Last updated
The Hack-a-Shaq is named after Shaquille O'Neal Lipofsky Shaquille O'Neal.jpg
The Hack-a-Shaq is named after Shaquille O'Neal

Hack-a-Shaq is a basketball defensive strategy used in the National Basketball Association (NBA), where Dallas Mavericks coach Don Nelson adapted the strategy of committing intentional fouls (originally a clock management strategy) to the purpose of lowering opponents' scoring. He directed players to commit personal fouls throughout the game against selected opponents who shot free throws poorly.


Nelson initially used the strategy against Dennis Rodman, a star power forward for the Detroit Pistons, San Antonio Spurs, and Chicago Bulls. However, the strategy acquired its name for Nelson's subsequent use of it against Hall of Fame center Shaquille O'Neal.


The term was coined when O'Neal played at LSU and during his NBA tenure with the Orlando Magic. At that time, the term referred simply to especially physical defense against O'Neal. Teams sometimes defended him by bumping, striking or pushing him after he received the ball to deny him an easy layup or slam dunk. Because of O'Neal's poor free throw shooting, teams did not fear the consequences of committing personal fouls. [1] [2] [3] However, once Nelson's off-the-ball fouling strategy became prevalent, the term Hack-a-Shaq was applied to this new tactic, and the original usage was largely forgotten.

The name is sometimes altered to reflect the player being fouled, for example Hack-a-Howard when used against Dwight Howard, [4] or Hack-a-DJ for DeAndre Jordan. [5]


Strategy of repeated intentional fouling

Committing repeated intentional personal fouls is a longstanding defensive strategy used by teams that are trailing near the end of the game. [6] Basketball, unique among major world sports, permits intentional fouling to gain a strategic advantage; in other sports, it is considered an unfair act or professional foul.

Once the fouling team enters the penalty situation, the fouled team is awarded free throws. The typical NBA player makes a high enough percentage of his free throws that, over time, opponents' possessions that end with free throws will yield more points than possessions in which the opponents try to score a field goal. Even the highest-scoring NBA teams average only about 1.1 points per possession. [7] Giving such a team two free throws on each possession, the poorest free throw shooting teams make around 70% of their free throws and would score 1.4 points per possession. [8] So intentionally fouling tends not to reduce the opponent's score.

However, fouls stop the game clock. If a team is trailing with time running out, intentional fouling may be the only hope. In normal game play, the opponents will stall and run out the clock, even at the expense of failing to score, to the extent that the shot clock allows. The trailing team fouls intentionally to end the opponents' possession as soon as possible, leaving more time on the clock for the opposing team to respond to any score. It may also hope that fatigue and pressure affect the ability of the free-throw shooter.

When this strategy was originally employed in the NBA, the trailing team often made a point of fouling the opposition player who was the poorest free throw shooter in the game at that time, even if that player did not possess the ball. However, fouling "off the ball" became a problem for the league when Wilt Chamberlain—a player of superstar caliber but an atrocious free throw shooter—entered the NBA.

Wilt Chamberlain and the off-the-ball foul rule

Basketball great Wilt Chamberlain was a notoriously bad free throw shooter. Wilt Chamberlain3.jpg
Basketball great Wilt Chamberlain was a notoriously bad free throw shooter.

Wilt Chamberlain was such a dominant player that he was sure to be on the floor near the end of any close game. However, he was such a poor free throw shooter (51%) as to be the natural target of a strategy of intentional fouling. The opposition was eager to send Chamberlain to the free throw line, and Chamberlain wished to avoid doing so. This led to a game of tag developing away from the basketball, players chasing Chamberlain as he tried to avoid being fouled.

The NBA enacted a new rule on off-the-ball fouls—personal fouls against an offensive player who neither has the ball nor is trying to obtain it. On such fouls within the last two minutes of the game or in overtime, the offensive team is awarded the usual number of free throws and then possession of the ball. The new rule removed the benefit of fouling to gain possession of the ball and limited late-game intentional fouls to the ball handler.

The current version of the rule contains an additional disincentive to off-the-ball fouls: The free throws need not be attempted by the player who was fouled; the fouled team can choose as shooter any player on the court at the time.

The reason they have that rule is that fouling someone off-the-ball looks foolish . . . Some of the funniest things I ever saw were players that used to chase [Wilt Chamberlain] like it was hide-and-seek. Wilt would run away from people, and the league changed the rule based on how silly that looked.

Pat Riley [9]


Nelson's innovation

There are several late-game situations where committing an isolated intentional foul makes sense. For a team trailing, late in the game, stopping the clock is a higher priority than keeping the opponents from scoring. In other situations, intentional fouling does not make sense because it typically lets the opponents score more points.

Intentional fouling every time the opponents get the ball was an innovation of Don Nelson in the late 1990s as coach of the Dallas Mavericks. He theorized that, if the opponents played an especially bad free throw shooter, intentionally fouling him might hold down his team's points per possession, compared to a conventional defense against them. Nelson used the strategy throughout the game, when the late-game penalties for off-the-ball fouls did not apply, such as the ball being given back to the fouled team.

Nelson did not invent the strategy; his innovation was to take a strategy whose primary purpose had always been simply stopping the clock, and use it instead primarily to minimize the opposition's scoring.


Nelson first used the strategy against Dennis Rodman of the Chicago Bulls in 1997, who was making 38% of his free throws on the season. He could not use the strategy on every Bulls possession, as a player committing his sixth foul is disqualified from the game. He used the strategy selectively, and chose a little-used player, whose absence the team could tolerate, to commit the fouls. He believed that Rodman's horrific foul shooting would result in the Mavericks actually giving up fewer total points during those Bulls possessions than they would give up by playing a standard defense against the Bulls' efficient offense, led by Michael Jordan and Scottie Pippen.

In that game, Rodman shot 9-for-12 from the free throw line, defeating the strategy, and the Bulls won the game. The strategy was thus largely forgotten, except that Maverick player Bubba Wells, who had been assigned to foul Rodman, set the all-time NBA record for fewest minutes played (3) before fouling out of a game. [10] [11]

Nelson used the strategy again in 1999, this time against Shaquille O'Neal, a career 52% free throw shooter. [11] Other NBA coaches also did so to defend against O'Neal. [12] So, even though it had been first used two years earlier against Rodman, the strategy became known for its use against O'Neal.

Problem for the league

As with Chamberlain decades earlier, intentional off-the-ball fouls against O'Neal became controversial. During the 2000 NBA Playoffs, both the Portland Trail Blazers and Indiana Pacers relentlessly used the Hack-a-Shaq defense against the Lakers. The NBA discussed expanding the off-the-ball foul rule to cover more than just the final two minutes of the game, or another rule change that would discourage the use of Hack-a-Shaq. [13] [14] Ultimately, though, the NBA did not change any rules to discourage the Hack-a-Shaq strategy. An effective rebuttal was that the Lakers won both of the games where Hack-a-Shaq was notorious, suggesting that the strategy was too ineffective to require remediation. [15]

Coach Gregg Popovich of the San Antonio Spurs used the Hack-a-Shaq strategy successfully in Game 5 of the Spurs' 2008 first round series against O'Neal and the Phoenix Suns. O'Neal made only 9 of his 20 free throws, dropping the Suns to 20-of-37 total on free throws. [16] The Suns were eliminated from the playoffs in a 92–87 Spurs win. In May 2008, ESPN.com columnist John Hollinger named the Spurs Hack-a-Shaq use as the "Best Tactic" of the first two rounds of the 2008 NBA Playoffs. Hollinger wrote that Popovich was the "first to really master how to use this weapon to his advantage." He explained that Popovich used the tactic "to eliminate 3-point attempts" and with 25 seconds or less at the end of quarters to get the ball back for the Spurs to gain the last possession. Hollinger stated "This should be a Eureka! moment for other coaches, and I expect it will be the league's most widely copied tactic next year." [17]

In subsequent seasons, fans and media remained displeased with the continued use of the strategy, particularly in high-profile playoff games. In 2008, the NBA Competition Committee again considered rule changes [18] but did not achieve consensus. [19] According to an ESPN study in 2016, offensive efficiency was higher than the Golden State Warriors when the Hack-a-Shaq strategy was used against a team. [20] NBA commissioner Adam Silver announced that the competition committee would look into changing the rule before the start of the 2016–2017 season due to extended length of games. It takes only three or more Hack-a-Shaq fouls to add 11 minutes to the length of a game, and at the time such fouls were being committed at a rate of four times more often than the prior season. [21]

Application against other players

The Hack-a-Shaq strategy is most effective against a player who shoots free throws poorly, but who is so effective in other areas that the coach is reluctant to simply remove them from the game. Few players other than O'Neal meet those criteria.

Ben Wallace shot only 42% free throws over his career, the worst percentage in the history of the NBA among players with 1000 attempts. Bruce Bowen was also among the game's best defenders but among its worst free throw shooters. Because of their struggles at the free throw line, each man has at times become a target of the Hack-a-Shaq strategy.

Dwight Howard

On January 12, 2012, the Golden State Warriors hacked Orlando Magic center Dwight Howard intentionally throughout the game. The result was he attempted a record 39 free throws, breaking Wilt Chamberlain's record of 34 set in 1962. Howard entered the game making 42% of his free throws for the season and just below 60% for his career. He made 21 of the 39 attempts, and he finished with 45 points and 23 rebounds in the Magic's 117–109 victory. [4] The following season, Howard was traded to the Lakers. In his first game back in Orlando on March 12, 2013, he made 25-of-39 free throws, setting Lakers records for free throws made and attempted while tying his NBA record for attempts. Howard made 16-of-20 free throws when he was fouled intentionally by the Magic. [22]

Tiago Splitter

On May 29, 2012, the Oklahoma City Thunder used a so-called hack-a-Splitter strategy on Tiago Splitter during Game 2 of Western Conference Final of 2012 NBA Playoffs, who made 5 of 10 free throw attempts from these fouls. [23]

Josh Smith

On April 10, 2015, the San Antonio Spurs was reported to use this strategy on Josh Smith to keep the basketball away from the super-hot James Harden and San Antonio Spurs won this season game by 104–103. [24]

DeAndre Jordan

DeAndre Jordan has been a victim of the Hack-a-Shaq strategy. DeAndre Jordan.jpg
DeAndre Jordan has been a victim of the Hack-a-Shaq strategy.

During the 2015 NBA Playoffs, Howard, then with the Houston Rockets, was again targeted often by opponents, particularly during round 2 against the Los Angeles Clippers. During Game 2, Howard shot 21 (converting 8) out of the 64 free throws for the Rockets. [25] In turn, the Rockets targeted DeAndre Jordan, who had been victim of "Hack-a-Jordan" or "Hack-a-DJ" since 2014, [26] [27] and in particular was fouled five times in two minutes during the previous playoff round against the San Antonio Spurs. [28] In Game 4, Jordan broke O'Neal's record for most free throw attempts in a half game with 28. [29]

Andre Drummond

On January 20, 2016, the Houston Rockets used Hack-a-Drummond against Detroit Pistons center Andre Drummond, and Drummond went 13 for 36 from the free throw line. Those 23 misses are an NBA record for most free throws missed by a player in a game. [30] However, the Pistons would still win the game 123-114.

André Roberson

In the 2016–17 playoffs, Oklahoma City Thunder forward André Roberson was a victim of this strategy against the Houston Rockets in the first round of the playoffs. Roberson shot 3/21 in the series.

Ben Simmons

On November 29, 2017, the Washington Wizards used what a newspaper called a "hack-a-Ben Simmons strategy" when trailing the Philadelphia 76ers by 24 points in the third quarter. The Wizards repeatedly fouled 76ers point guard Ben Simmons, giving him 29 free throws, 24 of them in the fourth quarter. Simmons was a notoriously bad shooter and had entered the game with a 56% free throw rate. He shot free throws even worse in this game, making 15/29 (52%). However, the 76ers held on to win the game, 118-113. Simmons' 31 points were a career high for him at the time. [31]

Criticism and rule changes

Detractors argue that deliberate fouling makes the game unpleasant to watch, violates the spirit or disrupts the rhythm of the game, puts the fouling team too quickly into the penalty situation, and disparages the team's defensive abilities.

All that did was allow us to set our defense. I think that's disrespectful to their players. Basically, they were telling their players that they couldn't guard us.

Detroit Pistons forward Tayshaun Prince, [32] after Los Angeles Clippers coach Mike Dunleavy used the Hack-a-Shaq strategy against Pistons center Ben Wallace in a game in December 2005

Many coaches have heeded these criticisms and doubted the effectiveness of the strategy in minimizing scoring. One imponderable is the effect on the psychology of the player fouled deliberately on the belief that he will not make his free throws. Some believe that frequently sending O'Neal to the foul line risked putting him "into a rhythm" and temporarily making him a better shooter. [33]

These factors, and the fact that there are only handful of players who satisfy the criteria for Hack-a-Shaq, mean that the strategy is uncommon in the NBA. A rule change starting in the 2016–17 NBA season put an additional constraint on deliberate fouling: Away-from-the-ball fouls now award the fouled team a free throw and possession of the ball in the final 2 minutes of each quarter, extended from the prior rule affecting only the final 2 minutes of the 4th quarter. [34] The rule change sought to eliminate cases where teams would intentionally foul off-the-ball in order to gain the final possession of a quarter.

Related Research Articles

Shaquille ONeal American basketball player and Investor

Shaquille Rashaun "Shaq" O'Neal is an American sports analyst on the television program Inside the NBA on TNT, former professional basketball player, and rapper. O’Neal was a 7-foot-1-inch (2.16 m) and 325-pound (147 kg) center who played for six teams over his 19-year career in the National Basketball Association (NBA). O'Neal is regarded as one of the greatest basketball players of all time.

In basketball, a technical foul is any infraction of the rules penalized as a foul which does not involve physical contact during the course of play between opposing players on the court, or is a foul by a non-player. The most common technical foul is for unsportsmanlike conduct. Technical fouls can be assessed against players, bench personnel, the entire team, or even the crowd. These fouls, and their penalties, are more serious than a personal foul, but not necessarily as serious as a flagrant foul.

Free throw Penalty in basketball

In basketball, free throws or foul shots are unopposed attempts to score points by shooting from behind the free throw line, a line situated at the end of the restricted area. Free throws are generally awarded after a foul on the shooter by the opposing team, analogous to penalty shots in other team sports. Free throws are also awarded in other situations, including technical fouls, and when the fouling team has entered the bonus/penalty situation. Also depending on the situation, a player may be awarded between one and three free throws. Each successful free throw is worth one point.

Personal foul (basketball) Illegal contact with an opponent in basketball

In basketball, a personal foul is a breach of the rules that concerns illegal personal contact with an opponent. It is the most common type of foul in basketball. A player fouls out on reaching a limit on personal fouls for the game and is disqualified from participation in the remainder of the game.

Rules of basketball

The rules of basketball are the rules and regulations that govern the play, officiating, equipment and procedures of basketball. While many of the basic rules are uniform throughout the world, variations do exist. Most leagues or governing bodies in North America, the most important of which are the National Basketball Association and NCAA, formulate their own rules. In addition, the Technical Commission of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) determines rules for international play; most leagues outside North America use the complete FIBA ruleset.

Charles Richard "Bubba" Wells Jr. is an American former professional basketball player, playing mostly for minor leagues. He played collegiately for Austin Peay State University and was named 1997 Ohio Valley Conference Player of the Year. Selected 34th by the Mavs in the 1997 NBA draft, the little-used small forward's NBA career was short-lived, consisting of just 39 games of the 1997–98 season. However, he did start two games in March 1998, in place of the injured Cedric Ceballos. His brief NBA career did feature one memorable game where he set the record for the shortest amount of playing time before fouling out, as part of a failed strategy to intentionally foul Dennis Rodman to limit his scoring.

2000 NBA Finals

The 2000 NBA Finals was the championship round of the National Basketball Association (NBA)'s 1999–2000 season, and the conclusion of the season's playoffs. The Western Conference champion Los Angeles Lakers defeated the Eastern Conference champion Indiana Pacers 4 games to 2. This was the Lakers' first championship in twelve years. Lakers center Shaquille O'Neal was named the NBA Finals Most Valuable Player (MVP) of the series, in arguably one of the best finals performances in history putting up 38 PPG, 16 Rebounds and 2 blocks, his first of three consecutive honors. The series was played under a best-of-seven format, with the Lakers holding home court advantage. The series featured the number one seeds from both conferences.

2001 NBA Finals 2001 basketball championship series

The 2001 NBA Finals was the championship round of the National Basketball Association (NBA)'s 2000–01 season. The defending NBA champion and Western Conference champion Los Angeles Lakers took on the Eastern Conference champion Philadelphia 76ers for the championship, with the Lakers holding home-court advantage in a best-of-seven format.

1995 NBA Finals

The 1995 NBA Finals was the championship round of the 1994–95 National Basketball Association (NBA) season. The series pitted the Eastern Conference champion Orlando Magic against the defending NBA champion and Western Conference champion Houston Rockets. The pre-series hype and buildup of the Finals was centered on the meeting of the two centers opposing each other: Shaquille O'Neal of the Magic and Hakeem Olajuwon of the Rockets. Going into the series the matchup was compared to the Bill Russell–Wilt Chamberlain matchup of the 1960s.

Flagrant foul

In basketball, a flagrant foul is a personal foul that involves excessive or violent contact that could injure the fouled player. A flagrant foul may be unintentional or purposeful; the latter type is also called an "intentional foul" in the National Basketball Association (NBA). However, not all intentional fouls are flagrant fouls, as it is an accepted strategy to intentionally commit a foul in order to regain possession of the ball while minimizing how much time elapses on the game clock.

Glossary of basketball terms Wikipedia glossary

This glossary of basketball terms is a list of definitions of terms used in the game of basketball. Like any other major sport, basketball features its own extensive vocabulary of unique words and phrases used by players, coaches, sports journalists, commentators, and fans.

The 2006 NBA Finals was the championship series of the 2005–06 National Basketball Association season. The Miami Heat won the title in six games over the Dallas Mavericks, becoming the third team—after the 1969 Celtics and the 1977 Trail Blazers—to win a championship after trailing 0–2 in the series. Dwyane Wade of the Heat was named Most Valuable Player of the series.

2002 NBA playoffs

The 2002 NBA playoffs were the postseason tournament of the National Basketball Association's 2001–02 season. This was the final postseason that held a best-of-5 first-round series; the 2003 NBA Playoffs saw those series expand to a best-of-7 format. The tournament concluded with the Western Conference champion Los Angeles Lakers defeating the Eastern Conference champion New Jersey Nets 4 games to 0. Shaquille O'Neal was named NBA Finals MVP for the third straight year.

Key (basketball) Area on a basketball court

The key, officially referred to as the free throw lane by the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), the restricted area by the international governing body FIBA, and colloquially as the lane or the paint, is a marked area on a basketball court surrounding the basket. It is bounded by the endline, the free-throw line and two side lines, and usually painted in a distinctive color. It is a crucial area on the court where much of the game's action takes place.

Spurs–Suns rivalry National Basketball Association rivalry

The Spurs–Suns rivalry is a National Basketball Association (NBA) rivalry between the San Antonio Spurs and Phoenix Suns. It began in the 1990s, when the Spurs were led by "The Admiral", David Robinson, and the Phoenix Suns were propelled by a number of players, including Dan Majerle, Kevin Johnson, and Tom Chambers. The rivalry continued into the next decade with Tim Duncan leading the Spurs, and with Steve Nash leading the Suns. The rivalry has also allegedly prevented Spurs coach Gregg Popovich from coaching the USA Basketball team in the 2008 Summer Olympics.

The 1999–2000 NBA season was the Pacers' 24th season in the National Basketball Association, and 33rd season as a franchise. It was their first season playing at the Conseco Fieldhouse. During the offseason, the Pacers acquired top draft pick and high school star Jonathan Bender from the Toronto Raptors. The Pacers played around .500 with a 7–7 start to the season, but then won 15 of their next 17 games. The team finished first place in the Central Division with a 56–26 record, highlighted by a franchise-best 25-game winning streak at home, which was worthy of the Eastern Conference first seed in the playoffs, guaranteed home-court advantage throughout the Eastern Conference playoffs for the first time in franchise history, and an all-time franchise best win-loss record. Jalen Rose, who played the previous three seasons off the Pacers' bench, became a starter and led the team in scoring with 18.2 points per game, and was named Most Improved Player of the Year. Reggie Miller and Dale Davis were both selected for the 2000 NBA All-Star Game in Oakland.

2009 NBA Finals

The 2009 NBA Finals was the National Basketball Association (NBA)'s championship series for the 2008–09 season. The best-of-seven playoff was contested between the Western Conference champion Los Angeles Lakers, and the Eastern Conference champion Orlando Magic. The Lakers defeated the Magic, four games to one, to win the franchise's 15th NBA championship. The 63rd edition of the championship series was played between June 4 and June 14 and was broadcast on U.S. television on ABC.

Basketball is a ball game and team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules. Since being developed by James Naismith as a non-contact game that almost anyone can play, basketball has undergone many different rule variations, eventually evolving into the NBA-style game known today. Basketball is one of the most popular and widely viewed sports in the world.

Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules. Basketball is one of the most popular and widely viewed sports in the world.


Big3 is a 3-on-3 basketball league founded by hip hop musician and actor Ice Cube and entertainment executive Jeff Kwatinetz. The league consists of twelve teams whose rosters include both former NBA players and international players. The rules enforced in Big3 games contain major deviations from the official rules of 3-on-3 basketball as administered by FIBA. In January 2020, Big3 announced its rule set would be the core of a new basketball variant called "Fireball3".


  • NBA Official Rule Book (Rule 12-B, Section X)
  1. (1995, December 17). "Magic Don't Care For Hack-a-Shaq 'D'", The Deseret News
  2. (1996, May 19). "WHY HACK-A-SHAQ? SHAQ'S A HACK AT FOUL LINE", The Charlotte Observer
  3. (1995, October 29)."Pop-a-shot or Hack-a-Shaq, Until free throws fall, Magic's O'Neal subject to punishment", Star Tribune
  4. 1 2 "Dwight Howard breaks FT attempts mark as Magic top Warriors". ESPN.com. January 12, 2012. Archived from the original on January 13, 2012.
  5. Perrin, Steve (May 30, 2012). "Scott Brooks's 'Hack-A-Splitter' Strategy Against Spurs: A Poor Tactic On Every Level". SB Nation.
  6. Dudley, Carl A. (2006, January 26). "The Most Important Form of Official Communication: The Pre-Game Conference Archived 2007-04-26 at the Wayback Machine ", International Association of Approved Basketball Officials, Board #134 Information Release
    "In a close match, with seconds ticking down and a team being down by one or two points, a coaching strategy could be to foul and stop the clock and make the other team earn their victory by way of the free throw."
  7. Phoenix Suns 2005–2006 Season Statistics
  8. (2006, January 2). "Milwaukee Bucks/Chicago Bulls Preview", Yahoo! Sports
    "Chicago is one of the NBA's worst free-throw shooting teams at 70.7 percent."
  9. Ballantini, Brett. (November/December 2004) "A steal of a deal: with Shaquille O'Neal in tow, Miami's president has set the Heat's sights on one thing: winning an NBA title", Basketball Digest
  10. Hubbuch, Bart. (1999, March 5). "QUESTIONABLE CALLS: Nelson's coaching moves still up for debate", Dallas Morning News
  11. 1 2 Turner, Broderick. (1999, November 8). "Shaq vents his frustrations on late-game fouls: Vowing to get back at Portland's Jermaine O'Neal, he also is mildly displeased at Mavericks coach Nelson's strategy." Riverside Press-Enterprise
  12. (2000, May 24). "DUNLEAVY IMPRESSES A COACHING MAVERICK", The Oregonian
  13. (2000, May 23). "League will reconsider rule after Hack-a-Shaq marathon", Atlanta Journal-Constitution
  14. (2000, May 28). "IT DOESN'T FIGURE, SO LET'S SACK THE HACK", Los Angeles Daily News
  15. (2000, June 13). "A no-call for league: NBA won't change rule to stop foul strategy", Boston Herald
  16. "Phoenix sloppy down stretch as Parker, Spurs send Suns packing". ESPN.com . 2008-04-29. Retrieved 2008-04-30.
  17. "Best and worst of the first two rounds of the playoffs". ESPN.com . 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
  18. Adande, J.A. (2008, May 8). "Commish: Fouling away from ball, replay to be reviewed", ESPN.com
  19. Stein, Marc (2008, May 29). "Fines will be imposed for clear cases of flopping", ESPN.com
  20. "Does Hack-a-Shaq actually work?". ESPN. April 28, 2016. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  21. DeAntae Prince (April 21, 2016). "Adam Silver: New Hack-a-Shaq rule could be in place by July". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  22. Bresnahan, Mike (March 12, 2013). "Hacks and answered: Lakers' Dwight Howard buries Magic at line". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 28, 2013.
  23. Perrin, Steve (May 30, 2012). "Scott Brooks's 'Hack-A-Splitter' Strategy Against Spurs: A Poor Tactic On Every Level". SB Nation.
  24. Rieken, Kristie (April 11, 2015). "Duncan leads Spurs to 104-103 win over Rockets". NBA.com. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
  25. 'Hack-a-Jordan' clouds Clippers' win
  26. Intentionally Fouling DeAndre Jordan Is Futile
  27. Even in a win, the flaws in the Spurs' strategy of intentionally fouling DeAndre Jordan were exposed
  28. "Jordan Sets Playoff Record with 28 Free-Throw Attempts in 1 Half". Bleacher Report. May 11, 2015.
  29. http://espn.go.com/nba/recap?gameId=400828522
  30. "Wizards use Hack-a-Ben Simmons strategy to stage massive comeback vs. 76ers". USA Today. November 29, 2017.
  31. (2005, December 12). "Strategy doesn't work, Pistons top Clippers", The Detroit News
  32. Jordan, Rivers Give Thoughts On Hack-A-DJ Strategy
  33. "NBA Board of Governors approves new rules for away from the play fouls". NBA.com. Turner Sports Interactive, Inc. July 13, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2016.