In geometry, Apollonius's theorem is a theorem relating the length of a median of a triangle to the lengths of its sides. It states that "the sum of the squares of any two sides of any triangle equals twice the square on half the third side, together with twice the square on the median bisecting the third side".
Specifically, in any triangle if is a median, then
It is a special case of Stewart's theorem. For an isosceles triangle with the median is perpendicular to and the theorem reduces to the Pythagorean theorem for triangle (or triangle ). From the fact that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, the theorem is equivalent to the parallelogram law.
The theorem is named for the ancient Greek mathematician Apollonius of Perga.
The theorem can be proved as a special case of Stewart's theorem, or can be proved using vectors (see parallelogram law). The following is an independent proof using the law of cosines.
Let the triangle have sides with a median drawn to side Let be the length of the segments of formed by the median, so is half of Let the angles formed between and be and where includes and includes Then is the supplement of and The law of cosines for and states that
Add the first and third equations to obtain
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In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. The opposite or facing sides of a parallelogram are of equal length and the opposite angles of a parallelogram are of equal measure. The congruence of opposite sides and opposite angles is a direct consequence of the Euclidean parallel postulate and neither condition can be proven without appealing to the Euclidean parallel postulate or one of its equivalent formulations.
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In geometry, Stewart's theorem yields a relation between the lengths of the sides and the length of a cevian in a triangle. Its name is in honour of the Scottish mathematician Matthew Stewart, who published the theorem in 1746.
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In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, or Pythagoras's theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the other two sides. This theorem can be written as an equation relating the lengths of the sides a, b and c, often called the Pythagorean equation: