Wheel offense is an offensive strategy in basketball, developed in the late 1950s by Garland F. Pinholster at the Oglethorpe University.It is a kind of continuity offense in which players move around in a circular pattern to create good scoring opportunities. The wheel offense is a popular offensive play, frequently used by teams from middle school to college levels because it can effectively work against any defense, including zone defense and man-to-man defense.
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play (overtime) is mandated.
Garland Folsom Pinholster was an athletic director as well as college basketball, baseball, and tennis coach, elected to the Oglethorpe Athletic Hall of Fame in its inaugural year of 1962. He is also a member of the Georgia Sports Hall of Fame.
Oglethorpe University is a private liberal arts college in Brookhaven, Georgia. Originally chartered in 1835, it was named in honor of General James Edward Oglethorpe, founder of the Colony of Georgia.
There are various ways to run the wheel offense. The original form of the wheel offense developed by Garland Pinholster starts with a 2-1-2 formation, where two players stand edge by edge at the free throw lane.
By using sets of screens and cuts, this 2-1-2 formation can be maneuvered into a 1-3-1 formation, with the ball-handler on the wing. Once in position, the player in the low post (the second cutter) will set a screen for the ball-handler (the first cutter). The first cutter quickly passes the ball to the player on top at the perimeter (the fourth cutter), and then, depending on how the defense react, makes a cut to the basket either down the base line or over the top from the free throw line. Meanwhile, the fourth cutter will pass the ball to the player on the other wing (the fifth player), and quickly go down to the free throw lane and set a screen for the second cutter. The second cutter then make another cut across the free throw line. After the first two cuts are clear, the player in the middle at the free throw lane (the third cutter), who have been setting double screens for the previous two cuts, will now fake a step towards the basket and then break off to the top on the side of the circle, and the fourth cutter will go to the wing position initially taken by the first cutter. Note that at this point the players are again in the original 1-3-1 formation, except flipped to the other side.
During the time the other players are making the play, the fifth player on the other wing, now having received the ball from the player at the top, needs to watch if any good shot opportunity occurs and make appropriate passes. If the first cutter gets rid of the defense, he or she will get the ball for an easy layup down the basket. If the second cutter gets open, he or she will get the ball for a quick catch and shoot at the free throw line. If the first two cuts are unsuccessful, the third cutter will receive the ball and drive down the lane for a layup, if possible. Even if there is no good opportunity during the whole play, the players are now again in the 1-3-1 formation, and are ready to initiate another wave of offense.
The wheel offense is very advantageous to use. First it is very flexible and easy to set up. All the positions in the wheel offense are interchangeable (i.e. the point guard doesn’t have to be the first cutter).This enables the ball-handler to start the wheel offense from either wing without the other players changing their positions.With its flexibility, the wheel offense blends well with both half-court attack and fast break.
The point guard (PG), also called the one or point, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. A point guard has perhaps the most specialized role of any position. Point guards are expected to run the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time. Above all, the point guard must totally understand and accept their coach's game plan; in this way, the position can be compared to a quarterback in American football or a playmaker in association football (soccer). While the point guard must understand and accept the coach's gameplan, they must also be able to adapt to what the defense is allowing, and they also must control the pace of the game.
Fast break is an offensive strategy in basketball and handball. In a fast break, a team attempts to move the ball up court and into scoring position as quickly as possible, so that the defense is outnumbered and does not have time to set up. The various styles of the fast break–derivative of the original created by Frank Keaney–are seen as the best method of providing action and quick scores. A fast break may result from cherry picking.
Once the play is set up, the wheel offense can work effectively against both man-to-man defense and zone defense.The various cuts and double screens will create open shot opportunities if the defense fails to react quickly. Even if the defensive players manage to cover all the cutting offensive players, they are forced to switch match-ups. Switching match-ups often causes mismatches between offensive players and defensive players, and when mismatch happens, the offensive team often take advantage of it to score. Also, when a team runs the wheel offense, their game tempo will be very hard to disrupt.
Man-to-man defense is a type of defensive tactic used in team sports such as American football, association football, basketball, and netball, in which each player is assigned to defend and follow the movements of a single player on offense. Often, a player guards his counterpart, but a player may be assigned to guard a different position. However, the strategy is not rigid, and a player might switch assignment if needed, or leave his own assignment for a moment to double team an offensive player. The term is commonly used in both men's and women's sports, though the gender-neutral 'player-to-player' also has some usage.
Zone defense is a type of defense, used in team sports, which is the alternative to man-to-man defense; instead of each player guarding a corresponding player on the other team, each defensive player is given an area to cover.
The wheel offense can also integrate other offensive plays. Pinholster's Oglethorpe team would often run some concealment plays before they start the wheel offense.This made the wheel offense very hard to detect, and they could catch the defense off guard. During the play, when the wheel offense is in the 1-3-1 formation, it can also switch to other plays based on the same formation. This greatly increases the variation of the wheel offense, making it very hard to defend.
Moreover, the wheel offense is very helpful for team-building. Because the wheel offense demands every player to have good ball-handling and shooting skills, each player is forced to develop more fully.In the wheel offensive play, five players play as a team rather than individuals. Thus practicing and running the wheel offense is very helpful for developing a team spirit among the players.
There are a few conditions need to be satisfied before using the wheel offense. Some are listed below.
The triangle offense is an offensive strategy used in basketball. Its basic ideas were initially established by Hall of Fame coach Sam Barry at the University of Southern California. His system was further developed by former Houston Rockets and Kansas State University basketball head coach Tex Winter, who played for Barry in the late 1940s. Winter later served as assistant coach for the Chicago Bulls in the 1980s and 1990s and for the Los Angeles Lakers in the 2000s, mostly under head coach Phil Jackson.
The shooting guard (SG), also known as the two or off guard, is one of the five traditional positions in a regulation basketball game. A shooting guard's main objective is to score points for his team and steal the ball on defense. Some teams ask their shooting guards to bring up the ball as well; these players are known colloquially as combo guards. A player who can switch between playing shooting guard and small forward is known as a swingman. In the NBA, shooting guards usually range from 6' 3" to 6' 7" and 5' 9" to 6' 0" in the WNBA.
In basketball, a personal foul is a breach of the rules that concerns illegal personal contact with an opponent. It is the most common type of foul in basketball. A player fouls out on reaching a limit on personal fouls for the game and is disqualified from participation in the remainder of the game.
Strategy forms a major part of the game of American football, and both teams plan many aspects of their plays (offense) and response to plays (defense), such as what formations they take, who they put on the field, and the roles and instructions each player are given. Throughout a game, each team adapts to the other's apparent strengths and weaknesses, trying various approaches to outmaneuver or overpower their opponent to score more points in order to win the game.
The pick and roll in basketball is an offensive play in which a player sets a screen (pick) for a teammate handling the ball and then moves toward the basket (rolls) to receive a pass. In the NBA, the play came into vogue in the 1990s and has developed into the league's most common offensive action. Opponents sometimes counter with a switch of defensive assignments during the play.
Basketball moves are generally individual actions used by players in basketball to pass by defenders to gain access to the basket or to get a clean pass to a teammate to score a two pointer or three pointer.
Basketball, like any other major sport, has its own unique words and phrases used by sports journalists, players, and fans
A motion offense is a category of offensive scheme used in basketball. Motion offenses use player movement, often as a strategy to exploit the quickness of the offensive team or to neutralize a size advantage of the defense.
The Flex offense is an offensive strategy in basketball invented in 1967 by Rene Herrerias while coaching at Cal-Berkeley. It was utilized to bring UCLA's star center, Lew Alcindor, away from the basketball. The offense was originally called the "Cha Cha". It is a patterned offense relying on cuts across the key and down screens to create a "pick-the-picker" action. This offense is most effective against a man-to-man defense, though some ambitious coaches have used it against odd front zones. It is the favored offense of many high school programs because it requires players to be in constant motion and the patterns of screens and cuts are easy to remember. Though dismissed by many coaches at the college level for its predictability, some notable programs still rely on it. It has been run by many NCAA teams, including by Gary Williams of the University of Maryland. Williams used the flex offense to lead the Terrapins to the 2002 NCAA National Championship. Also, Gordie James of Willamette University used the flex offense to lead the Bearcats to the 1993 NAIA Division II National Championship. Additionally, Jerry Sloan ran his variation of it for years with the Utah Jazz.
The following terms are used in water polo. Rules below reflect the latest FINA Water Polo Rules.
A screen is a blocking move by an offensive player, by standing beside or behind a defender, to free a teammate to shoot, a pass, or drive in to score. In basketball and field lacrosse, it is also known as a pick. Screens can be on-ball, or off-ball. The two offensive players involved in setting the screen are known as the screener and the cutter.
The game of lacrosse is played using a combination of offensive and defensive strategies. Offensively, the objective of the game is to score by shooting the ball into an opponent's goal, using the lacrosse stick to catch, carry, and pass the ball. Defensively, the objective is to keep the opposing team from scoring and to dispossess them of the ball through the use of stick checking and body contact or positioning.
The following terms are used in American football, both conventional and indoor. Some of these terms are also in use in Canadian football; for a list of terms unique to that code, see Glossary of Canadian football.
The 1–3–1 defense and offense is a popular strategy used in basketball.
The 2–3 zone defense is a defensive strategy used in basketball as an alternative to man-to-man defense. It is referred to as the 2–3 because of its formation on the court, which consists of two players at the front of the defense and three players behind.
The amoeba defense is a defensive strategy in the game of basketball.
Basketball is a ball game and team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules. Since being developed by James Naismith as a non-contact game that almost anyone can play, basketball has undergone many different rule variations, eventually evolving into the NBA-style game known today. Basketball is one of the most popular and widely viewed sports in the world.