**Heliodorus of Larissa** (fl. 3rd century?) was a Greek mathematician, and the author of a short treatise on optics which is still extant.

Nothing is known about the life of Heliodorus.^{ [1] } He was a native of Larissa,^{ [2] } and he must have lived after the time of Claudius Ptolemy, whom he quotes. His short treatise on optics is little more than a commentary on Euclid.^{ [3] } It was edited by one Damianus, who was either his son or his pupil.^{ [2] } The first printed edition, in Greek and Latin, was published in Paris in 1657 with illustrative notes by Erasmus Bartholinus.^{ [1] }

**Ḥasan Ibn al-Haytham** was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age. Referred to as "the father of modern optics", he made significant contributions to the principles of optics and visual perception in particular. His most influential work is titled *Kitāb al-Manāẓir*, written during 1011–1021, which survived in a Latin edition. A polymath, he also wrote on philosophy, theology and medicine.

**Ammonius Hermiae** was a Greek philosopher from Alexandria in the eastern Roman empire during Late Antiquity. A Neoplatonist, he was the son of the philosophers Hermias and Aedesia, the brother of Heliodorus of Alexandria and the grandson of Syrianus. Ammonius was a pupil of Proclus in Roman Athens, and taught at Alexandria for most of his life, having obtained a public chair in the 470s.

**Archimedes of Syracuse** was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Considered to be the greatest mathematician of ancient history, and one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying concepts of infinitesimals and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems, including: the area of a circle; the surface area and volume of a sphere; area of an ellipse; the area under a parabola; the volume of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution; the volume of a segment of a hyperboloid of revolution; and the area of a spiral.

**Euclid**, sometimes called **Euclid of Alexandria** to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry". He was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I. His *Elements* is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century. In the *Elements*, Euclid deduced the theorems of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. Euclid also wrote works on perspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, number theory, and mathematical rigour.

**Larissa** is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly region in Greece. It is the fifth-most populous city in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census. It is also capital of the Larissa regional unit. It is a principal agricultural centre and a national transport hub, linked by road and rail with the port of Volos, the cities of Thessaloniki and Athens. The municipality of Larissa has 162,591 inhabitants, while the regional unit of Larissa reached a population of 284,325.

According to Hindu scripture, **Vasudeva**, also called **Ānakadundubhii**, is the father of the Hindu deities Krishna, Balarama and Subhadra. He was king of the Vrishnis and a Yadava prince. He was the son of the Yadava king Shurasena. His sister Kunti was married to Pandu. Kunti plays a big role later in the war Mahabharata.

**Heliodorus** is a Greek name meaning "Gift of the Sun". Several persons named Heliodorus are known to us from ancient times, the best known of which are:

**Theon of Alexandria** was a Greek scholar and mathematician who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. He edited and arranged Euclid's *Elements* and wrote commentaries on works by Euclid and Ptolemy. His daughter Hypatia also won fame as a mathematician.

**Heliodorus of Emesa** was a Roman writer for whom two ranges of dates are suggested, either about the 250s AD or in the aftermath of Emperor Julian's rule, that is shortly after 363. He is known for the ancient Greek novel called the *Aethiopica* (*Αἰθιοπικά*), sometimes called "Theagenes and Chariclia".

* Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light* is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704. The book analyzes the fundamental nature of light by means of the refraction of light with prisms and lenses, the diffraction of light by closely spaced sheets of glass, and the behaviour of color mixtures with spectral lights or pigment powders. It is considered one of the great works of science in history.

The **Heliodorus pillar** is a stone column that was erected around 113 BCE in central India in Besnagar. The pillar was called the *Garuda-standard* by Heliodorus, referring to the deity Garuda. The pillar is commonly named after Heliodorus, who was an ambassador of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas from Taxila, and was sent to the Indian ruler Bhagabhadra. A dedication written in Brahmi script was inscribed on the pillar, venerating Vāsudeva, the *Deva deva* the "God of Gods" and the Supreme Deity. The pillar also glorifies the Indian ruler as "Bhagabhadra the savior". The pillar is a stambha which symbolizes joining earth, space and heaven, and is thought to connote the "cosmic axis" and express the cosmic totality of the Deity.

**Jean-Étienne Montucla** was a French mathematician and historian.

**Optics** began with the development of lenses by the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians, followed by theories on light and vision developed by ancient Greek philosophers, and the development of geometrical optics in the Greco-Roman world. The word *optics* is derived from the Greek term τα ὀπτικά meaning "appearance, look". Optics was significantly reformed by the developments in the medieval Islamic world, such as the beginnings of physical and physiological optics, and then significantly advanced in early modern Europe, where diffractive optics began. These earlier studies on optics are now known as "classical optics". The term "modern optics" refers to areas of optical research that largely developed in the 20th century, such as wave optics and quantum optics.

* Aethiopica* or

A **treatise** is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay, and more concerned with investigating or exposing the principles of the subject and its conclusions. A monograph is a treatise on a specialized topic.

**Domninus of Larissa** was an ancient Hellenistic Syrian mathematician.

**Charmadas** was an Academic Skeptic philosopher and a disciple of Carneades at the Academy in Athens. He was a pupil of Carneades for seven years (145-138) and later he led his own school in the Ptolemaion, a gymnasium in Athens. He was from Alexandria and seems to have lived there, before he went to Athens around 145 B.C. He was an excellent rhetorician and famous for his outstanding memory. Like Philo of Larissa he seems to have pursued a more moderate philosophical scepticism. Lucius Licinius Crassus and Marcus Antonius (orator) were his most prominent pupils. Furthermore, Philodemus preserved us the names of other pupils: Diodorus of Adramyttion, Apollodor of Tarsus, Heliodorus of Mallos, Phanostratus of Tralles and a certain Apollonius.

The **gens Avidia** was an ancient Roman family that flourished during the early centuries of the Empire. Several of its members rose to prominence during the late first and second centuries AD.

**Biton of Pergamon** was an ancient Greek writer and engineer who lived in the second or third century BC. Only two of his works are known: a lost book on optics, entitled *Optics*, and an extant short treatise on siege machines, *Construction of War Machines and Catapults*.

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