance and to a lack of technical expertise in the country resulting from a brain drain.

Roberto Eugenio Marrero Borjas is a Venezuelan attorney, politician, and chief of staff to Juan Guaidó; he was arrested by SEBIN during a raid on his home in the early morning hours of 21 March, and detained in El Helicoide, a prison run by SEBIN and "considered the country's largest torture center" according to Clarín. Marrero is also an attorney for Leopoldo López; López is Guaidó's mentor and a political prisoner.

Fabiana Rosales periodista

Fabiana Andreina Rosales Guerrero de Guaidó is a Venezuelan journalist and social media human rights activist. As the wife of Juan Guaidó, who is recognized by more than 50 governments as the acting President of Venezuela, she is considered by the White House and the National Assembly of Venezuela as the First Lady of Venezuela.

There has been censorship and media control during the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis.

Venezuelan crisis defection Defections during crisis in Venezuela

Defections from the Bolivarian Revolution occurred under the administrations of Presidents Hugo Chávez and Nicolás Maduro. The 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis concerning who is the legitimate President of Venezuela has been underway since 10 January 2019, when the opposition-majority National Assembly declared that incumbent Nicolás Maduro's 2018 reelection was invalid and the body declared its president, Juan Guaidó, to be acting president of the nation. Guaidó encouraged military personnel and security officials to withdraw support from Maduro, and offered an amnesty law, approved by the National Assembly, for military personnel and authorities who help to restore constitutional order.

References

  1. 1 2 Bullock, Penn (10 January 2019). "Climate Change, U.S. Shutdown, Michael Cohen: Your Friday Briefing". New York Times (Online) via ProQuest. President Nicolás Maduro was inaugurated for a second term after an election last year that was widely considered illegitimate — and despite a plummeting economy and skyrocketing violence, hunger and migration. Also available online.
  2. 1 2 "El Tribunal Supremo de Justicia de Venezuela declara "inconstitucional" a la Asamblea Nacional y anula el nombramiento de Juan Guaidó como su presidente" . Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  3. 1 2 "National Assembly President Juan Guaido swears himself in as President of Venezuela". CNN. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  4. 1 2 "La OEA aprobó la resolución que declara ilegítimo al nuevo gobierno de Nicolás Maduro" [The OAS approved the resolution that declared the new government of Nicolás Maduro illegitimate]. Infobae (in Spanish). 10 January 2019.
  5. "UN political chief calls for dialogue to ease tensions in Venezuela; Security Council divided over path to end crisis" . Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  6. "Canciller Arreaza advierte que objetivo de plan golpista es el petróleo venezolano" (in Spanish). presidencia.gob.ve. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  7. "Maduro afirma que el petróleo es el principal motivo de la presión de EEUU contra Venezuela" (in Spanish). Europa Press. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  8. Borges, Anelise (18 February 2019). "'I'm ready to die for my country's future,' Juan Guaido tells Euronews". Euronews. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  9. 1 2 DeYoung Karen (4 April 2019). "Diseases surge in Venezuela under health system in 'utter collapse', report says". The Independent. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  10. 1 2 Meredith, Sam (12 February 2019). "How a nationwide protest against Maduro could shape Venezuela's future". CNBC . Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  11. 1 2 Vasilyeva, Nataliya (24 January 2019). "Venezuela crisis: Familiar geopolitical sides take shape". AP News. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  12. "Venezuela blackout, in 2nd day, threatens food supplies and patient lives". New York Times. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019. The Maduro administration has been responsible for grossly mismanaging the economy and plunging the country into a deep humanitarian crisis in which many people lack food and medical care. He has also attempted to crush the opposition by jailing or exiling critics, and using lethal force against antigovernment protesters.
  13. Kevin Voigt (6 March 2013). "Chavez leaves Venezuelan economy more equal, less stable". CNN. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
    * Corrales, Javier (7 March 2013). "The House That Chavez Built". Foreign Policy . Retrieved 6 February 2015.
    * Siegel, Robert (25 December 2014). "For Venezuela, Drop In Global Oil Prices Could Be Catastrophic". NPR . Retrieved 4 January 2015.
    * Lansberg-Rodríguez, Daniel (15 March 2015). "Coup Fatigue in Caracas". Foreign Policy . Retrieved 10 July 2015.
    * "Venezuela's economy: Medieval policies". The Economist . 20 August 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Casey, Nicholas; Torres, Patricia (30 March 2017). "Venezuela Muzzles Legislature, Moving Closer to One-Man Rule". The New York Times . p. A1. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  15. "Venezuela's Lame-Duck Congress Names New Supreme Court Justices". Bloomberg. 23 December 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  16. 1 2 "Asamblea Nacional de Venezuela declara "crisis humanitaria de salud" por escasez de medicamentos" (in Spanish). BBC. 27 January 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  17. "Venezuela's embattled socialist president calls for citizens congress, new constitution". USA Today . Associated Press. 1 May 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  18. Silvio Cascione (5 August 2017). "Mercosur suspends Venezuela, urges immediate transition". Reuters.com. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  19. "La lista de los 40 países democráticos que hasta el momento desconocieron la Asamblea Constituyente de Venezuela". Infobae (in Spanish). 31 July 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  20. "Venezuela: New assembly leader warns 'justice will come'". 4 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
    "As Venezuela unrest spreads, Maduro presses on with plans to rewrite charter". Reuters . 24 May 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
    "Venezuelan gov't proposes constitutional assembly election on July 30". EFE . 4 June 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
    "40 countries protest Venezuela's new assembly amid fraud accusations" . Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  21. "Venezuela opposition boycotts meeting on Maduro assembly, clashes rage". Reuters. 8 April 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  22. Mogollon, Mery; Kraul, Chris (29 July 2017). "As Venezuelan election nears, more upheaval and cries of fraud". The Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 30 July 2017.
    * "What are Venezuelans voting for and why is it so divisive?". BBC News . 30 July 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
    * Bronstein, Hugh (29 July 2017). "Venezuelan opposition promises new tactics after Sunday's vote". Reuters India. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  23. Goodman, Joshua and Fabiola Sanchez (8 August 2017). "New Venezuela assembly declares itself superior government branch". The Chicago Tribune . Associated Press. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  24. "Venezuela's Maduro begins second term". BBC News. 10 January 2019. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  25. Romo, Rafael (30 March 2017). "Venezuela's high court dissolves National Assembly". CNN. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  26. Long, Gideon (13 January 2019). "Venezuela's opposition vows to help end Maduro's rule". Financial Times . Retrieved 15 January 2019. ... the National Assembly is the only democratically elected institution left in the country ...
  27. "Venezuela crisis: Guaido rejects talks with Maduro". BBC News. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  28. "Russia, China block US push for UN to back Venezuela's Juan Guaidó". Economic Times. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  29. "Freeland says Venezuela's Maduro regime is now fully entrenched as a dictatorship". CTV. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  30. "Russia, China, Greece supports Maduro regime". Business Times. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  31. "Reuters: US pushes UN Security Council to back Venezuela's Guaidó". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  32. "Singh calls on Trudeau to part ways with US, Brazil on Venezuela crisis". CBC News. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  33. "Venezuela: Events of 2018". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 4 February 2019. No independent government institutions remain today in Venezuela to act as a check on executive power. A series of measures by the Maduro and Chávez governments stacked the courts with judges who make no pretense of independence. The government has been repressing dissent through often-violent crackdowns on street protests, jailing opponents, and prosecuting civilians in military courts. It has also stripped power from the opposition-led legislature. ...In 2017, President Maduro convened a 'Constituent Assembly' by presidential decree, despite a constitutional requirement that a public referendum be held before any effort to rewrite the Constitution. The assembly is made up exclusively of government supporters chosen through an election that Smartmatic, a British company hired by the government to verify the results, called fraudulent. The Constituent Assembly has, in practice, replaced the opposition-led National Assembly as the country’s legislative branch.
  34. "Venezuela: Events of 2017". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 4 February 2019. The Venezuelan government has jailed political opponents and disqualified them from running for office. At time of writing, more than 340 political prisoners were languishing in Venezuelan prisons or intelligence services headquarters, according to the Penal Forum, a Venezuelan network of pro-bono criminal defense lawyers. ...In mid-2017, the Supreme Court sentenced five opposition mayors, after summary proceedings that violated international norms of due process, to 15 months in prison and disqualified them from running for office.
  35. "Venezuela 2017–2018". Amnesty International. Retrieved 4 February 2019. The judicial system continued to be used to silence dissidents, including using military jurisdiction to prosecute civilians. The justice system continued to be subject to government interference, especially in cases involving people critical of the government or those who were considered to be acting against the interests of the authorities. The Bolivarian National Intelligence Service continued to ignore court decisions to transfer and release people in its custody.
  36. "Wave of arrests as government turns against elected opposition". Amnesty International. 11 August 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2019. The arrest of four officials from the opposition in Venezuela, the removal from office of a further 11 and the issuing of arrest warrants against another five, demonstrates the Maduro administration’s tightening stranglehold on any form of dissent, taking repression to a frightening new level, said Amnesty International.
  37. "Venezuela opposition weighs election run". BBC News . 8 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  38. "ANC aprobó un decreto para la validación de los partidos políticos". El Nacional. 20 December 2017.
    * Olmo (@BBCgolmo), Guillermo D. (10 January 2019). "Por qué es polémico que Maduro jure como presidente de Venezuela y por qué lo hace ahora si las elecciones fueron en mayo". BBC News Mundo. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
    * "Maduro gana con la abstención histórica más alta en comicios presidenciales - Efecto Cocuyo". efectococuyo.com. Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
    * "Venezuela opposition banned from running in 2018 election". BBC News . 11 December 2017.
  39. Sen, Ashish Kumar. "Venezuela's Sham Election". Atlantic Council. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  40. Corrales, Javier. "Venezuela's Odd Transition to Dictatorship". Americas Quarterly . Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
    * Brodzinsky, Sibylla (21 October 2016). "Venezuelans warn of 'dictatorship' after officials block bid to recall Maduro". The Guardian . Archived from the original on 9 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
    * "Almagro: Maduro se transforma en dictador por negarles a venezolanos derecho a decidir su futuro". CNN en Español . 24 August 2016. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  41. 1 2 "Venezuela Swears in an illegitimate President". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  42. 1 2 Herrero, Ana Vanessa; Specia, Megan (10 January 2019). "Venezuela Is in Crisis. So How Did Maduro Secure a Second Term?". The New York Times . ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
    * "Peru, Paraguay recall diplomats over Maduro inauguration | Venezuela News". Aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  43. Corao, Manuel (28 September 2018). "¿Dónde está el gobierno de transición en Venezuela?". El Nuevo Herald . Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  44. "Fuego amigo: el caos de la oposición venezolana". International Crisis Group . 23 November 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  45. 1 2 3 4 5 Mars, Amanda (3 February 2019). "Así se lanzó Trump al derribo de Maduro". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  46. 1 2 3 "Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela". Human Rights Library. University of the Minnesota. Retrieved 9 March 2019. Also here.
  47. 1 2 3 "AN se declara en emergencia ante la usurpación de Nicolás Maduro en el cargo de la Presidencia de la República". Asambleanacional.gob.ve (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  48. Zambrano, Diego A. (1 February 2019). "Guaidó, Not Maduro, Is the De Jure President of Venezuela". Lawfare . Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  49. "Asamblea Nactional on Instagram". Official Page of Venezuela National Assembly (in Spanish). Instagram. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  50. Guaidó, Juan (15 January 2019). "Maduro is a usurper. It's time to restore democracy in Venezuela". Washington Post . Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  51. Redacción (7 January 2019). "Christian Zerpa, el juez afín a Maduro que huyó a Estados Unidos y denuncia falta de independencia del poder judicial de Venezuela". BBC News Mundo. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  52. "Maduro asumió pese a EEUU, la OEA, la UE y las amenazas de la oposición". Portalalba.org. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  53. "Venezuela Congress leader challenges Maduro's right to presidency - News". Aljazeera.com. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  54. "As Maduro Makes Enemies, Venezuela's Caribbean Allies Remain In His Camp". NPR . Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  55. Phillips, Tom (10 January 2019). "Maduro starts new Venezuela term by accusing US of imperialist 'world war'". The Guardian . ISSN   0261-3077. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  56. "Asamblea Nacional arranca proceso para Ley de Transicion". Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  57. Smith, Scott (10 January 2019). "Isolation greets Maduro's new term as Venezuela's president". AP News. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  58. "El Tiempo | Venezuela | Asamblea Nacional se declaró en emergencia y convocó a cabildo abierto | El Periódico del Pueblo Oriental". eltiempo.com.ve (in Spanish). Global Host. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  59. 1 2 3 "Juan Guaidó: Me apego a los artículos 333, 350 y 233 para lograr el cese de la usurpación y convocar elecciones libres con la unión del pueblo, FAN y comunidad internacional" (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  60. "Venezuela congress leader challenges Maduro's right to presidency". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  61. "Prensa de la AN rectifica comunicado que proclama a Juan Guaidó Presidente de la República". Efecto Cocuyo. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  62. 1 2 3 Phillips, Tom (11 January 2019). "Venezuela: opposition leader declares himself ready to assume presidency". The Guardian . ISSN   0261-3077. Archived from the original on 13 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  63. "Tribunal Supremo de Justicia pide a Asamblea Nacional tomar la presidencia de Venezuela". El Salvador noticias (in Spanish). 12 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  64. "Venezuela congress asks foreign countries to freeze Maduro-linked..." Reuters. 15 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  65. Guaidó, Juan. "Maduro is a usurper. It's time to restore democracy in Venezuela". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  66. "Parallel government emerging in Venezuela". Argus Media. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  67. "Juan Guaidó y FAVL afinan agenda única para movilización del 23Ene". Analitica (in Spanish). 12 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  68. "Venezuela opposition plans incentives for officers who disavow Maduro". Uk.reuters.com. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  69. "Juan Guaidó se declara presidente da venezuela e tem apoio do brasil". VEJA (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 12 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  70. Semana. "Alejandro Baena, candidato liberal a la alcaldía de Cali". Alejandro Baena, candidato liberal a la alcaldía de Cali.
  71. "Venezuela's opposition is gambling it all on a young and untested activist named Juan Guaidó". The Washington Post . Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  72. 1 2 3 "Venezuela opposition leader briefly detained". BBC News . 13 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  73. "Gobierno Maduro destituyó a agentes que detuvieron a Juan Guaidó en un procedimiento "irregular"" (in Spanish). Noticias Caracol. EFE. 13 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  74. 1 2 Phillips, Tom (13 January 2019). "Venezuela opposition leader briefly detained after challenging Maduro". The Guardian . ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  75. "Juan Guaidó desde Vargas: "Hay un presidente legítimo de la AN y de toda Venezuela"". albertonews.com.
  76. "Venezuelan army forces in Peru say they don't recognize Maduro as their President". Miami Herald. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  77. 1 2 Specia, Megan and Nicholas Casey (31 January 2019). "Juan Guaidó says Venezuelan opposition had secret talks with military". New York Times. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  78. Phillips, Tom (22 January 2019). "Venezuela claims it has foiled attempted military uprising". The Guardian . ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  79. "Venezuela Puts down Mutiny by National Guard Unit". Voice of America . Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  80. 1 2 Daniels, Joe Parkin (23 January 2019). "Venezuela protests: thousands march as military faces call to abandon Maduro". The Guardian . ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  81. Guaido, Juan (23 January 2019). "Juan Guaidó on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  82. "Revolt in Venezuela". Wall Street Journal . 23 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019. (Subscription required (help)).
  83. "Protestas en Venezuela: miles de personas participan en manifestaciones masivas contra el gobierno de Maduro". BBC News Mundo (in Spanish). 23 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  84. "Las 50 fotos de las masivas marchas contra la dictadura de Nicolás Maduro en Venezuela y Latinoamérica". Infobae (in Spanish). 24 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  85. "Crowds defy police to cry out for change in Venezuela". Sky News. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  86. Sanchez, Ray and Nicole Chavez (23 January 2019). "Maduro defiant as Venezuelan opposition leader declares himself acting president". CNN. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  87. Daniels, Joe Parkin (23 January 2019). "Venezuela: Trump recognises opposition leader as president". The Guardian . ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  88. 1 2 "Venezuelans heed call to hit the streets with Maduro under pressure". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  89. "Venezuela opposition leader Juan Guaido declares himself interim president before thousands cheering in support". Washington Post . Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  90. "Violent protests in Venezuela: Live updates". Cnn.com. 23 January 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  91. "Venezuela protests as two leaders vie to be president – in pictures". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  92. "Reportan 13 fallecidos tras últimas protestas en todo el país #23Ene". La Patilla (in Spanish). 23 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  93. "UN calls for Venezuela investigation". CNN. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  94. "Trump administration accepts Guaido ally as Venezuela envoy in U.S." Reuters. 27 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  95. "A Conversation with Venezuela's New Permanent Representative to the OAS, Special Ambassador Gustavo Tarre". Center for Strategic and International Studies. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  96. "Venezuelan Parliament OKs Guaido's diplomatic appointments". Alianza News. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  97. "En vivo: Juan Guaidó presenta su Plan País para rescatar a Venezuela". El Comercio. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  98. "Instalada Comision Plan Pais de la Asamblea Nacional". Caraboboes Noticia (in Spanish). 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  99. Adams, David and Tamoa Calzadilla (30 January 2019). "Venezuela's Guaidó to announce national reconstruction plan 'for the day after'". Univision. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  100. "Juan Guaidó ofreció detalles sobre Ley de Amnistía". El Nacional (in Spanish). 25 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  101. "Venezuela's Maduro 'could get amnesty'". BBC. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  102. Brito, Estefani (8 February 2019). "El estatuto que rige la transición entró en vigencia el martes" [The statute governing the transition took effect on Tuesday]. El Nacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  103. Sanchez, Ray and Nicole Chavez (23 January 2019). "Maduro defiant as Venezuelan opposition leader declares himself acting president". CNN. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  104. "Maduro: Hay un golpe mediático internacional contra Venezuela para desfigurar la situación real". La Patilla (in Spanish). 25 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  105. "Venezuela power struggle hinges on Nicolas Maduro's military". CBS News. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  106. "Maduro está dispuesto a reunirse con Guaidó "desnudo o a las tres de la mañana en el Humboldt"". La Patilla (in Spanish). 25 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  107. "Maduro se atornilló en la silla: No he abandonado, ni dejaré el cargo". La Patilla (in Spanish). 25 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  108. "Venezuela crisis: Guaidó rejects calls to talk with Maduro". BBC. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  109. "España y Francia condenan la expulsión de eurodiputados de Venezuela" (in Spanish). Efecto Cocuyo. 18 February 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  110. Fermín Kancev, María Victoria (17 February 2019). "Expulsión de europarlamentarios recibe condena nacional e internacional". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  111. @jaarreaza (17 February 2019). "Por vías oficiales diplomáticas, las autoridades del Gobierno Bolivariano de Venezuela le notificaron hace varios días al grupo de eurodiputados que pretendía visitar el país con fines conspirativos, que no serían admitidos y se les instó a desistir y evitar así otra provocación [Through official diplomatic channels, the authorities of the Bolivarian Government of Venezuela notified him several days ago to the group of MEPs who intended to visit the country for conspiratorial purposes, who would not be admitted and were urged to desist and avoid another provocation.]" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  112. @jaarreaza (17 February 2019). "El Gobierno Constitucional de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela no permitirá que la extrema derecha europea perturbe la paz y estabilidad del país con otra de sus groseras acciones injerencistas. ¡Venezuela se Respeta! [The Constitutional Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela will not allow the European extreme right to disturb the peace and stability of the country with another of its gross interventionist actions. Venezuela must be respected!]" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  113. "Shortage at its highest since May 2008". El Universal. 6 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2014.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  114. 1 2 "Maduro niega la diáspora venezolana en la ONU: Se ha fabricado por distintas vías una crisis migratoria - LaPatilla.com". LaPatilla.com (in Spanish). 26 September 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
    * Charner, Flora (15 October 2016). "The face of hunger in Venezuela". CNN . Retrieved 20 February 2019.
    * Vyas, Kejal and Ryan Dube (6 April 2018). "Venezuelans Die as Maduro Government Refuses Medical Aid". The Wall Street Journal . ISSN   0099-9660 . Retrieved 20 February 2019.
    * Glüsing, Jens (8 August 2018). "The Country of Hunger: A State of Deep Suffering in Venezuela's Hospitals". Der Spiegel . Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  115. "La contradicción de Nicolás Maduro sobre la ayuda humanitaria en 14 días". Infobae (in Spanish). 19 February 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  116. 1 2 "Venezuela opposition warns military against preventing entry of aid". France24. 5 February 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  117. Suarez Sang, Lucia I. (6 February 2019). "Venezuela military sets up blockade on bridge to stop aid from Colombia". Fox News. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  118. Armario, Christine and Leonardo Haberkorn (7 February 2019). "US emergency aid for Venezuela arrives at Colombian border". Associated Press. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  119. "Guaidó: En 11 días la Fanb tendrá que decidir si están del lado de los venezolanos y la Constitución o del usurpador". La Patilla (in Spanish). 12 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  120. 1 2 "Maduro envía tanquetas a Santa Elena de Uairén para evitar ingreso de ayuda desde Brasil (FOTOS)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 20 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  121. 1 2 "Militares de Maduro tirotearon a indígenas pemón en la Gran Sabana: Una mujer asesinada y doce heridos (fotos)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  122. "Pemones heridos en ataque de la GNB son trasladados a hospital en Brasil por falta de insumos en Venezuela (FOTO y VIDEO)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  123. "As tensions over aid rise, Venezuelan troops fire on villagers, kill two". Thomson Reuters Foundation . 22 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  124. 1 2 "Guaidó dice que Fuerzas Armadas de Venezuela le ayudaron a entrar a Colombia". Noticias Caracol (in Spanish). YouTube official channel. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  125. Faiola, Anthony, Rachelle Krygier and Dylan Baddour (24 February 2019). "Venezuelan opposition looks to foreign allies for further steps to unseat Maduro". Washington Post. Retrieved 24 February 2019.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  126. 1 2 "The Latest: Venezuela's Guaido shows up at benefit concert". Associated Press. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  127. "Venezuela Aid Standoff Turns Deadly, Maduro Severs Ties with Colombia". The New York Times. 23 February 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019. Mr. Guaidó, standing alongside the presidents of Paraguay, Colombia, and Chile urged the Venezuelan military to allow trucks to cross the border.” and "The presidents of Colombia, Chile and Paraguay attended the concert, rallying support for the opposition and calling for an end to Mr. Maduro’s presidency."
  128. 1 2 "Presidente chileno Sebastián Piñera: La dictadura de Maduro tiene sus días contados". Analitica (in Spanish). 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  129. "'Maduro es parte del problema, no de la solución': Piñera tras aterrizar en Cúcuta". El Paid (in Spanish). 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  130. "Presidente de Paraguay confía en que Venezuela recuperará la democracia". El Nacional (in Spanish). 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  131. Smith-Spark, Laura and Jorge Luis Perez Valery, Claudia Dominguez, Christina Maxouris (23 February 2019). "Venezuela's Maduro breaks relations with Colombia in standoff over aid". CNN. Retrieved 23 February 2019.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  132. "Venezuela soldiers abandon posts at Colombia border". BBC. 23 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  133. "Venezuela border skirmishes continue as questions swirl around torched aid bus". Miami Herald. 24 February 2019.
  134. "Guaidó: military should disown leader who burns food in front of the hungry – as it happened". The Guardian. 23 February 2019.
  135. "En fotos: Más de dos mil indígenas intentan llegar a frontera con Brasil por ayuda". La Patilla (in Spanish). 23 February 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  136. "Colectivos armados causan terror en San Antonio del Táchira (Foto)". EP Mundo (in Spanish). 23 February 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  137. "Aumentan a cuatro fallecidos y 24 heridos, todos por armas de fuego, en Santa Elena de Uairén". La Patilla . 23 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  138. "Venezuela: at least four dead and hundreds injured in border standoff". The Guardian. 23 February 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  139. Montoya-Galvez, Camilo (23 February 2019). "Venezuela navy threatened to "open fire" on US-financed aid ship, Puerto Rico's governor says". CBS News . Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  140. "Más de 285 heridos y 14 asesinatos por represión del régimen de Maduro este #23Feb, estima informe de la OEA". La Patilla (in Spanish). 23 February 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  141. Wyss, Jim (23 February 2019). "On the Venezuela border, aid push devolves into bloodshed, chaos". Seattle Times. Miami Herald. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  142. "Delcy Rodríguez: Vieron un pedacito de lo que estamos dispuestos a hacer". El Nacional (in Spanish). 24 February 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  143. Lozano, Daniel (25 February 2019). "El Grupo de Lima descartó una intervención militar en Venezuela". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  144. 1 2 "'El mundo vio la peor cara de la dictadura venezolana': Guaidó". El Tiempo (in Spanish). 23 February 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  145. Rampton, Roberta (24 February 2019). "US to announce 'concrete steps' for Venezuela crisis on Monday-official". CNBC. Reuters. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  146. 1 2 3 Kraul, Chris and Patrick J. McDonnell (25 February 2019). "Pence says U.S. will up the ante as it seeks ouster of Venezuelan President Maduro". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  147. 1 2 3 Alexander, Harriett (26 February 2019). "EU warns against military action in Venezuela as Mike Pence and Juan Guaido meet at emergency summit". The Telegraph. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  148. "Lima Group urges ICC to declare Venezuela aid blockade 'crime against humanity'". Business Times. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  149. 1 2 3 "Trump is 'with you 100 percent', Pence tells Venezuelan opposition leader Guaido". France 24. 25 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  150. "Lima Group urges ICC to declare Venezuela aid blockade 'crime against humanity'". Business Times. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  151. "Brazil will not allow U.S. use its territory to invade Venezuela: vice president". Reuters. 25 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  152. 1 2 "Lima Group: There Are 'Serious and Credible' Threats on Guaido's Life". VOA news. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  153. Koenig, David (25 February 2019). "FAA tells pilots to use caution when flying over Venezuela". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  154. Starr, Barbara and Ralph Ellis (26 February 2019). "US flying more reconnaissance flights off Venezuela, military sources say". CNN. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  155. 1 2 Rosati, Andrew and Ken Parks (1 March 2019). "Facing jail in Caracas, Guaido travels across South America". Yahoo news. Bloomberg. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  156. Meredith, Sam (1 March 2019). "Venezuela's Guaido vows to return to Caracas despite 'life-threatening' risks". CNBC. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  157. "Juan Guaidó visitará Paraguay este viernes". El Nacional (in Spanish). 28 February 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  158. Llamas, Tom (28 February 2019). "Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's defiant interview with Tom Llamas: TRANSCRIPT". ABC News . Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  159. Boadle, Anthony (1 March 2019). "Venezuela's Guaido vows to return to Caracas despite threat of prison". Reuters . Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  160. 1 2 3 4 "Venezuela to expel German ambassador for 'meddling'". BBC . 7 March 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  161. "In jab at Maduro, Guaido makes triumphant return to Venezuela". Reuters. 4 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  162. "Venezuela expels German ambassador for 'meddling'". Hurriyet Daily News. 7 March 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  163. "Venezuela's Guaido urges more sanctions after German envoy's expulsion". Channel News Asia . 7 March 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  164. "No end in sight to Venezuela's blackout, experts warn". New York Times. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  165. Phillips, Tom (12 March 2019). "US pulls all staff from Venezuela as Maduro blames blackout on 'demonic' Trump plot". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  166. Arroyo, Lorena (12 March 2019). "Denuncian ONGs: apagón deja al menos 43 pacientes muertos en Venezuela" [NGOs denounce: blackout leaves at least 43 patients dead in Venezuela]. Univisión. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  167. Altuve, Armando (29 March 2019). "Médicos por la Salud contabiliza cuatro muertes por segundo apagón nacional" [Doctors for Health counts four deaths per second national blackout]. El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  168. Sequera, Vivian; Cohen, Luc (29 March 2019). "Venezuela blocks Guaido from office as the opposition scoffs". Reuters. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  169. 1 2 "Blackouts savage Venezuela's already tattered economy". France 24. 28 March 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  170. Lawler, Alex (1 April 2019). "OPEC oil output hits four-year low on Saudi cuts, Venezuela blackouts". Reuters. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  171. Browning, Noah (11 April 2019). "Venezuela oil output plummets to 870,000 bpd on outages, sanctions: IEA". Reuters. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  172. 1 2 Zerpa, Fabiola (5 April 2019). "Venezuela blackouts cut oil output by half in March". Houston Chronicle. Bloomberg. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  173. Lawler, Alex (10 April 2019). "Venezuela reports collapse in oil supply, tightening global market: OPEC". Reuters. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  174. 1 2 Phillips, Tom (12 March 2019). "Guaidó under investigation for sabotage of power grid". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  175. 1 2 Phillips, Tom (12 March 2019). "US pulls all staff from Venezuela as Maduro blames blackout on 'demonic' Trump plot". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  176. Sheridan, Mary Beth and Mariana Zuñiga (14 March 2019). "Maduro's muscle: Motorcycle gangs known as 'colectivos' are the enforcers for Venezuela's authoritarian leader". Sun Sentinel. The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  177. Wroughton, Lesley (14 March 2019). "Pompeo says all U.S. diplomats have left Venezuela". Reuters. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  178. "Venezuela's Maduro plans 'deep restructuring' of government: VP". Reuters. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  179. 1 2 "Guaidó anuncia la creación de comités por la libertad para pronto 'ir a Miraflores'" [Guaidó announces the creation of freedom committees to soon 'go to Miraflores']. Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). 16 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  180. "Guaidó: Con corte de envío de petróleo a Cuba, Venezuela salva $2.585 millones diarios". El Carabobeño (in Spanish). 14 March 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  181. Fermin Kancev, Maria Victoria (18 March 2019). "Universitarios denuncian chantaje del gobierno de Maduro para el pago de la quincena" [University [rectors] denounce blackmail of the Maduro government for bi-monthly payment]. Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  182. "Chile's Pinera slams UN's Bachelet for failure to condemn Maduro". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 3 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  183. "Delegación de DDHH de ONU comienza reuniones en Venezuela en medio del apagón" (in Spanish). Efecto Cocuyo. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  184. "UN rights team heading to Venezuela may pave way for official mission led by Bachelet" (Press release). UN News. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  185. Lozano, Daniel (15 March 2019). "El chavismo maquilla hospitales y cárceles para la misión de la ONU" (in Spanish). El Mundo. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  186. Gascón, Liz (15 March 2019). "Médicos llaman a protestar en el Hospital Central de Barquisimeto frente a comisión de la ONU" (in Spanish). El Pitazo. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  187. "Venezuela: 'A worrying destabilizing factor in the region', Bachelet tells Human Rights Council". UN News. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  188. "Oral update on the situation of human rights in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela". OHCHR. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  189. "10 claves del informe de Michelle Bachelet sobre Venezuela" [10 keys if Michelle Bachelet's report on Venezuela]. Prodavinci (in Spanish). 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  190. 1 2 "Venezuela detains top aide to Guaido in test of Trump's red line". Haaretz. Reuters. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  191. 1 2 "US slaps sanctions on Venezuelan bank". France 24. 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  192. "Treasury sanctions BANDES, Venezuela's National Development Bank, and subsidiaries, in response to illegal arrest of Guaido aide" (Press release). US Department of the Treasury. 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  193. Adams, David C. (22 March 2019). "US tightens the screws on Venezuela's Maduro with banking sanctions". Univision. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  194. 1 2 "Venezuela bars Guaido from holding public office for 15 years". Reuters. 28 March 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  195. Rueda, Jorge (28 March 2019). "Venezuelan gov't bars Guaido from public office for 15 years". Yahoo. Associated Press. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  196. Sequera, Vivian and Luc Cohen (28 March 2019). "Venezuela blocks Guaido from office as the opposition scoffs". Yahoo. Reuters. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  197. Diaz Landazabal, Jackelin (28 March 2019). "Inhabilitación de Juan Guaidó podría desencadenar medidas ante el CNE" [Disqualification of Juan Guaidó could trigger measures before the CNE]. El Nacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  198. Pons, Corina and Brian Ellsworth (29 March 2019). "International Red Cross ready for Venezuela humanitarian aid operation". Reuters. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  199. 1 2 Dube, Ryan (29 March 2019). "Red Cross announces Venezuelan aid effort". Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones Institutional News via ProQuest. Also available online.
  200. Torchia, Christopher. (29 March 2019). "Red Cross ready to aid Venezuela, warns against politics". Washington Post. Associated Press via ProQuest. Also available online.
  201. "Maduro sostuvo encuentro con representantes de la Cruz Roja" (in Spanish). NTN24. 9 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  202. "Maduro says Venezuela ready to receive international aid". Al Jazeera. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  203. "Red Cross regains access to Venezuela jails, military prisons". NBC News. Associated Press. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  204. 1 2 Beaumont, Peter (12 April 2019). "Red Cross aid to Venezuela to triple as Maduro stance softens". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  205. "First shipment of Red Cross humanitarian aid arrives in Venezuela". Reuters. 16 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  206. "Humanitarian aid shipment makes it into Venezuela after delays". CBC Canada. Associated Press. 16 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  207. Herrera, Isayen and Anatoly Kurmanaev (17 April 2019). "Red Cross grapples with aid distribution in polarized Venezuela". New York Times. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  208. 1 2 3 "Juan Guaidó: el Tribunal Supremo de Venezuela solicita revocar la inmunidad parlamentaria del líder opositor a la Asamblea controlada por el chavismo" [Juan Guaidó: the Supreme Court of Venezuela requests that the Assembly controlled by Chavismo revoke the parliamentary immunity of the opposition leader]. BBC Mundo (in Spanish). 1 April 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  209. "The Latest: Venezuela judge seeks to strip Guaido's immunity". FOX News. Associated Press. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  210. Phillips, Tom and Patricia Torres (2 April 2019). "Venezuela: Juan Guaidó stripped of parliamentary immunity". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  211. "OAS recognizes Guaido envoy until new Venezuela polls". France 24. Agence France-Press. 9 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  212. Lugo, Luis Alonso (9 April 2019). "OAS recognizes opposition envoy as Venezuelan ambassador". AP News. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  213. "OAS recognizes opposition envoy as Venezuelan ambassador". Washington Post. 9 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  214. Diamond, Jeremy and Boris Sanchez (24 January 2019). "Trump recognizes Venezuelan opposition leader as nation's president". CNN. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  215. Britton, Bianca (24 January 2019). "'Pouring gas on fire': Russia slams Trump's stance in Venezuela". CNN. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  216. 1 2 Rainsford, Sarah (1 February 2019). "Venezuela crisis: Why Russia has so much to lose". BBC News. Reuters. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  217. "Turkey's Erdogan offers support for Venezuela's Maduro". Reuters. 23 January 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  218. "Explained What's Behind Turkey's Fervent Support for Venezuela's Maduro". Haaretz. Reuters. 27 January 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  219. "China opposes outside interference in Venezuela's affairs". Reuters. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  220. Wainer, David (28 February 2019). "Russia, China Veto UN Resolution Seeking Venezuela Elections". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  221. "EU parliament recognizes Guaido as Venezuelan interim president". Reuters . 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  222. Hanke, Jakob and Hans von der Burchard (24 January 2019). "Brussels caught off-guard by Venezuela's political turmoil". POLITICO. Retrieved 26 January 2019. In a declaration published late Wednesday, EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini said the EU ... “fully supports the national assembly as the democratically elected institution whose powers need to be restored and respected.” ... Kocijančič said Mogherini’s statement had been “agreed with all 28 member states" ...
  223. "Divided Italy blocks EU statement on recognizing Venezuela's Guaido". Reuters. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  224. "OAS Permanent Council Agrees 'to not recognize the legitimacy of Nicolas Maduro's new term'" (Press release). Organization of American States. 10 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  225. Gómez Maseri, Sergio (25 January 2019). "En la OEA 16 países reconocen a Guaidó como presidente de Venezuela". El Tiempo (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  226. "UN political chief calls for dialogue to ease tensions in Venezuela; Security Council divided over path to end crisis". UN News. 26 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  227. Kraul, Chris (25 February 2019). "Pence says U.S. will up the ante as it seeks ouster of Venezuelan President Maduro". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  228. "Mexico urges regional bloc not to meddle in Venezuela". Reuters. 5 January 2019. Archived from the original on 5 January 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  229. "Canciller uruguayo asegura que presidencia de Maduro es legítima". Noticieros Televisa (in Spanish). 12 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  230. "Los presidentes de Uruguay y Argentina llaman a elecciones libres en Venezuela". El Diario (in Spanish). 13 February 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  231. "Meganálisis: 88.9 % de venezolanos quiere que Maduro y el chavismo se vayan ya" [Meganalisis: 88.9% of Venezuelans want Maduro and Chavismo to leave]. La Patilla (in Spanish). 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  232. 1 2 Maria Delgado, Antonio (5 February 2019). "Venezuela's Nicolás Maduro orders multiple arrests within military to squelch dissent". Miami Herald. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  233. "81,9 % de venezolanos reconoce a Juan Guaidó como presidente de Venezuela (Encuesta Hercón)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  234. "6.211 protestas en Venezuela durante el primer trimestre de 2019" [6,211 protests in Venezuela during the first quarter of 2019]. Venezuelan Observatory of Social Conflict. 15 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  235. "Trump to discuss Venezuela with Colombian president: White House". France 24. 6 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  236. Herrero, Ana Vanessa and Nicholas Casey (22 February 2019). "Venezuela's Ex-Spy Chief Breaks With Maduro: 'You Have Killed Hundreds'". New York Times (Late Edition (East Coast) ed.). p. A.6 via ProQuest. Also available online.
  237. Dube, Ryan and Kejal Vyas (21 February 2019). "Venezuelan Official Breaks With Maduro; Hugo Carvajal, the former military-intelligence chief, pledges support for opposition leader Juan Guaidó and says humanitarian aid should be let into the country". Wall Street Journal via ProQuest. Also available online.
  238. "EN VIDEO: General de división del Alto Mando Militar de la aviación reconoce a Guaidó como presidente (e)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2 February 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
    * "General de la Fuerza Aérea envió un mensaje al personal militar". El Nacional (in Spanish). 2 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
    * "Mayor General Jorge Oropeza se pronuncia contra el régimen de Maduro y en respaldo a Guaidó (VIDEO)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  239. Lozano, Daniel (23 February 2019). "67 militares cambian de bando y un general de peso reconoce a Guaidó como presidente". La Nacion (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 February 2019.
    * Oatis, Jonathan; Adler, Leslie (18 March 2019). "U.S.-sanctioned Venezuelan defects to Colombia, slams Maduro". Reuters. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  240. Buitrago, Deisy and Mariela Nava (13 April 2019). "Venezuela's Maduro orders militia expansion as Guaido tours blackout-ravaged state". Reuters. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  241. "Otra diplomática venezolana en EEUU reconoce a Guaidó como presidente". El Nuevo Herald (in Spanish). 29 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  242. "Ditch Maduro or lose everything, Trump tells Venezuelan army". The Guardian. 18 February 2019.
  243. 1 2 3 4 Pardo, Paul (4 February 2019). "¿Cómo sería una invasión de Estados Unidos en Venezuela?". El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  244. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fiorella, Giancarlo (17 April 2019). "Will Guaidó call for U.S. military intervention?". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  245. Hains, Tim (1 February 2019). "John Bolton: "All Options Are On The Table" For Venezuela; Hope For "Peaceful" Transfer Of Power". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  246. "Mientras familias pasan hambre, Maduro asegura que 'invertirá' en los misiles más modernos del mundo (VIDEO)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 10 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  247. Charles, Mathew (2 February 2019). "ELN interview: Colombian Marxist guerrillas 'will fight' US troops if they invade Venezuela". The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  248. "Denuncian que guerrillas colombianas causaron muerte a venezolanos durante manifestaciones contra Maduro". Infobae. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  249. Pardo, Pablo (4 February 2019). "¿Cómo sería una invasión de Estados Unidos en Venezuela?". El Mundo . Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  250. "Cuba Is Making the Crisis in Venezuela Worse". Foreign Policy . 7 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  251. "Private military contractors linked to Russia are reportedly in Venezuela to protect Maduro". Business Insider. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  252. "Russia denies sending mercenaries to protect Venezuela's president". South China Morning Post. 28 January 2019.
  253. "Russia warns against foreign interference in Venezuela". Anadolu Agency . 28 January 2019.
  254. 1 2 "Russian air force planes land in Venezuela carrying troops: report". Reuters. 24 March 2019. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  255. "Russia seeks to prevent military intervention in Venezuela - upper house speaker". TASS . 3 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  256. 1 2 3 4 5 Zuñiga, Mariana and Anthony Faiola (30 March 2019). "As Maduro confronts a crisis, Russia's footprint in Venezuela grows: Moscow is seizing an opportunity to stick a finger in Washington's eye, experts say". The Washington Post via ProQuest.
  257. "Rusia abre centro de formación militar para pilotos de helicópteros en Venezuela". MSN (in Spanish). 29 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  258. Arostegui, Martin (10 April 2019). "US, EU at odds over Venezuela sanctions". VOA News. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  259. 1 2 "Venezuelan Socialist Party deputy confirms two planes landed from Russia". Reuters. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  260. "Russia confirms its military personnel arrived in Venezuela". Washington Post. 27 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  261. "President Vladimir Putin had talks with Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez in the Kremlin". Kremlin.ru. 14 May 2001. Retrieved 28 March 2019. The Presidents were present at the ceremony of signing inter-governmental documents: an agreement on military-technical cooperation, on cooperation in fighting illegal drug trafficking and a protocol on creating a mechanism of political dialogue and cooperation between Russia and the Andes Community.
  262. González, Ron (24 March 2019). "Militares rusos copan la escena en jornada libre para Maduro y Guaidó" [Russian military take over the stage on a free day for Maduro and Guaidó]. La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  263. "Guaidó sobre nuevo megaapagón: Hablan de sabotaje pero tienen militarizadas instalaciones eléctricas" (in Spanish). Efecto Cocuyo. 26 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  264. "Pompeo: US will not 'stand idly' as Russia escalates Venezuela tensions". Voice of America . Reuters. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  265. "Russia's Lavrov tells Pompeo U.S. tried to organize Venezuela coup". Reuters . 26 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  266. "Russia's Deployment of Military Planes to Venezuela Sparks U.S. Backlash". The Moscow Times . 26 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  267. 1 2