963

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Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
963 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 963
CMLXIII
Ab urbe condita 1716
Armenian calendar 412
ԹՎ ՆԺԲ
Assyrian calendar 5713
Balinese saka calendar 884–885
Bengali calendar 370
Berber calendar 1913
Buddhist calendar 1507
Burmese calendar 325
Byzantine calendar 6471–6472
Chinese calendar 壬戌(Water  Dog)
3659 or 3599
     to 
癸亥年 (Water  Pig)
3660 or 3600
Coptic calendar 679–680
Discordian calendar 2129
Ethiopian calendar 955–956
Hebrew calendar 4723–4724
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1019–1020
 - Shaka Samvat 884–885
 - Kali Yuga 4063–4064
Holocene calendar 10963
Iranian calendar 341–342
Islamic calendar 351–352
Japanese calendar Ōwa 3
(応和3年)
Javanese calendar 863–864
Julian calendar 963
CMLXIII
Korean calendar 3296
Minguo calendar 949 before ROC
民前949年
Nanakshahi calendar −505
Seleucid era 1274/1275 AG
Thai solar calendar 1505–1506
Tibetan calendar 阳水狗年
(male Water-Dog)
1089 or 708 or −64
     to 
阴水猪年
(female Water-Pig)
1090 or 709 or −63
Emperor Nikephoros II (c. 912-969) Nikiphoros Phokas.jpg
Emperor Nikephoros II (c. 912–969)

Year 963 ( CMLXIII ) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year that begins on Thursday, 1 January, and ends on Thursday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is D. The most recent year of such kind was 2015 and the next one will be 2026 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2010 and 2021 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. This common year contains the most Friday the 13ths; specifically, the months of February, March, and November. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic. From February until March in this type of year is also the shortest period that occurs within a Friday the 13th.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

By place

Byzantine Empire

March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 291 days remaining until the end of the year.

Romanos II Byzantine Emperor

Romanos II was a Byzantine Emperor. He succeeded his father Constantine VII in 959 at the age of twenty-one and died suddenly in 963.

Theophano was Byzantine Empress by marriage to Romanos II and Nikephoros II. In 963, between her first husband Romanos' death and her second marriage, she was regent for her sons Basil II and Constantine VIII. Theophano historically has been depicted as infamous.

Europe

Gero German count

Gero I, called the Great, ruled an initially modest march centred on Merseburg in the south of the present German state of Saxony-Anhalt, which he expanded into a vast territory named after him: the marca Geronis. During the mid-10th century, he was the leader of the Saxon Ostsiedlung.

Merseburg Place in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Merseburg is a town in the south of the German state of Saxony-Anhalt on the river Saale, approx. 14 km south of Halle (Saale) and 30 km west of Leipzig. It is the capital of the Saalekreis district. It had a diocese founded by Archbishop Adalbert of Magdeburg. The University of Merseburg is located within the town. Merseburg has around 33,000 inhabitants. Merseburg is part of the Central German Metropolitan Region.

Slavs Indo-European ethno-linguistic group living in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia

Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe all the way north and eastwards to Northeast Europe, Northern Asia (Siberia), the Caucasus, and Central Asia as well as historically in Western Europe and Western Asia. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit the majority of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Today, there is a large Slavic diaspora throughout North America, particularly in the United States and Canada as a result of immigration.

Asia

  • The Chinese government of the Song Dynasty attempts to ban the practice of cremation; despite this decree, the lower and middle classes continue to cremate their dead, until the government resolves the problem in the 12th century, by establishing public graveyards for paupers.
  • The Nanping State, one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China, is forced to surrender, when invaded by armies of the Song Dynasty.
Song dynasty Chinese historical period

The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporary Liao and Western Xia dynasties in the north. It was eventually conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass.

Cremation reduction of a dead body by burning

Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone. Cremation may serve as a funeral or post-funeral rite as an alternative to the interment of an intact dead body in a coffin or casket. Cremated remains, which do not constitute a health risk, may be buried or interred in memorial sites or cemeteries, or they may be retained by relatives and dispersed in various ways. Cremation is an alternative in place of burial or other forms of disposal in funeral practices. Some families prefer to have the deceased present at the funeral with cremation to follow; others prefer that the cremation occur prior to the funeral or memorial service.

12th century Century

The 12th century is the period from 1101 to 1200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages and is sometimes called the Age of the Cistercians. In Song dynasty China an invasion by Jurchens caused a political schism of north and south. The Khmer Empire of Cambodia flourished during this century, while the Fatimids of Egypt were overtaken by the Ayyubid dynasty.

By topic

Religion

November 6 is the 310th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 55 days remaining until the end of the year.

The Synod of Rome (963) was a possibly uncanonical synod held in St. Peter’s Basilica from 6 November until 4 December 963, under the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I to depose Pope John XII. The events of the synod were recorded by Liutprand of Cremona.

St. Peters Basilica Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City

The Papal Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican, or simply St. Peter's Basilica, is an Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City, the papal enclave within the city of Rome.

Births

March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 293 days remaining until the end of the year.

Anna Porphyrogenita was a Grand Princess consort of Kiev; she was married to Grand Prince Vladimir the Great.

Kievan Rus Former federation of East Slavic and Finnic tribes

Kievan Rus' was a loose federation of East Slavic and Finnic peoples in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Varangian Rurik dynasty. The modern nations of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine all claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural ancestors, with Belarus and Russia deriving their names from it.

Deaths

Related Research Articles

The 960s decade ran from January 1, 960, to December 31, 969.

The 980s decade ran from January 1, 980, to December 31, 989.

969 Year

Year 969 (CMLXIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

967 Year

Year 967 (CMLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

961 Year

Year 961 (CMLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

962 Year

Year 962 (CMLXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

968 Year

Year 968 (CMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

976 Year

Year 976 (CMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Constantine VIII Byzantine emperor

Constantine VIII was the Byzantine Emperor from 15 December 1025 until his death in 1028. He was the son of Emperor Romanos II and Empress Theophano. He was nominal co-emperor for 63 years from 962, successively with his father, his stepfather Nikephoros II Phokas, his uncle John I Tzimiskes, and his elder brother Basil II.

964 Year

Year 964 (CMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

965 Year

Year 965 (CMLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

985 Year

Year 985 (CMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

982 Year

Year 982 (CMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

960 Year

Year 960 (CMLX) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

956 Year

Year 956 (CMLVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

977 Year

Year 977 (CMLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

938 Year

Year 938 (CMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

Nikephoros II Phokas Byzantine emperor

Nikephoros II Phokas was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. His reign, however, included controversy. In the west, he inflamed conflict with the Bulgarians and saw Sicily completely turn over to the Muslims, while he failed to make any serious gains in Italy following the incursions of Otto I. Meanwhile, in the east, he completed the conquest of Cilicia and even retook the island of Cyprus, thus opening the path for subsequent Byzantine incursions reaching as far as the Jazira and the Levant. His administrative policy was less successful, as in order to finance these wars he increased taxes both on the people and on the church, while maintaining unpopular theological positions and alienating many of his most powerful allies. These included his nephew John Tzimiskes, who would take the throne after killing Nikephoros in his sleep.

Joseph Bringas was an important Byzantine eunuch official in the reigns of Emperor Constantine VII and Emperor Romanos II, serving as chief minister and effective regent during the latter. Having unsuccessfully opposed the rise of Nikephoros Phokas to the imperial throne in 963, he was exiled to a monastery, where he died in 965.

References

  1. Timothy Reuter (1999). The New Cambrigde Medieval History, Volume III, p. 592. ISBN   978-0-521-36447-8.
  2. Ostrogorsky, George (1969). History of The Byzantine State. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. p. 284. ISBN   0-8135-0599-2.
  3. Timothy Reuter (1999). The New Cambrigde Medieval History, Volume III, p. 248. ISBN   978-0-521-36447-8.