American Basketball Association

Last updated
American Basketball Association (ABA)
American Basketball Association (shield).gif
Logo of the ABA
Sport Basketball
Founded1967
Ceased1976 (merger)
No. of teams11
CountryUnited States
Last
champion(s)
New York Nets (2nd title)
Most titles Indiana Pacers (3 titles)

The original American Basketball Association (ABA) was a major men's professional basketball league from 1967 to 1976. The ABA ceased to exist with the American Basketball Association–National Basketball Association merger in 1976, leading to four ABA teams joining the National Basketball Association and to the introduction of the 3-point shot in the NBA in 1979.

Contents

League history

The ABA was conceived at a time stretching from 1960 through the mid-1970s when numerous upstart leagues were challenging, with varying degrees of success, the established major professional sports leagues in the United States. Basketball was seen as particularly vulnerable to a challenge; its major league, the National Basketball Association, was the youngest of the Big Four major leagues, having only played 21 seasons to that point, and was still fending off contemporary challenging leagues (it had been less than five years since the American Basketball League (ABL) shut down). According to one of the owners of the Indiana Pacers, its goal was to force a merger with the more established league. Potential investors were told that they could get an ABA team for half of what it cost to get an NBA expansion team at the time. When the merger occurred, ABA officials said their investment would more than double. [1]

The ABA distinguished itself from its older counterpart with a more wide-open, flashy style of offensive play, as well as differences in rules—a 30-second shot clock (as opposed to the NBA's 24-second clock, though the ABA did switch to the 24 second shot clock for the 1975–76 season) and use of a three-point field goal arc, pioneered in the earlier ABL. [2] Also, the ABA used a colorful red, white and blue ball, instead of the NBA's traditional orange ball. The ABA also had several "regional" franchises, such as the Virginia Squires and Carolina Cougars, that played "home" games in several cities.

The ABA also went after four of the best referees in the NBA: Earl Strom, John Vanak, Norm Drucker and Joe Gushue, getting them to "jump" leagues by offering them far more in money and benefits. In Earl Strom's memoir Calling the Shots, Strom conveys both the heady sense of being courted by a rival league with money to burn—and also the depression that set in the next year when he began refereeing in the ABA, with less prominent players performing in inadequate arenas, in front of very small crowds. Nevertheless, the emergence of the ABA boosted the salaries of referees just as it did the salaries of players.

The freewheeling style of the ABA eventually caught on with fans, but the lack of a national television contract and protracted financial losses would spell doom for the ABA as an independent circuit. In 1976, its last year of existence, the ABA pioneered the now-popular slam dunk contest at its all-star game in Denver.

The league succeeded in forcing a merger with the NBA in the 1976 offseason. Four ABA teams were absorbed into the older league: the New York Nets, Denver Nuggets, Indiana Pacers, and San Antonio Spurs. As part of the merger agreement, the four teams were not permitted to participate in the 1976 NBA Draft. The merger was particularly hard on the Nets; the New York Knicks were firmly established in their arena, Madison Square Garden, and would not permit the Nets to share dates there. For drawing audience away from the Knicks, the Nets were forced to pay $4.3M to the Knicks organization. The Nets offered league superstar Julius Erving instead but the Knicks declined. The Nets had to settle for an arena in Piscataway, New Jersey and, to meet expenses, were forced to sell the contract of Erving to the Philadelphia 76ers.

Two other clubs, the Kentucky Colonels and the Spirits of St. Louis, were disbanded upon the merger, with each getting a buyout: the Colonels received a one-time buyout that owner John Y. Brown, Jr. used to purchase the NBA's Buffalo Braves, while the Spirits owners negotiated a cut of the other ABA teams' television revenues in perpetuity. This deal netted the ownership group of the Spirits over $300M through nearly four decades due to a large increase in television revenues. In 2014, the NBA and the Spirits ownership agreed to phase out future payments in exchange for a one-time payment of $500M, making the total value for the deal over $800M. [3] The seventh remaining team, the Virginia Squires, received nothing, as they had ceased operations shortly before the merger. The players from the Colonels, Spirits, and Squires were made available to NBA teams through a dispersal draft; the four teams absorbed by the NBA were allowed to choose players from this draft.

One of the more significant long-term contributions of the ABA to professional basketball was to tap into markets in the southeast that had been collegiate basketball hotbeds (including North Carolina, Virginia, and Kentucky). The NBA was focused on the urban areas of the Northeast, Midwest and West Coast. At the time, it showed no interest in placing a team south of Washington, D.C, other than the Atlanta metropolitan area where the NBA's Hawks franchise relocated from St. Louis in 1968.

Commissioners

NBA great George Mikan was the first commissioner of the ABA, where he introduced both the 3-point line and the league's trademark red, white and blue basketball. [5] Mikan resigned in 1969. Dave DeBusschere, one of the stars of the New York Knicks championship teams, moved from his job as Vice President and GM of the ABA's New York Nets in 1975 to become the last commissioner of the ABA and facilitate the ABA–NBA merger in 1976. [6]

Spencer Haywood Hardship Rule

One of the primary contributions of the ABA to modern NBA was the introduction of the Spencer Haywood Hardship Rule, which would later become the framework for the current NBA draft eligibility system that allows players to declare for the NBA after being one year removed from their high school graduation. [7] The origin of the Hardship Rule was a result of the NBA prohibiting players from joining the league until they had completed their four years of college eligibility. [8] [9] The ABA was a league that frequently made up rules on the fly and was willing to push the envelope and determine the implications of the rules later.[ citation needed ]

In 1969, Spencer Haywood left the University of Detroit as a sophomore and signed with the Denver Rockets. [10] The ABA believed that in extenuating circumstances, such as financial situation or familial needs, players should be able to leave for professional leagues early. [8] While the NBA and NCAA initially contested the rule, after the courts ruled in favor of Haywood playing in the ABA, the NBA followed suit and relaxed the four year rule to allow for players to enter the league if they qualified as a hardship on the basis of “financial condition…family, [or] academic record.” [11] Haywood paved the way for other players to enter the ABA before they had completed their collegiate careers such as George McGinnis and Julius Erving. Today, the one-and-done rule in the NBA can be traced back to the ABA's decision to allow players to leave college early and pursue a professional career before they had completed their collegiate careers. [9]

Slam Dunk Contest

The ABA pioneered the advent of the now popular NBA slam dunk contest at the ABA All Star game in 1976. [12] The game was held in Denver, and the owners of the ABA teams wanted to ensure that the event would be entertaining for the sellout crowd of 15,021 people. [8] [12] The ABA and NBA had begun to discuss a possible merger, [13] and the ABA owners wanted to establish the viability and success of their league. [8] The Dunk Contest operated as a means of unique halftime entertainment that displayed the style and excitement that the ABA players brought to the game. The dunk contest was held at halftime of the All-Star game and the contestants were Artis Gilmore, George Gervin, David Thompson, Larry Kenon, and Julius Erving. [12] The winner of the contest received $1,000 and a stereo system. [8] Julius Erving went on to win the competition by completing the now famous free throw line dunk.

Teams

Of the original 11 teams, only the Kentucky Colonels and Indiana Pacers remained for all nine seasons without relocating, changing team names, or folding. However, the Denver Larks/Rockets/Nuggets, a team that had been assigned to Kansas City, Missouri, moved to Denver without playing a game in Kansas City due to the lack of a suitable arena. In addition to the four surviving ABA teams, eight current NBA markets have ABA heritage: Utah, Dallas, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, Memphis, Minnesota and Charlotte all had an ABA team before the NBA arrived. [14]

FranchiseCities/NamesYearsFate
Anaheim Amigos
Los Angeles Stars

Utah Stars
Anaheim Amigos19671968Folded, 1975
NBA relocated New Orleans Jazz to Utah as Utah Jazz in 1979.
Los Angeles Stars19681970
Utah Stars19701976
Dallas Chaparrals
Texas Chaparrals

San Antonio Spurs
Dallas Chaparrals19671970Joined the NBA, 1976, as San Antonio Spurs
NBA added a franchise in Dallas (Mavericks) in 1980.
Texas Chaparrals19701971
Dallas Chaparrals19711973
San Antonio Spurs19731976
Houston Mavericks
Carolina Cougars
Spirits of St. Louis
Houston Mavericks19671969Folded, 1976 (NBA buyout)
NBA relocated San Diego Rockets to Houston as Houston Rockets in 1971.
NBA added a franchise in Charlotte (Hornets) in 1988.
Carolina Cougars19691974
Spirits of St. Louis19741976
Indiana Pacers Indiana Pacers19671976Joined NBA, 1976, as Indiana Pacers
Kansas City
Denver Larks /Rockets /Nuggets
Kansas City (unnamed)1967Joined the NBA, 1976, as Denver Nuggets
Denver Larks1967
Denver Rockets19671974
Denver Nuggets19741976
Kentucky Colonels Kentucky Colonels19671976Folded, 1976 (NBA buyout)
Minnesota Muskies
Miami Floridians
Minnesota Muskies19671968Folded, 1972
NBA added a franchise in Miami (Heat) in 1988.
NBA added a franchise in Minnesota (Timberwolves) in 1989.
Miami Floridians19681970
Floridians19701972
New Orleans /Louisiana Buccaneers
Memphis Pros /Tams /Sounds
Baltimore Hustlers /Claws
New Orleans Buccaneers19671970Folded, 1975
NBA relocated Charlotte Hornets to New Orleans as New Orleans Hornets (now New Orleans Pelicans) in 2002.
NBA relocated Vancouver Grizzlies to Memphis as Memphis Grizzlies in 2000.
Louisiana Buccaneers1970
Memphis Pros19701972
Memphis Tams19721974
Memphis Sounds19741975
Baltimore Hustlers1975
Baltimore Claws1975
New York/New Jersey Americans
New York Nets
New York Americans1967Joined NBA, 1976, with name changes to reflect move to New Jersey (1977) and currently Brooklyn Nets (2012).
New Jersey Americans19671968
New York Nets19681976
Oakland Americans/Oaks
Washington Capitals
Virginia Squires
Oakland Americans1967Folded, 1976 (prior to merger)
NBA relocated San Francisco Warriors to Oakland as Golden State Warriors in 1971.
NBA relocated Baltimore Bullets to Washington as Capital Bullets (now Washington Wizards) in 1973.
Oakland Oaks19671969
Washington Capitals19691970
Virginia Squires19701976
Pittsburgh Pipers /Pioneers /Condors
Minnesota Pipers
Pittsburgh Pipers19671968Folded, 1972
NBA added a franchise in Minnesota (Timberwolves) in 1989.
Minnesota Pipers19681969
Pittsburgh Pipers19691970
Pittsburgh Pioneers1970
Pittsburgh Condors19701972
San Diego Conquistadors /Sails San Diego Conquistadors19721975Folded, 1975
NBA operated in San Diego from 1967 to 1971 with the San Diego Rockets (now the Houston Rockets) and from 1978 to 1984 with the San Diego Clippers (now the Los Angeles Clippers).
San Diego Sails1975

Timeline

American Basketball Association

List of ABA championships

YearWestern Division finalistGamesEastern Division finalistPlayoffs MVP
1967–68 New Orleans Buccaneers 3–4 Pittsburgh Pipers Connie Hawkins C, Pittsburgh
1968–69 Oakland Oaks 4–1 Indiana Pacers Warren Jabali G, Oakland
1969–70 Los Angeles Stars 2–4 Indiana Pacers Roger Brown F/G, Indiana
1970–71 Utah Stars 4–3 Kentucky Colonels Zelmo Beaty C, Utah
1971–72 Indiana Pacers 4–2 New York Nets Freddie Lewis G, Indiana
1972–73 Indiana Pacers 4–3 Kentucky Colonels George McGinnis F/C, Indiana
1973–74 Utah Stars 1–4 New York Nets Julius Erving F, New York
1974–75 Indiana Pacers 1–4 Kentucky Colonels Artis Gilmore C, Kentucky

With the ABA cut down to seven teams by the middle of its final season, the league abandoned divisional play.

YearWinnerGamesRunners-upPlayoffs MVP
1975–76 New York Nets 4–2 Denver Nuggets Julius Erving F, New York

Prominent players

For more information, see ABA All-Time Team. [15]

Season leaders

*Elected to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame

Scoring leaders

SeasonPlayerTeam(s)Games
played
Points PPG
1967–68
Connie Hawkins * Pittsburgh Pipers 70187526.8
1968–69
Rick Barry * Oakland Oaks 35119034.0
1969–70
Spencer Haywood * Denver Rockets 84251930.0
1970–71
Dan Issel * Kentucky Colonels 83248029.9
1971–72
Charlie Scott * Virginia Squires 73252434.6
1972–73
Julius Erving *Virginia Squires71226831.9
1973–74
Julius Erving* (2) New York Nets 84229927.4
1974–75
George McGinnis * Indiana Pacers 79235329.8
1975–76
Julius Erving* (3)New York Nets84246229.3

Rebounding leaders

SeasonPlayerTeam(s)Game
played
Offensive
rebounds
Defensive
rebounds
Total
rebounds
RPG
1967–68
Mel Daniels * Minnesota Muskies 78502711121315.6
1968–69
Mel Daniels* (2)Indiana Pacers76383873125616.5
1969–70
Spencer Haywood*Denver Rockets845331104163719.5
1970–71
Mel Daniels* (3)Indiana Pacers823941081147518.0
1971–72
Artis Gilmore *Kentucky Colonels844211070149117.8
1972–73
Artis Gilmore* (2)Kentucky Colonels844491027147617.6
1973–74
Artis Gilmore* (3)Kentucky Colonels844781060153818.3
1974–75
Swen Nater San Antonio Spurs 78369910127916.4
1975–76
Artis Gilmore* (4)Kentucky Colonels84402901130315.5

Assists leaders

SeasonPlayerTeam(s)Games
played
Assists APG
1967–68
Larry Brown * New Orleans Buccaneers 785066.5
1968–69
Larry Brown* (2)Oakland Oaks775447.1
1969–70
Larry Brown* (3) Washington Caps 825807.1
1970–71
Bill Melchionni New York Nets816728.3
1971–72
Bill Melchionni (2)New York Nets806698.4
1972–73
Bill Melchionni (3)New York Nets614537.4
1973–74
Al Smith Denver Rockets766198.1
1974–75
Mack Calvin Denver Nuggets745707.7
1975–76
Don Buse Indiana Pacers846898.2

Steals leaders

SeasonPlayerTeam(s)Games
played
Steals SPG
1973–74
Ted McClain Denver Rockets842502.98
1974–75
Brian Taylor New York Nets792212.80
1975–76
Don BuseIndiana Pacers843464.12

Blocks leaders

SeasonPlayerTeam(s)Games
played
Blocks BPG
1973–74
Caldwell Jones San Diego Conquistadors 793164.00
1974–75
Caldwell Jones (2)San Diego Conquistadors762463.24
1975–76
Billy Paultz San Antonio Spurs832533.05

Awards and broadcasters

Succession

In 1999, a new league calling itself the ABA 2000 was established. The new league uses a similar red, white and blue basketball as the old ABA, but unlike the original ABA, it does not feature players of similar caliber to the NBA, nor does it play games in major arenas or on television as the original ABA did.

See also

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References

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  12. 1 2 3 "The One That Started It All". www.nba.com. Retrieved 2018-05-02.
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  15. RememberTheABA.com ABA All-Time Team Page (as selected at 30 year ABA anniversary event)