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**Domninus of Larissa** (Greek : Δομνῖνος; c. 420 – c. 480 AD) was an ancient Hellenistic Syrian mathematician.

**Greek** is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

The **Hellenistic period** covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. The Ancient Greek word Hellas is the original word for Greece, from which the word *Hellenistic* was derived.

Since the Syrian Civil War started in March 2011, it has been difficult to gain accurate counts of the Syrian population. In 2011, Syrian population was estimated at about 23 million permanent inhabitants, including people with refugee status from Palestine and Iraq. While most modern-day Syrians are commonly described as Arabs by virtue of their modern-day language and bonds to Arab culture and history, they are, in fact, largely a blend of the various Semitic-speaking groups indigenous to the region.

Domninus of Larissa, Syria was, simultaneously with Proclus, a pupil of Syrianus. Domninus is said to have corrupted the doctrines of Plato by mixing up with them his private opinions. This called forth a treatise from Proclus, intended as a statement of the genuine principles of Platonism.^{ [1] } Marinus writes about a rivalry between Domninus and Proclus about how Plato's work should be interpreted,

**Shaizar** is a town in northern Syria, administratively part of the Hama Governorate, located northwest of Hama. Nearby localities include, Mahardah, Tremseh, Kafr Hud, Khunayzir and Halfaya. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Shaizar had a population of 5,953 in the 2004 census.

**Proclus Lycaeus**, called **the Successor**, was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major classical philosophers. He set forth one of the most elaborate and fully developed systems of Neoplatonism. He stands near the end of the classical development of philosophy, and was very influential on Western medieval philosophy.

**Syrianus** was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, and head of Plato's Academy in Athens, succeeding his teacher Plutarch of Athens in 431/432. He is important as the teacher of Proclus, and, like Plutarch and Proclus, as a commentator on Plato and Aristotle. His best-known extant work is a commentary on the *Metaphysics* of Aristotle. He is said to have written also on the *De Caelo* and the *De Interpretatione* of Aristotle and on Plato's *Timaeus*.

[Syrianus] offered to discourse to them on either the Orphic theories or the oracles; but Domninus wanted Orphism, Proclus the oracles, and they had not agreed when Syrianus died...

^{ [2] }

Orphismis the name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices originating in the ancient Greek and Hellenistic world, as well as from the Thracians, associated with literature ascribed to the mythical poet Orpheus, who descended into the Greek underworld and returned. Orphics also revered Persephone and Dionysus or Bacchus. Orpheus was said to have invented the Mysteries of Dionysus. Poetry containing distinctly Orphic beliefs has been traced back to the 6th century BC or at least 5th century BC, and graffiti of the 5th century BC apparently refers to "Orphics".

The Athenian academy eventually choose Proclus' interpretation over Domninus' and Proclus would later become the head of the Academy. After Proclus' promotion, Domninus left Athens and returned to Larissa.

The **Academy** was founded by Plato in c. 387 BC in Athens. Aristotle studied there for twenty years before founding his own school, the Lyceum. The Academy persisted throughout the Hellenistic period as a skeptical school, until coming to an end after the death of Philo of Larissa in 83 BC. The Platonic Academy was destroyed by the Roman dictator Sulla in 86 BC.

**Athens** is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC.

It is said that once when Domninus was ill and coughing up blood, he took to eating copious amounts of pork, despite the fact that he was Jewish, because a physician prescribed it as a treatment.^{ [1] } He is also said to have taught Asclepiodotus, until Asclepiodotus became so argumentative that Domninus no longer admitted him into his company.^{ [1] }

**Blood** is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

**Pork** is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig. It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC.

**Asclepiodotus** of Alexandria was a Neoplatonic philosopher who lived in the second half of the 5th century. He was a native of Alexandria who studied under Proclus in Athens. He eventually moved to Aphrodisias where he maintained a philosophy school jointly with another man also called Asclepiodotus, whose daughter, Damiane, he married. He wrote a commentary on Plato's *Timaeus*, which is however lost.

Domninus is remembered for authoring a *Manual of Introductory Arithmetic* (Greek : Ἐγχειρίδιον ἀριθμητικῆς εἰσαγωγῆς), which was edited by Boissonade and had two articles by Tannery written about it. The *Manual of Introductory Arithmetic* was a concise and well arranged overview of the theory of numbers. It covered numbers, proportions and means. It is important since it is a reaction against Nicomachus' *Introductio arithmetica* and a return to the doctrine of Euclid.

**Jean François Boissonade de Fontarabie** was a French classical scholar.

**Paul Tannery** was a French mathematician and historian of mathematics. He was the older brother of mathematician Jules Tannery, to whose *Notions Mathématiques* he contributed an historical chapter. Though Tannery's career was in the tobacco industry, he devoted his evenings and his life to the study of mathematicians and mathematical development.

**Nicomachus of Gerasa** was an important ancient mathematician best known for his works *Introduction to Arithmetic* and *Manual of Harmonics* in Greek. He was born in Gerasa, in the Roman province of Syria, and was strongly influenced by Aristotle. He was a Neopythagorean, who wrote about the mystical properties of numbers.

Domninus is also believed to have authored a tract entitled *how a ratio can be taken out of a ratio* (Greek : Πῶς ἔστι λόγον ἐκ λόγου ἀφελεῖν), which studies the manipulation of ratios into other forms. Bulmer-Thomas believe that it was written, at least in part, by Domninus, but Heath casts some doubt on the authorship by stating that if it wasn't written by Domninus then it at least comes from the same period as him.^{ [3] } Domninus may have also written a work entitled *Elements of Arithmetic* as referred to near the end of his *Manual of Introductory Arithmetic*, although whether or not he ever wrote this book is unknown.

**Euclid**, sometimes given the name **Euclid of Alexandria** to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry". He was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I. His *Elements* is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century. In the *Elements*, Euclid deduced the theorems of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. Euclid also wrote works on perspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, number theory, and rigor.

The area of study known as the **history of mathematics** is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past. Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. From 3000 BC the Mesopotamian states of Sumer, Akkad and Assyria, together with Ancient Egypt and Ebla began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for purposes of taxation, commerce, trade and also in the field of astronomy and to formulate calendars and record time.

**Archytas** was an Ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, and strategist. He was a scientist of the Pythagorean school and famous for being the reputed founder of mathematical mechanics, as well as a good friend of Plato.

**Pythagoreanism** originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans. Pythagoras established the first Pythagorean community in Crotone, Italy. Early-Pythagorean communities lived throughout Magna Graecia. Espousing a rigorous life of the intellect and strict rules on diet, clothing and behavior comprised a cult of following Pythagorean's Code. Peculiar, the Code's diet, prohibits the consumption or even touching any sort of bean or legume. Pythagoras’ death and disputes about his teachings led to the development of two philosophical traditions within Pythagoreanism. The practitioners of *akousmatikoi* were superseded in the 4th century BC as a significant mendicant school of philosophy by the Cynics. The Pythagorean *mathēmatikoi* philosophers were in the 4th century BC absorbed into the Platonic school.

**Pure mathematics** is the study of mathematical concepts independently of any application outside mathematics. These concepts may originate in real-world concerns, and the results obtained may later turn out to be useful for practical applications, but the pure mathematicians are not primarily motivated by such applications. Instead, the appeal is attributed to the intellectual challenge and esthetic beauty of working out the logical consequences of basic principles.

**Pappus of Alexandria** was one of the last great Greek mathematicians of Antiquity, known for his *Synagoge* (Συναγωγή) or *Collection*, and for Pappus's hexagon theorem in projective geometry. Nothing is known of his life, other than, that he had a son named Hermodorus, and was a teacher in Alexandria.

**Iamblichus** was a Syrian Neoplatonist philosopher of Arab origin. He determined the direction that would later be taken by Neoplatonic philosophy. He was also the biographer of Pythagoras, a Greek mystic, philosopher and mathematician.

**Hippasus of Metapontum**, was a Pythagorean philosopher. Little is known about his life or his beliefs, but he is sometimes credited with the discovery of the existence of irrational numbers. The discovery of irrational numbers is said to have been shocking to the Pythagoreans, and Hippasus is supposed to have drowned at sea, apparently as a punishment from the gods for divulging this. However, the few ancient sources which describe this story either do not mention Hippasus by name or alternatively tell that Hippasus drowned because he revealed how to construct a dodecahedron inside a sphere. The discovery of irrationality is not specifically ascribed to Hippasus by any ancient writer. Some modern scholars though have suggested that he discovered the irrationality of √2, which is believed to have been discovered around the time that he lived.

**Thomas Taylor** was an English translator and Neoplatonist, the first to translate into English the complete works of Aristotle and of Plato, as well as the Orphic fragments.

**Greek mathematics** refers to mathematics texts and advances written in Greek, developed from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean. Greek mathematicians lived in cities spread over the entire Eastern Mediterranean from Italy to North Africa but were united by culture and language. Greek mathematics of the period following Alexander the Great is sometimes called Hellenistic mathematics. The word "mathematics" itself derives from the Ancient Greek: μάθημα, translit. *máthēma*Attic Greek: [má.tʰɛː.ma]Koine Greek: [ˈma.θi.ma], meaning "subject of instruction". The study of mathematics for its own sake and the use of generalized mathematical theories and proofs is the key difference between Greek mathematics and those of preceding civilizations.

**Geminus** of Rhodes, was a Greek astronomer and mathematician, who flourished in the 1st century BC. An astronomy work of his, the *Introduction to the Phenomena*, still survives; it was intended as an introductory astronomy book for students. He also wrote a work on mathematics, of which only fragments quoted by later authors survive.

**Theon of Smyrna** was a Greek philosopher and mathematician, whose works were strongly influenced by the Pythagorean school of thought. His surviving *On Mathematics Useful for the Understanding of Plato* is an introductory survey of Greek mathematics.

**Philip****of Opus**, was a philosopher and a member of the Academy during Plato's lifetime. Philip was the editor of Plato's Laws. Philip of Opus is probably identical with the Philip of Medma, the astronomer, who is also described as a disciple of Plato.

**Hypsicles** was an ancient Greek mathematician and astronomer known for authoring *On Ascensions* (Ἀναφορικός) and the Book XIV of Euclid's *Elements*. Hypsicles lived in Alexandria.

**Commentaries on Plato** refers to the great mass of literature produced, especially in the ancient and medieval world, to explain and clarify the works of Plato. Many Platonist philosophers in the centuries following Plato sought to clarify and summarise his thoughts, but it was during the Roman era, that the Neoplatonists, in particular, wrote many commentaries on individual dialogues of Plato, many of which survive to the present day.

Many Plato interpreters held that his writings contain passages with double meanings, called 'allegories' or 'symbols', that give the dialogues layers of figurative meaning in addition to their usual literal meaning. These allegorical interpretations of Plato were dominant for more than fifteen hundred years, from about the first century CE through the Renaissance and into the Eighteenth Century, and were advocated by major figures such as Plotinus, Proclus, and Ficino. Beginning with Philo of Alexandria, these views influenced Jewish, Christian and Islamic interpretation of their holy scriptures. They spread widely in the Renaissance and contributed to the fashion for allegory among poets such as Dante, Spenser, and Shakespeare.

- Heath, Thomas Little (1981).
*A History of Greek Mathematics, Volume II*. Dover publications. ISBN 0-486-24074-6. - Ivor Bulmer-Thomas, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
- Peter Brown, The Manual of Domninus in Harvard Review of Philosophy (2000)

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