Three-point field goal

Last updated

Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot at the 2005 FIBA Europe Cup Women's Finals Three point shoot.JPG
Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot at the 2005 FIBA Europe Cup Women's Finals

A three-point field goal (also 3-pointer, three or informally, trey ) is a field goal in a basketball game made from beyond the three-point line, a designated arc surrounding the basket. A successful attempt is worth three points, in contrast to the two points awarded for field goals made within the three-point line and the one point for each made free throw.

Field goal (basketball) basket scored on any shot or tap other than a free throw, worth two or three points depending on the distance of the attempt from the basket

In basketball, a field goal is a basket scored on any shot or tap other than a free throw, worth two or three points depending on the distance of the attempt from the basket. Uncommonly, a field goal can be worth other values such as one point in FIBA 3x3 basketball competitions or four points in the BIG3 basketball league. "Field goal" is the official terminology used by the National Basketball Association (NBA) in their rule book, in their box scores and statistics, and in referees' rulings. The same term is also the official wording used by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and high school basketball.

Basketball team sport played on a court with baskets on either end

Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play (overtime) is mandated.

Free throw penalty in basketball

In basketball, free throws or foul shots are unopposed attempts to score points by shooting from behind the free throw line, a line situated at the end of the restricted area. Free throws are generally awarded after a foul on the shooter by the opposing team. Each successful free throw is worth one point.


The distance from the basket to the three-point line varies by competition level: in the National Basketball Association (NBA) the arc is 23 feet 9 inches (7.24 m) from the center of the basket; in FIBA, the WNBA, and NCAA Division I the arc is 6.75 metres or 22 feet 1 34 inches; and in NCAA Divisions II and III, the arc is 20 feet 9 inches (6.32 m). In the NBA and FIBA/WNBA, the three-point line becomes parallel to each sideline at the points where the arc is 3 feet (0.91 m) from each sideline; as a result the distance from the basket gradually decreases to a minimum of 22 feet (6.71 m). In NCAA Divisions II and III the arc is continuous for 180° around the basket. There are more variations (see main article).

The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams. It is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada, and is widely considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world.

FIBA International basketball governing body

The International Basketball Federation, more commonly known as FIBA, from its French name Fédération internationale de basket-ball, is an association of national organizations which governs the sport of basketball worldwide. Originally known as the Fédération internationale de basket-ball amateur, in 1989 it dropped the word amateur from its name but retained the acronym; the "BA" now represents the first two letters of basketball.

Womens National Basketball Association United Stated top womens professional basketball league

The Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) is a professional basketball league in the United States. It is currently composed of twelve teams. The league was founded on April 24, 1996, as the women's counterpart to the National Basketball Association (NBA), and league play started in 1997. The regular season is played from May to September with the All Star game being played midway through the season in July and the WNBA Finals at the end of September until the beginning of October.

In 3x3, a FIBA-sanctioned variant of the half-court 3-on-3 game, the same line exists, but shots from behind it are only worth 2 points with all other shots worth 1 point. [1]


The three-point line was first tested at the collegiate level in 1945, with a 21-foot line, in a game between Columbia and Fordham, but it was not kept as a rule. There was another one-game experiment in 1958, this time with a 23-foot line, in a game between St. Francis (N.Y.) and Siena. In 1961, Boston University and Dartmouth played one game with an experimental rule that counted all field goals as three points. [2]

The Columbia Lions Basketball team is the basketball team that represents Columbia University in New York City. The school's team currently competes in the Ivy League. The team's last appearance in the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament was in 1968. The Lions are led by head coach Jim Engles. Their home games are held in the Levien Gymnasium.

Fordham Rams mens basketball

The Fordham Rams men's basketball team represents Fordham University, located in Bronx, New York, in NCAA Division I basketball competition. They compete in the Atlantic 10 Conference. The Rams play their home games at the Rose Hill Gymnasium (3,200), the nation's oldest on-campus collegiate basketball arena still in use. On February 28, 1940, Fordham University played in the nation's first televised college basketball game, when the Rams fell to Pitt at Madison Square Garden.

St. Francis Brooklyn Terriers mens basketball

The St. Francis Brooklyn Terriers men's basketball program represents St. Francis College in intercollegiate men's basketball. The team is a member of the Division I Northeast Conference. The Terriers play on the Peter Aquilone Court at the Generoso Pope Athletic Complex located on the St. Francis College Brooklyn Heights campus. The Terriers have also hosted home games at Madison Square Garden and at the Barclays Center.

At the direction of Abe Saperstein, the American Basketball League became the first basketball league to institute the rule in 1961. Its three-point line was a radius of 25 feet (7.62 m) from the baskets, except along the sides. [3] The Eastern Professional Basketball League followed in its 1963–64 season.

Abe Saperstein American basketball player

Abraham Michael Saperstein was the founder, owner and earliest coach of the Harlem Globetrotters. Saperstein was a leading figure in black basketball and baseball in the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, primarily before those sports were racially integrated.

Continental Basketball Association Defunct mens basketball minor league

The Continental Basketball Association (CBA) was a men's professional basketball minor league in the United States from 1946 to 2009.

The three-point shot later became popularized by the American Basketball Association (ABA), introduced in its inaugural 1967–68 season. [4] [5] ABA commissioner George Mikan stated the three-pointer "would give the smaller player a chance to score and open up the defense to make the game more enjoyable for the fans." [6] During the 1970s, the ABA used the three-point shot, along with the slam dunk, as a marketing tool to compete with the NBA; its ninth and final season concluded in the spring of 1976. [7] [8] [9]

American Basketball Association defunct professional basketball league in the United States, merged with the National Basketball Association in 1976

The original American Basketball Association (ABA) was a men's professional basketball league, from 1967 to 1976. The ABA ceased to exist with the American Basketball Association–National Basketball Association merger in 1976, leading to several teams joining the National Basketball Association and to the introduction of the 3-point shot in the NBA in 1979.

The 1967–68 ABA season was the first season for the American Basketball Association. The ABA was challenging the National Basketball Association. The ABA introduced a red, white and blue basketball. They used a 30-second shot clock as opposed to the NBA's 24 second shot clock, and also used the three-point shot. There were 11 teams playing in the first season of the league, with each team playing a 78-game schedule.

George Mikan American basketball player, coach, commissioner

George Lawrence Mikan Jr., nicknamed Mr. Basketball, was an American professional basketball player for the Chicago American Gears of the National Basketball League (NBL) and the Minneapolis Lakers of the NBL, the Basketball Association of America (BAA) and the National Basketball Association (NBA). Invariably playing with thick, round spectacles, the 6 ft 10 in (2.08 m), 245 pounds (111 kg) Mikan is seen as one of the pioneers of professional basketball, redefining it as a game of so-called big men with his prolific rebounding, shot blocking, and his talent to shoot over smaller defenders with his ambidextrous hook shot, the result of his namesake Mikan Drill. He also utilized the underhanded free-throw shooting technique long before Rick Barry made it his signature shot.

The official scorer's report showing the first three-point field goal in NBA history on October 12, 1979 Houston Rockets at Boston Celtics 1979-10-12 (Official Scorer's Report-Original) (Chris Ford crop).jpg
The official scorer's report showing the first three-point field goal in NBA history on October 12, 1979

Three years later in June 1979, the NBA adopted the three-point line for a one-year trial for the 1979–80 season, [10] [11] [12] despite the view of many that it was a gimmick. [13] Chris Ford of the Boston Celtics is widely credited with making the first three-point shot in NBA history on October 12, 1979; the season opener at Boston Garden was more noted for the debut of Larry Bird (and two new head coaches). [14] [15] Rick Barry of the Houston Rockets, in his final season, also made one in the same game, and Kevin Grevey of the Washington Bullets made one that Friday night as well. [15] [16]

The sport's international governing body, FIBA, introduced the three-point line in 1984, at 6.25 m (20 ft 6 in), and it made its Olympic debut in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea.

The NCAA's Southern Conference became the first collegiate conference to use the three-point rule, adopting a 22-foot (6.71 m) line for the 1980–81 season. [17] [18] Ronnie Carr of Western Carolina was the first to score a three-point field goal in college basketball history on November 29, 1980. [18] [19] [20] Over the following five years, NCAA conferences differed in their use of the rule and distance required for a three-pointer. The line was as close as 17 ft 9 in (5.41 m) in the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), and as far away as 22 ft (6.71 m) in the Big Sky. [21] [22] [23] [24]

Used only in conference play for several years, it was adopted by the NCAA in April 1986 for the 1986–87season at 19 ft 9 in (6.02 m) [25] [26] [27] [28] and was first used in the NCAA Tournament in March 1987. [29] The NCAA adopted the three-pointer in women's basketball on an experimental basis for that season at the same distance, and made its use mandatory beginning in 1987–88. [30] In 2007, the NCAA lengthened the men's distance by a foot to 20 ft 9 in (6.32 m), effective with the 2008–09 season, [31] and the women's line was moved to match the men's in 2011–12. [30] American high schools, along with elementary and middle schools, adopted a 19 ft 9 in (6.02 m) line nationally in 1987, a year after the NCAA. [32] The NCAA experimented with the 6.75 m (22 ft 1 34 in) FIBA three-point line distance in the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) in 2018 and 2019, [33] then adopted that distance for all men's play with a phased conversion that begins with Division I in 2019-20 season. [34] [35]

For three seasons beginning in 1994–95, the NBA attempted to address decreased scoring by shortening the distance of the line from 23 ft 9 in (7.24 m) (22 ft (6.71 m) at the corners) to a uniform 22 ft (6.71 m) around the basket. From the 1997–98 season on, the NBA reverted the line to its original distance of 23 ft 9 in (22 ft at the corners, with a 3-inch differential). Ray Allen is currently the NBA all-time leader in career made three-pointers with 2,973. [36]

In 2008, FIBA announced that the distance would be increased by 50 cm (19.7 in) to 6.75 m (22 ft 1 34 in), with the change being phased in beginning in October 2010. In December 2012, the WNBA announced that it would be using the FIBA distance, starting in 2013; by 2017, the line at corners were lengthened to match the NBA. The NBA has discussed adding a four-point line, according to president Rod Thorn. [37]

In the NBA, three-point field goals became increasingly more frequent along the years, especially by mid 2015 onward. The increase in latter years has been attributed to NBA player Stephen Curry, who is credited with revolutionizing the game by inspiring teams to regularly employ the three-point shot as part of their winning strategy. [38] [39] [40] The 1979–80 season had an average 0.8 three-point goals per game and 2.8 attempts (29% effectiveness). The 1989–90 season had an average 2.2 three-point goals per game and 6.6 attempts (33% effectiveness). The 1999–2000 season had an average 4.8 three-point goals per game and 13.7 attempts (35% effectiveness). The 2009-10 season had an average 6.4 three-point goals per game and 18.1 attempts (36% effectiveness). The 2016–17 season had an average 9.7 three-point goals per game and 27.0 attempts (36% effectiveness). [41]

Rule specifications

A three-point line consists of an arc at a set radius measured from the point on the floor directly below the center of the basket, and two parallel lines equidistant from each sideline extending from the nearest end line to the point at which they intersect the arc. In the NBA and FIBA standard, the arc spans the width of the court until it is a specified minimum distance from each sideline. The three-point line then becomes parallel to the sidelines from those points to the baseline. The unusual formation of the three-point line at these levels allows players some space from which to attempt a three-point shot at the corners of the court; the arc would be less than 2 feet (0.61 m) from each sideline at the corners if it was a continuous arc. In the NCAA and American high school standards, the arc spans 180° around the basket, then becomes parallel to the sidelines from the plane of the basket center to the baseline (4 feet 3 inches or 1.30 metres in college, 5 feet 3 inches or 1.60 metres in high schools). The distance of the three-point line to the center of the hoop varies by level:

Arc radiusMinimum distance
from sidelines
NBA 23 ft 9 in (7.24 m)3 ft 0 in (0.91 m) [42]
FIBA 6.75 m (22 ft 2 in)0.9 m (2 ft 11 in) [43]
NCAA Division I 22 ft 1.75 in (6.75 m)2 ft 11 in (0.89 m)
NCAA Divisions II and III 20 ft 9 in (6.32 m)4 ft 3 in (1.30 m) [44]
U.S. high schools 19 ft 9 in (6.02 m)5 ft 3 in (1.60 m) [45]

A player's feet must be completely behind the three-point line at the time of the shot or jump in order to make a three-point attempt; if the player's feet are on or in front of the line, it is a two-point attempt. A player is allowed to jump from outside the line and land inside the line to make a three-point attempt, as long as the ball is released in mid-air.

An official raises his/her arm with three fingers extended to signal the shot attempt. If the attempt is successful, he/she raises his/her other arm with all fingers fully extended in manner similar to a football official signifying successful field goal to indicate the three-point goal. The official must recognize it for it to count as three points. Instant replay has sometimes been used, depending on league rules. The NBA, [46] WNBA, FIBA and the NCAA specifically allow replay for this purpose. In NBA, FIBA, and WNBA games, video replay does not have to occur immediately following a shot; play can continue and the officials can adjust the scoring later in the game, after reviewing the video. However, in late game situations, play may be paused pending a review.

If a shooter is fouled while attempting a three-pointer and subsequently misses the shot, the shooter is awarded three free-throw attempts. If a player completes a three-pointer while being fouled, the player is awarded one free-throw for a possible 4-point play. Conceivably, if a player completed a three-pointer while being fouled, and that foul was ruled as either a Flagrant 1 or a Flagrant 2 foul, the player would be awarded two free throws for a possible 5-point play.

Major League Lacrosse features a two-point line which forms a 15-yard (14 m) arc around the front of the goal. Shots taken from behind this line count for two points, as opposed to the standard one point.

In gridiron football, a standard field goal is worth three points; various professional and semi-pro leagues have experimented with four-point field goals. NFL Europe and the Stars Football League adopted a rule similar to basketball's three-point line in which an additional point was awarded for longer field goals; in both leagues any field goal of 50 yards (46 m) or more was worth four points. The Arena Football League awards four points for any successful drop kicked field goal (like the three-point shot, the drop kick is more challenging than a standard place kick, as the bounce of the ball makes a kick less predictable, and arena football also uses narrower goal posts for all kicks than the outdoor game does).

During the existence of the World Hockey Association in the 1970s, there were proposals for two-point hockey goals for shots taken beyond an established distance (one proposal was a 44-foot (13.4m) arc, which would have intersected the faceoff circles), but this proposal gained little support and faded after the WHA merged with the NHL. It was widely believed that long-distance shots in hockey had little direct relation to skill (usually resulting more from goalies' vision being screened or obscured), plus with the lower scoring intrinsic to the sport a two-point goal was seen as disruptive of the structure of the game.

The Super Goal is a similar concept in Australian rules football, in which a 50-meter (55 yd) arc determines the value of a goal; within the arc, it is the usual 6 points, but 9 points are scored for a "super goal" scored from outside the arc. To date the super goal is only used in pre-season games and not in the season proper. [47]

The National Professional Soccer League II, which awarded two points for all goals except those on the power play, also used a three-point line, drawn 45 feet (14 m) from the goal. It has since been adopted by some other indoor soccer leagues.

See also

Related Research Articles

Peja Stojaković Serbian basketball player

Predrag Stojaković, also known by his nickname Peja, is a Serbian professional basketball executive and former player. He is currently the director of player personnel and development for the Sacramento Kings.

Goal (sport) method of scoring in many sports

In sports, a goal is a physical structure or area where an attacking team must send the ball or puck in order to score points. In several sports, a goal is the sole method of scoring, and thus the final score is expressed in the total number of goals scored by each team. In other sports, a goal may be one of several scoring methods, and thus may be worth a different set number of points than the others.

Basketball court rectangular playing surface, with baskets at each end

In basketball, the basketball court is the playing surface, consisting of a rectangular floor, with baskets at each end. In professional or organized basketball, especially when played indoors, it is usually made out of a wood, often maple, and highly polished and completed with a 10 foot rim. Outdoor surfaces are generally made from standard paving materials such as concrete or asphalt.

Rules of basketball rules governing the game of basketball

The rules of basketball are the rules and regulations that govern the play, officiating, equipment and procedures of basketball. While many of the basic rules are uniform throughout the world, variations do exist. Most leagues or governing bodies in North America, the most important of which are the National Basketball Association and NCAA, formulate their own rules. In addition, the Technical Commission of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) determines rules for international play; most leagues outside North America use the complete FIBA ruleset.

Goaltending Illegal blocking of downward traveling shot in basketball

In basketball, goaltending is the violation of interfering with the ball while it is on its way to the basket and it is (a) in a downward flight, (b) entirely above the rim and has the possibility of entering the basket, and (c) not touching the rim. In NCAA basketball and (W)NBA basketball, goaltending is also called if the ball has already touched the backboard while being above the height of the rim in its flight, regardless of whether it being in an upward or downward flight or whether it is directly above the rim. Goaltending in this context defines by exclusion what is considered a legal block of a field goal. In high school and NCAA basketball, goaltending is also called when a player interferes with a free throw at any time in its flight towards the basket. If goaltending is called for interference with a field goal, the shooting team is awarded the points for the field goal as if it had been made. In high school and NCAA basketball, if goaltending is called on a free throw, the shooting team is awarded one point and a technical foul is called against the offending player.

Glossary of basketball terms

Basketball, like any other major sport, has its own unique words and phrases used by sports journalists, players, and fans

In basketball, a three-point play is usually achieved by scoring a two-point field goal, being fouled in the act of shooting, and scoring one point on the subsequent free throw. Before the three-point field goal was created in the 1960s for professional basketball and 1980s for collegiate basketball, it was the only way to score three points on a single possession. It is sometimes called an old-fashioned three-point play to distinguish from the later three-point shot. And one is also sometimes used to refer to the extra free throw after a two-point basket.

Gus Macker 3-on-3 Basketball Tournament

The Gus Macker 3-on-3 Basketball Tournament is a nationwide event for players of a variety of age and skill levels in the United States. Although every tournament is different, a typical Gus Macker event involves basketball courts set up in parking lots or closed-off public streets Tournaments are mid-level to major sports media events and are held virtually every weekend from spring through summer.

Key (basketball) term in basketball

The key, officially referred to as the free throw lane by the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), the restricted area by the international governing body FIBA, and colloquially as the lane or the paint, is a marked area on a basketball court surrounding the basket. It is bounded by the endline, the free-throw line and two side lines, and usually painted in a distinctive color. It is a crucial area on the court where much of the game's action takes place.

Basketball is a ball game and team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules. Since being developed by James Naismith as a non-contact game that almost anyone can play, basketball has undergone many different rule variations, eventually evolving into the NBA-style game known today. Basketball is one of the most popular and widely viewed sports in the world.

The 2018 National Invitation Tournament was a single-elimination tournament of 32 NCAA Division I college men's basketball teams that were not selected to participate in the 2018 NCAA Tournament. The first three rounds of the annual tournament were played on campus sites. The semifinals and championship game were held at Madison Square Garden in New York City.

A four-point field goal is a field goal in a basketball game made from a part of the court designated for a four-point shot, the designated area is typically farther from the basket than the three-point arc. A successful attempt is worth four points, in contrast to the three points awarded for a shot beyond the three point line, two points awarded for field goals made within the three-point line and the one point for each made free throw.

The 2019 National Invitation Tournament was a single-elimination tournament of 32 NCAA Division I men's college basketball teams that were not selected to participate in the 2019 NCAA Tournament. The tournament started on March 19, and concluded on April 4. The first three rounds were played on campus sites with the higher seeded team acting as host. The semifinals and championship game were held at Madison Square Garden in New York City.


  1. "Article 5: Scoring" (PDF). 3x3 Official Rules of the Game. FIBA. January 2016. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
  2. Monagan, Charles, "Three-For-All," Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, Nov-Dec. 2018. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  3. Frazier, Walt; Sachare, Alex (1998). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Basketball. New York City: Penguin Group.
  4. "ABA playoff plans set". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. July 12, 1967. p. 4D.
  5. Deford, Frank (November 27, 1967). "Shooting for three". Sports Illustrated. p. 22.
  6. "4-Point Play Gets Approval By ABA". Associated Press. July 11, 1967. Retrieved June 17, 2013.
  7. "Four ABA clubs gain NBA okay". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. June 18, 1976. p. 1C.
  8. "Burial of the ABA a fact; next step a dispersal draft". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. June 19, 1976. p. 1C.
  9. Deford, Frank (June 28, 1976). "One last hurrah in Hyannis". Sports Illustrated: 64.
  10. "NBA votes 3-pointer in, 3rd ref out". Reading Eagle. (Pennsylvania). Associated Press. June 22, 1979. p. 24.
  11. "NBA approves 3-point goal, goes back to two referees". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. June 22, 1979. p. 5D.
  12. Newman, Bruce (January 7, 1980). "Now it's bombs away in the NBA". Sports Illustrated. p. 22.
  13. "The History of the 3-Pointer - iHoops". December 16, 2010. Archived from the original on December 16, 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  14. "Bird only 'so-so,' but Celts win over Houston". Deseret News. (Salt Lake City, Utah). UPI. October 13, 1979. p. 4A.
  15. 1 2 "Celtics, 114-106". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). October 13, 1979. p. 5C.
  16. "NBA standings (and boxscores)". Deseret News. (Salt Lake City, Utah). October 13, 1979. p. 5A.
  17. Sanders, Steve (February 9, 1981). "22 will get you 3". Spartanburg Herald. South Carolina. p. B1.
  18. 1 2 "Basketball". Southern Conference. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  19. "Carr's shot makes cage Hall of Fame". Gadsden Times. Alabama. Associated Press. May 31, 1981. p. 36.
  20. "Three-pointer turns 25". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. December 3, 2005. p. B3.
  21. McCallum, Jack (November 29, 1982). "It will be one testy season". Sports Illustrated: 42.
  22. "Monson not so high on the 3-point shot". Lewiston Morning Tribune. (Idaho). wire services. November 11, 1982. p. 6B.
  23. Kenyon, Quane (November 26, 1982). "Big Sky has new 22-foot look ready for conference contests". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). Associated Press. p. E3.
  24. "Debate over 3-pointer Continues". July 26, 2010. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved November 15, 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  25. "NCAA approves 3-point goal". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. April 3, 1986. p. 27.
  26. "3-point goal draws mixed reviews". Reading Eagle. (Pennsylvania). April 3, 1986. p. 42.
  27. "Three-point basket adopted". Eugene Register Guard. (Oregon). April 3, 1986. p. 1B.
  28. McCallum, Jack (January 5, 1987). "The three-point uproar". Sports Illustrated: 40.
  29. Butts, David (April 3, 1986). "NCAA adds three-point basket". Bryan Times Agency=UPI. p. 12.
  30. 1 2 "NCAA Women's Basketball Playing Rules History" (PDF). NCAA. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  31. "Important Rules Changes by Year" (PDF). NCAA Men's Basketball Record Book. NCAA. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  32. Lynch, John (March 27, 1987). "High School Basketball Draws Line, Adopts 3-Point Rule". Los Angeles Times.
  33. Bonagura, Kyle (February 27, 2018). "NIT to experiment with new rules this season". Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  34. Boone, Kyle. "NCAA approves rule changes including moving back 3-point line to international distance". (5 June 2019). CBS Sports. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  35. "Men's basketball 3-point line extended to international distance". June 5, 2019. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  36. "NBA & ABA Career Leaders and Records for 3-Pt Field Goals |". Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  37. "NBA has discussed bigger court, 4-point shot". February 25, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  38. Abbott, Henry (March 18, 2016). "Stephen Curry isn't just the MVP -- he is revolutionizing the game". ESPN . Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  39. Nadkarni, Rohan (May 31, 2018). "The NBA Has Never Seen a Shooter Like Stephen Curry". Sports Illustrated . Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  40. Dougherty, Jesse (March 5, 2018). "The Steph Effect: How NBA star is inspiring — and complicating — high school basketball". The Washington Post . Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  41. NBA League Averages - Basketball Reference
  42. "Rule No. 1---Court Dimensions--Equipment". NBA Official Rules. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  43. "Official Basketball Rules 2018" (PDF). FIBA. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  44. "2009 Court Diagram" (PDF). NCAA. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  45. "Basketball Court Diagram" (PDF). Nebraska School Activities Association. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  46. "Description of the NBA's new instant replay rules". October 23, 2008. Retrieved November 16, 2008.
  47. Denham, Greg (February 14, 2012). "NAB Cup's ruck and holding rules may run season". The Australian. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012.