Key (basketball)

Last updated
The different shapes of the key in different basketball disciplines (yellow, from left to right): NBA, NCAA, FIBA 1956-2010, and FIBA since 2010. Basketball keys.svg
The different shapes of the key in different basketball disciplines (yellow, from left to right): NBA, NCAA, FIBA 1956–2010, and FIBA since 2010.

The key, officially referred to as the free throw lane by the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), the restricted area by the international governing body FIBA, and colloquially as the lane or the paint, is a marked area on a basketball court surrounding the basket. It is bounded by the endline, the free-throw line and two side lines (freebody lines), and usually painted in a distinctive color. It is a crucial area on the court where much of the game's action takes place.

Contents

Dimensions of the key area have varied through the history of the game. Since the 2010 FIBA rule amendments (implemented following the 2010 FIBA World Championship), its shape is rectangular for games sanctioned by all three associations, 16 feet (4.9 m) wide for both NBA and FIBA keys, and 12 feet (3.7 m) for NCAA and NAIA keys. Prior to 2006, the key in FIBA-sanctioned tournaments was a trapezoidal shape.

The most-commonly enforced rule on the key is the "three seconds rule" in which the team of a player on offense who stays on the key for more than three seconds loses possession of the ball. Another rule is the lane violation which occurs if a player from either team enters the key before a free-throw shooter releases the ball in the act of shooting. A recent innovation is the introduction of the restricted area arc directly underneath the basket where the defending player cannot force an offensive foul on the opposing player.

Dimensions

Each level of play has different specifications for the size and shape of the key: in American leagues, where the basketball court is measured in US units, the shape is rectangular, while in FIBA-sanctioned events, which use the metric system, the shape was trapezoidal before being changed to a rectangle as well. In addition to the bounding rectangle, the key includes a free-throw circle at its head or top.

The width of the key in the NBA is 16 feet (4.9 m); [1] in U.S. college (NCAA, NAIA, etc.) and high school play, it is 12 feet (3.7 m). [2]

Beginning after the 2010 FIBA World Championship, all FIBA-administered tournaments use a rectangular key 4.9 meters (16 ft) wide. [3] From 1956 until 2010, FIBA-sanctioned tournaments used a trapezoidal key. The narrower end was on the free-throw line, where it was 3.6 meters (12 ft), while the wider end, at the end line, measured 6 meters (20 ft). [4]

The free throw circle has a 6-foot (1.8 m) radius centered at the midpoint of the free throw line. The half-circle on the mid-court side of the free throw line is painted solid. In the NBA and ULEB, the boundary of the half closer to the basket is traced in a broken line in order to space players properly for jump balls. NBA Rule 1 (g) requires the key to contain two 6-inch (15 cm) long hash marks, 3 feet (0.91 m) from the free throw line; the marks indicate the so-called lower defensive box. The free throw line is 15 feet (4.6 m) from the perpendicular projection of the face of the backboard onto the court; this projection is 4 feet (1.2 m) from the end-line for NBA and NCAA or NAIA. The projection of the center of the basket onto the court is a perpendicular distance of 1.575 meters (5.17 ft) from the end line in FIBA tournaments, [3] but 5.25 feet (1.60 m) in NBA and NCAA or NAIA tournaments. [1] [2]

NBA NCAA and NAIA (U.S.) FIBA (since 2010)FIBA (until 2010)
Deng shot 121407.jpg Patriot Center Inside 2011.jpg Unicaja Real Madrid 2011.jpg NokiaArena.jpg
United Center, Chicago, U.S. EagleBank Arena, Fairfax, U.S. Palacio de Deportes José María Martín Carpena, Málaga, Spain Nokia Arena, Tel Aviv, Israel
NBA basketball courts have a 16-foot (4.9 m) rectangular key. Hash marks in an arc mark the portion of the circle for jump balls at the free throw line. Keys may have both NBA and NCAA or NAIA marking to allow use of the same floor by the both organizations.NCAA and NAIA basketball courts have a 12-foot (3.7 m) wide key. The free throw lane has no hash marks because jump balls are not held at the free throw line.Since 2010, all FIBA-specification courts have used 4.9-meter (16 ft) rectangular keys. Although FIBA rules now call for all jump balls to be held in the center circle, some competitions, such as Euroleague, continue to use foul-line jump balls.Prior to 2010, FIBA-specification courts had trapezoidal keys that were 6 meters (20 ft) at the baseline and 3.6 meters (12 ft) at the free throw line. The jump-ball circle was marked with solid lines on both sides of the free-throw line, the inside of which was often used for sponsor advertising.

History

In this basketball game played in 1942, the key was much narrower than the free-throw circle. Granada Relocation Center, Amache, Colorado. A hotly contested basket ball game between the Granada . . . - NARA - 539058.jpg
In this basketball game played in 1942, the key was much narrower than the free-throw circle.

Originally, the key was narrower and was shaped like a keyhole, measuring six feet (1.8 m) wide, hence its name "the key", with the free-throw circle as the head, and the shaded lane as the body. It has been also called "cup" or "bottle" in other languages, because of how it looks from other perspectives. Due to the narrow key, imposing centers, such as George Mikan, dominated the paint, scoring at will. To counter this, the key was widened into 12 feet (3.7 m) from 6 feet (1.8 m) at the onset of the 1951–52 NBA season. [5]

Men's professional basketball in the United States (the National Basketball Association) widened it further to 16 feet (4.9 m) in the 1964–65 NBA season to reduce the effectiveness of dominant centers, especially Wilt Chamberlain. [6] The NCAA and NAIA retain the 12‑foot key to this day.

On April 25, 2008, the FIBA Central Board approved rule changes that included the shape of the key. It is now rectangular and has virtually the same dimensions as the key used in the NBA. In addition, the no-charge semicircle formally called the restricted area arc was also created. [7] The change took effect in 2010.

Rules

20091113 Demetri McCamey driving.jpg
Sherron Collins by Judd Furlong.jpg
Demetri McCamey (left) and Sherron Collins (right) drive the key.

Three-second violation

The lane is a restricted area in which players on offense (in possession of the ball) can stay for only three seconds. At all levels of play, after three seconds the player is assessed a three-second violation which results in a turnover. [6]

In FIBA-sanctioned tournaments, defending team players are allowed to stay in the key with no time limit. In American professional basketball, defending team players are prohibited from staying in the key for more than three seconds, unless the player is directly guarding an offensive player. Otherwise if a defender exceeds that time, the defending team is charged with a defensive three-second violation, which results in a technical foul where the team with the ball is awarded one free throw, plus retaining possession and a reset of the shot clock. [4] In all cases, the clock resets if the shot hits the rim or if the player steps out of the lane. [8]

Lane violation

Wally Szczerbiak shoots a free throw; in most leagues, the team of the free throw shooter has at most two players (aside from the free throw shooter) on the sides of the key, while the opposing team has three. Free throw.jpg
Wally Szczerbiak shoots a free throw; in most leagues, the team of the free throw shooter has at most two players (aside from the free throw shooter) on the sides of the key, while the opposing team has three.
Jason Bohannon shoots a free throw; in the American NCAA and NAIA, there can be at most three players on each side of the key during a free throw. 201001020 Jason Bohannon shoots a free throw against Michigan.jpg
Jason Bohannon shoots a free throw; in the American NCAA and NAIA, there can be at most three players on each side of the key during a free throw.

When a player is shooting free throws, a certain number of players are allowed at the boundaries of the key, each occupying a slot traced at the boundaries of the key. The free throw shooter is behind the free throw line, and in most leagues three of his opponents are along the sides of the key, one side with two players, the other with one. Two of his opponents are situated nearest to the basket on both sides, while his two teammates are beside the two opponents closest to the basket, with the other player from the opposing team situated farthest from the basket. [1] [3] In the U.S. NCAA and NAIA, there are as many as six players along the key, with the opposing team allowed to have as many as four players, with the same arrangement as in the NBA and FIBA but with another player facing his teammate farthest to the basket. [2]

No player along the lane may enter the key until the shot is released. The player shooting the free throw, and anyone at top of the key, may not cross the free throw line until the ball hits the rim. If any of the offensive players violate the rule, no points are awarded for the shot and, if there are no more shots remaining, the ball is given to the defending team. If a defending player enters the lane too soon, an extra shot will be awarded regardless of whether the shot was made or missed. [1] [2] [3]

In FIBA play, if the shooter commits the violation, it is an automatic turnover. If the shot is successful and the shooter does not commit a violation, but other players do commit a violation, all violations are dismissed. If players on the opposing team enter the key prior to the release of the ball, a jump ball determines who gets the possession of the ball (NBA) or the possession arrow rule (for all other levels). In FIBA play, that only applies if the shooter misses, since a successful attempt negates all other penalties. [1] [2] [3] In all situations, lane violation penalties cannot occur if there are further free throws pending. [9]

Restricted area arc

In the NBA, Euroleague, and in FIBA and NCAA or NAIA play, the key has an arc extending four feet from the basket (NBA and NCAA or NAIA), or 1.25 meters (approximately 4.1 feet) (FIBA). The area behind the arc, or the arc itself is called the "restricted area" (RA) in the NBA, the "restricted area arc" in the NCAA or NAIA and the "no-charge semicircles" in FIBA. [10]

Its purpose is to prevent secondary defenders from taking a position under the basket in an attempt to draw an offensive foul while a player is driving to the basket. If a player on offense drives past his primary defender on the way to the basket and a secondary defender steps in, he must establish a position outside the RA to draw an offensive foul. If the drive starts inside the Lower Defensive Box (LDB – the area from the bottom tip of the free throw circle to the end line between the two 3‑foot posted-up marks), the secondary defender is allowed to be positioned inside the RA. The restricted area does not apply if the secondary defender jumps in attempting to block the shot, and the offensive player leads with his leg or knee in an unnatural motion or uses his off arm to prevent the defender from blocking his shot. The RA does not extend from below the backboard to the baseline. Therefore, if a player drives the baseline and is not attempting to go directly to the rim, the RA does not apply.

The restricted area arc rule first appeared at any level of competition in the NBA for the 1997-98 season. [11] It was applied in NCAA men's basketball for the 2010–2011 season. The NCAA approved adding a visible restricted-area arc three feet from the center of the basket in Division I men’s and women’s games for the 2011–2012 season. The panel delayed implementation of the arc until the 2012-2013 season for Divisions II and III to allow those schools more time to plan and place the restricted-area arc in their home arenas. [12] Starting with the 2015-2016 season, the NCAA moved the RA arc out to four feet from the center of the basket; the NAIA followed suit.

Terms

Points made on the key are termed as points in the paint or inside points. Historically, the area of the key where offensive players are prohibited from remaining longer than three seconds has been painted to distinguish the area from the rest of the court; hence the phrase "points in the paint." The area around the free throw circle's farthest point from the basket is called the "top of the key", and several plays revolve around this area, such as screens and pick and rolls.

The intersection of the free throw line and the free throw lane is referred to as the elbow of the key. [13]

Related Research Articles

Basketball Team sport

Basketball, colloquially referred to as hoops, is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one, two or three one-point free throws. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play (overtime) is mandated.

Basketball court Rectangular playing surface, with baskets at each end

In basketball, the basketball court is the playing surface, consisting of a rectangular floor, with baskets at each end. In professional or organized basketball, especially when played indoors, it is usually made out of a wood, often maple, and highly polished and completed with a 10 foot rim. Outdoor surfaces are generally made from standard paving materials such as concrete or asphalt.

College basketball

College basketball in the United States is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), the United States Collegiate Athletic Association (USCAA), the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA), and the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA). Each of these various organizations are subdivided into from one to three divisions based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes.

In basketball, a technical foul is any infraction of the rules penalized as a foul which does not involve physical contact during the course of play between opposing players on the court, or is a foul by a non-player. The most common technical foul is for unsportsmanlike conduct. Technical fouls can be assessed against players, bench personnel, the entire team, or even the crowd. These fouls, and their penalties, are more serious than a personal foul, but not necessarily as serious as a flagrant foul.

Shot clock

A shot clock is a countdown timer used in basketball that provides a set amount of time that a team may possess the ball before attempting to score a field goal. It is distinct from the game clock, which displays the time remaining in the period of play. It may be colloquially known as the 24-second clock, particularly in the NBA and other leagues where that is the duration of the shot clock. If the shot clock reaches zero before the team attempts a field goal, the team has committed a shot clock violation, which is penalized with a loss of possession.

Free throw Penalty in basketball

In basketball, free throws or foul shots are unopposed attempts to score points by shooting from behind the free throw line, a line situated at the end of the restricted area. Free throws are generally awarded after a foul on the shooter by the opposing team, analogous to penalty shots in other team sports. Free throws are also awarded in other situations, including technical fouls, and when the fouling team has entered the bonus/penalty situation. Also depending on the situation, a player may be awarded between one and three free throws. Each successful free throw is worth one point.

Personal foul (basketball)

In basketball, a personal foul is a breach of the rules that concerns illegal personal contact with an opponent. It is the most common type of foul in basketball. A player fouls out on reaching a limit on personal fouls for the game and is disqualified from participation in the remainder of the game.

Streetball

Streetball is a variation of basketball, typically played on outdoor courts and featuring significantly less formal structure and enforcement of the game's rules. As such, its format is more conducive to allowing players to publicly showcase their own individual skills. Streetball may also refer to other urban sports played on asphalt. It is particularly popular and important in New York City.

Rules of basketball

The rules of basketball are the rules and regulations that govern the play, officiating, equipment and procedures of basketball. While many of the basic rules are uniform throughout the world, variations do exist. Most leagues or governing bodies in North America, the most important of which are the National Basketball Association and NCAA, formulate their own rules. In addition, the Technical Commission of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) determines rules for international play; most leagues outside North America use the complete FIBA ruleset.

Goaltending Illegal blocking of downward traveling shot in basketball

In basketball, goaltending is the violation of interfering with the ball while it is on its way to the basket and it is (a) in a downward flight (b) above the basket ring and within the imaginary cylinder and (c) not touching the rim. In NCAA & (W)NBA, goaltending is also called if the ball has already touched the backboard while being above the height of the rim in its flight, regardless of it being in an upward or downward flight or whether it is directly above the rim. Goaltending in this context defines by exclusion what is considered a legal block of a field goal. In high school and NCAA basketball, goaltending is also called when a player interferes with a free throw at any time in its flight towards the basket. If goaltending is called for interference with a field goal, the shooting team is awarded the points for the field goal as if it had been made. The team who commits the violation then inbounds the ball at its baseline, the same as if it had conceded a basket. In high school and NCAA basketball, if goaltending is called on a free throw, the shooting team is awarded one point and a technical foul is called against the offending player.

Basketball moves are generally individual actions used by players in basketball to pass by defenders to gain access to the basket or to get a clean pass to a teammate to score a two pointer or three pointer.

Three-point field goal A basketball field goal made from beyond the designated three-point line (arc)

A three-point field goal is a field goal in a basketball game made from beyond the three-point line, a designated arc surrounding the basket. A successful attempt is worth three points, in contrast to the two points awarded for field goals made within the three-point line and the one point for each made free throw.

Flagrant foul

In basketball, a flagrant foul is a personal foul that involves excessive or violent contact that could injure the fouled player. A flagrant foul may be unintentional or purposeful; the latter type is also called an "intentional foul" in the National Basketball Association (NBA). However, not all intentional fouls are flagrant fouls, as it is an accepted strategy to intentionally commit a foul in order to regain possession of the ball while minimizing how much time elapses on the game clock.

Glossary of basketball terms Wikipedia glossary

This glossary of basketball terms is a list of definitions of terms used in the game of basketball. Like any other major sport, basketball features its own extensive vocabulary of unique words and phrases used by players, coaches, sports journalists, commentators, and fans.

Gus Macker 3-on-3 Basketball Tournament

The Gus Macker 3-on-3 Basketball Tournament is a nationwide event for players of a variety of age and skill levels in the United States. Although every tournament is different, a typical Gus Macker event involves basketball courts set up in parking lots or closed-off public streets Tournaments are mid-level to major sports media events and are held virtually every weekend from spring through summer.

In basketball, the five-second rule, or five-second violation, is a rule that helps promote continuous play. There are multiple situations where a five-second violation may occur.

Delay of game is an action in a sports game in which a player or team deliberately stalls the game, usually with the intention of using the delay to its advantage. In some sports, the delay of game is considered an infraction if it is longer than that permitted according to the game's rules, in which case a penalty can be issued. Some sports that have a delay of game penalty are American football, Canadian football, ice hockey and association football.

Basketball is a ball game and team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules. Since being developed by James Naismith as a non-contact game that almost anyone can play, basketball has undergone many different rule variations, eventually evolving into the NBA-style game known today. Basketball is one of the most popular and widely viewed sports in the world.

The 2018 National Invitation Tournament was a single-elimination tournament of 32 NCAA Division I college men's basketball teams that were not selected to participate in the 2018 NCAA Tournament. The first three rounds of the annual tournament were played on campus sites. The semifinals and championship game were held at Madison Square Garden in New York City.

The 2019 National Invitation Tournament (NIT) was a single-elimination tournament of 32 NCAA Division I men's college basketball teams that were not selected to participate in the 2019 NCAA Tournament. The tournament started on March 19, and concluded on April 4. The first three rounds were played on campus sites with the higher seeded team acting as host. The semifinals and championship game were held at Madison Square Garden in New York City.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Official Rules of the National Basketball Association 2013–14" (PDF). NBA. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 12, 2018. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 "NCAA Men's Basketball: 2017–18 Rules" (PDF). NCAA. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 "Official Basketball Rules 2018" (PDF). FIBA. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  4. 1 2 "Official Basketball Rules 2006" (PDF). FIBAAmericas.com. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
  5. Jeramie McPeek. "George Mikan vs. The Knicks". NBA.com. Archived from the original on May 22, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
  6. 1 2 "NBA Rules History". NBA.com. May 2, 2008. Archived from the original on March 3, 2011. Retrieved October 2, 2009.
  7. "The FIBA Central Board approves historic rule changes". FIBA.com. April 26, 2008. Retrieved October 4, 2009.
  8. "GLOBAL Basketball DIRECTORY (Tha-Tid)". eba-stats.com. February 11, 2007. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
  9. "GLOBAL Basketball DIRECTORY". eba-stats.com. September 7, 2007. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
  10. "NBA's Misunderstood Rules". NBA.com. January 3, 2012. Archived from the original on February 1, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  11. "Shaq and the No Charge Zone Rule". Factuation. Factuation. July 1, 2015. Retrieved February 27, 2018. In the 1997-1998 season, NBA added the “no charge zone” or the “restricted area”. This is the portion of the key, denoted by an arc in the painted area that is positioned four feet from the basket. The arc is important because a defending player can not force a charging foul within this area. It was designed to provide benefit offensive post-up player like [Shaquille] O’Neal, players who drive to the basket and limit collisions.
  12. "Rules panel approves restricted-area arc for Div. I". Ncaa.org. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  13. Newell, Pete; Nater, Swen (2008). Pete Newell's Playing Big. Human Kinetics. p. 26. ISBN   9780736068093 . Retrieved April 10, 2013.