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|• Chosŏn'gŭl||혜 산 시|
|• Hancha||惠 山 市|
|• Revised Romanization||Hyesan-si|
Downtown Hyesan in September 2013
Map of Ryanggang showing the location of Hyesan
|Administrative divisions||25 tong, 4 ri|
|• Total||277 km2 (107 sq mi)|
|• Density||700/km2 (1,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Pyongyang Time)|
Hyesan (Korean pronunciation: [he.san] ) is a city in the northern part of Ryanggang province of North Korea. It is a hub of river transportation as well as a product distribution centre. It is also the administrative centre of Ryanggang Province. As of 2008, the population of the city is 192,680.
Around the 1940s, this city included the nearby Paektu Mountains. However, due to several changes, the area of this city was reduced, and now it only includes the nearby Yalu River.
Due to the reunification matter with South Korea, this city is claimed by South Korea, following the boundaries of 1940s, not the one edited by North Korea. Therefore, according to South Korea Hyesan still includes the nearby Baekdu Mountains.
South Korea has a conflict with the People's Republic of China because of the Baekdu Mountains. The mountain is actually divided in two: the south parts are ruled by North Korea while the north parts are ruled by the PRC. However, South Korea still claims the northern parts. It is not officially claimed, but on maps printed by South Korea, it is de facto claimed. The Republic of China claims the entire mountain.
The city is located in the Paektu Mountains at the border with the People's Republic of China (Jilin province), from which it is separated by the Yalu (Amrok) River. Changbai is the closest Chinese city across the river.
Hyesan has an elevation-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb). It is located in the coldest area of Korea, which holds a record low temperature of -42 °C (-44 °F) in 1915.
|Climate data for Hyesan (1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−8.3|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−16.4|
|Average low °C (°F)||−22.9|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||5.2|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||5.1||4.7||6.0||8.3||12.0||13.8||15.9||12.0||7.9||6.7||6.9||6.4||105.7|
|Average snowy days||12.0||10.4||10.8||5.8||0.5||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.1||2.7||10.5||13.8||66.6|
|Average relative humidity (%)||74.8||69.8||64.3||60.3||61.8||70.4||77.1||77.8||73.8||66.8||72.5||75.6||70.4|
|Source: Korea Meteorological Administration|
Hyesan City is divided into 25 tong (neighbourhoods) and 4 ri (villages):
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Hyesan has lumber processing mills, paper mills and textile mills. Since the North Korean economic crisis that intensified in the mid-1990s, the city has suffered from economic stagnation, and some factories in the city have closed. Reports and pictures taken from the Chinese side of the river show a "Ghost City": there is almost no movement in the streets, and at night the city is dark and doesn't have electricity. Residents of the city reputedly wash their clothes in the river because homes have no running water.
First explored in the 1960s, Hyesan Mine produces 10,000 tons of copper concentrates annually. This area has 80% of North Korea's available copper, and the North had estimated that it will be able to continue mining copper there for the next forty years. When Kapsan Tongjum Mine, explored during the Japanese colonial period, was finally depleted and closed in 1990, Hyesan Mine became the lifeline of the nation’s copper production. At that time, the mine flooded because the pumping device stopped operating due to the lack of electricity across the country. Although the workers at the mine did their best to pump the water, they could not stop the water flowing into the mine at a speed of 480㎥/hour. In 1996, during the North's 'Arduous March', electricity was not provided to the mine, leading to flooding in the mineshafts in January 1997. Hyesan Mine flooded again, as did other mines throughout the country, and lost all mining facilities. Since 1998, Kim Jong Il budgeted 8.2 million USD to dewater the mine, and the mine was recovered using electricity and equipment provided by China.
Hyesan is connected to other cities in North Korea by road, and by the Paektusan Ch'ŏngnyŏn and Pukbunaeryuk lines of the Korean State Railway.
Hyesan allegedly has a trolleybus system, though its actual existence is unknown.
Schools in Hyesan include Hyesan High School and Hyesan Girls' School. Higher education institutions include the Hyesan Medical University, the Hyesan University of Agriculture and Forestry, Kim Jŏng-suk College of Education, the Hyesan College of Light Engineering, and the Hyesan University of Industry.
The countryside near Hyesan has various attractions, including the Kwaegung Pavilion, Naegŏk Hot Spring and Mount Paektu.
The Yalu River, also called by Koreans the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China. Together with the Tumen River to its east, and a small portion of Paektu Mountain, the Yalu forms the border between North Korea and China. Its valley became the scene of military conflicts in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, World War II, and the Korean War of 1950-1953.
The Changbai Mountains are a major mountain range in Northeast Asia that extends from the Northeast Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning, across the border between China and North Korea, to the North Korean provinces of Ryanggang and Chagang. They are also referred to as the Jangbaek or Ohnan Mountains in Korean, and as the Šanggiyan Mountains in Manchu. Most peaks exceed 2,000 meters in height, with the highest being Paektu Mountain.
Paektu Mountain, also known as Baekdu Mountain and in China as Changbai Mountain, is an active stratovolcano on the Chinese–North Korean border. At 2,744 m (9,003 ft), it is the highest mountain of the Changbai and Baekdudaegan ranges. Koreans assign a mythical quality to the volcano and its caldera lake, considering it to be their country's spiritual home. It is the highest mountain in Korea and Northeast China.
The Tumen River, also known as the Tuman River or Duman River, is a 521-kilometre (324 mi) long river that serves as part of the boundary between China, North Korea and Russia, rising on the slopes of Mount Paektu and flowing into the Sea of Japan. The river has a drainage basin of 33,800 km2.
Ryanggang Province is a province in North Korea. The province is bordered by China (Jilin) on the north, North Hamgyong on the east, South Hamgyong on the south, and Chagang on the west. Ryanggang was formed in 1954, when it was separated from South Hamgyŏng. The provincial capital is Hyesan. In South Korean usage, "Ryanggang" is spelled and pronounced as "Yanggang"
Heaven Lake is a crater lake on the border between China and North Korea. It lies within a caldera atop the volcanic Paektu Mountain, a part of the Baekdudaegan mountain range and the Changbai mountain range. It is located partly in Ryanggang Province, North Korea, at, and partly in Jilin Province, northeastern China. Heaven Lake has been recognized as the highest volcanic lake in the world by Guinness Book of Records.
The Sino-Korean Friendship Bridge, or China–North Korea Friendship Bridge, is a bridge across the Amnok River on the China–North Korea border. It connects the cities of Dandong in China and Sinuiju of North Korea, by railway and roadway but pedestrians are not allowed to cross between either side. The bridge serves as one of the few ways to enter or leave North Korea.
The 1909 Gando Convention was a treaty signed between Imperial Japan and Qing China in which Japan recognized China's claims to Jiandao, called Gando in Korean, and Paektu Mountain. Japan received railroad concessions in Northeast China ("Manchuria"). After the Surrender of Japan, Gando Convention was de jure nullified. While China took control of Manchuria and the northwestern half of Paektu Mountain, the Korean government north of the 38th Parallel took control of the southeastern half of Paektu Mountain in addition to taking control of the Korean Peninsula north of the 38th Parallel.
Korea comprises the Korean Peninsula and 3,960 nearby islands. The peninsula is located in Northeast Asia, between China and Japan. To the northwest, the Amnok River separates Korea from China and to the northeast, the Duman River separates Korea from China and Russia. The Yellow Sea lies to the west, the East China Sea and Korea Strait to the south, and the Sea of Japan to the east. Notable islands include Jeju Island (Jejudo), Ulleung Island (Ulleungdo), and the Liancourt Rocks.
Hoeryŏng is a city in North Hamgyŏng Province, North Korea. It is located opposite Jilin Province, China, with the Tumen River in between. Sanhe (三合鎮), in Longjing City, is the closest Chinese town across the river. Hoeryŏng is claimed to be the birthplace of Kim Il Sung's first wife and Kim Jong Il's mother, Kim Jong Suk. The Hoeryong Revolutionary Site commemorates the birthplace.
The Baekdu-daegan is a mountain-system and watershed-crest-line which runs through almost all of the length of the Korean Peninsula, from Paektu Mountain (2,744m) in the north to the Cheonhwang-bong or "Heavenly Monarch Peak" of Jirisan (1,915m) in the south. It has 13 Jeongmaek or branch-ranges that begin on the mainline range and channel Korea's biggest rivers to the east, west and south seas.
Samjiyŏn is a city in Ryanggang Province, North Korea. It takes its name from three lakes in the city, which are collectively known as the Samjiyŏn. Samjiyŏn is situated near Mount Paektu, and tour groups fly to the city's airport to see the mountain, which holds significance in North Korean mythology.
Kimjŏngsuk County is a kun, or county, in Ryanggang province, North Korea, along the Yalu River. Originally part of Samsu, the county was made a separate entity in 1952. Formerly known as Sinpa, it was named in 1981 after Kim Jong-suk, the mother of Kim Jong-il.
Samsu County is a kun, or county, in Ryanggang province, North Korea. Prior to 1954, it was part of South Hamgyŏng province.
Unhŭng County is a kun, or county, in Ryanggang Province, North Korea. It was created following the division of Korea from portions of Hyesan and Kapsan.
The Pukbunaeryuk Line, also called the Hyesan–Manp'o Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line after the only completed stage of three planned stages, is an electrified standard-gauge secondary trunk line of the Korean State Railway in Chagang and Ryanggang Provinces, North Korea, connecting the Manp'o Line at Manp'o to the Paektusan Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line at Hyesan. It also connects to the China Railway Meiji Railway via the Ji'an Yalu River Border Railway Bridge between Manp'o and Meihekou, China.
The Changbai–Hyesan International Bridge is a bridge over the Yalu River, connecting Changbai Korean Autonomous County of Changbai City, Jilin Province, China, with Hyesan City of Ryanggang Province, North Korea. It was initially built in 1936 by the Japanese, and, after several destructions and rebuildings, was renewed in 1985 as the present-day bridge, which is 148 meters long and 9 meters wide. Since 1992, one-day, five-day and ten-day tours have been conducted between China and North Korea.
The Linjiang Yalu River Bridge is a bridge over the Yalu River, connecting Linjiang City, Jilin Province, China, with Chunggang County, Chagang Province, North Korea. It was built by the Japanese in 1938 and Linjiang Border Post is located there. A little downstream from the bridge is Yunfeng Dam.
The China–North Korea border is the international border separating the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. It runs for 1,352 km from the estuary of the Yalu River in the Korea Bay in the west to the tripoint with Russia in the east.
Mining in North Korea is important to the country's economy. North Korea is naturally abundant in metals such as magnesite, zinc, tungsten, and iron; with magnesite resources of 6 billion tonnes, particularly in the Hamgyeong-do and Jagang-do provinces. However, often these cannot be mined due to the acute shortage of electricity in the country, as well as the lack of proper tools to mine these materials and an antiquated industrial base. Coal, iron ore, limestone, and magnesite deposits are larger than other mineral commodities. Mining joint ventures with other countries include China, Canada, Egypt, and South Korea.
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Largest cities or towns in North Korea
|Rank||Name||Administrative division||Pop.||Rank||Name||Administrative division||Pop.|
|1||Pyongyang||Pyongyang Capital City||3,255,288||11||Sunchon||South Pyongan||297,317|| |
|2||Hamhung||South Hamgyong||768,551||12||Pyongsong||South Pyongan||284,386|
|3||Chongjin||North Hamgyong||667,929||13||Haeju||South Hwanghae||273,300|
|4||Nampo||South Pyongan Province||366,815||14||Kanggye||Chagang||251,971|
|6||Sinuiju||North Pyongan||359,341||16||Tokchon||South Pyongan||237,133|
|7||Tanchon||South Hamgyong||345,875||17||Kimchaek||North Hamgyong||207,299|
|8||Kaechon||South Pyongan||319,554||18||Rason||Rason Special Economic Zone||196,954|
|9||Kaesong||North Hwanghae||308,440||19||Kusong||North Pyongan||196,515|