Last updated

Korean transcription(s)
   McCune-Reischauer Hyesan-si
   Revised Romanization Hyesan-si
Xun Dao Gong Chu Pin photo by Xundaogong - panoramio (106).jpg
Downtown Hyesan in September 2013
DPRK2006 Ryanggang-Hyesan.PNG
Map of Ryanggang showing the location of Hyesan
North Korea adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location within North Korea
Coordinates: 41°24′N128°11′E / 41.400°N 128.183°E / 41.400; 128.183 Coordinates: 41°24′N128°11′E / 41.400°N 128.183°E / 41.400; 128.183
Country Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea
Province Ryanggang
Administrative divisions 25 tong, 4 ri
  Total277 km2 (107 sq mi)
 (2008 [1] )
  Density700/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+9 (Pyongyang Time)

Hyesan (Korean pronunciation:  [he.san] ) is a city in the northern part of Ryanggang province of North Korea. It is a hub of river transportation as well as a product distribution centre. It is also the administrative centre of Ryanggang Province. As of 2008, the population of the city is 192,680.



Around the 1940s, this city included the nearby Paektu Mountains. However, due to several changes, the area of this city was reduced, and now it only includes the nearby Yalu River.

Due to the reunification matter with South Korea, this city is claimed by South Korea, following the boundaries of 1940s, not the one edited by North Korea. Therefore, according to South Korea Hyesan still includes the nearby Baekdu Mountains.

South Korea has a conflict with the People's Republic of China because of the Baekdu Mountains. The mountain is actually divided in two: the south parts are ruled by North Korea while the north parts are ruled by the PRC. However, South Korea still claims the northern parts. It is not officially claimed, but on maps printed by South Korea, it is de facto claimed. The Republic of China claims the entire mountain.


The city is located in the Paektu Mountains at the border with the People's Republic of China (Jilin province), from which it is separated by the Yalu (Amrok) River. Changbai is the closest Chinese city across the river.


Hyesan has an elevation-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb). It is located in the coldest area of Korea, which holds a record low temperature of -42 °C (-44 °F) in 1915.

Climate data for Hyesan (1981–2010)
Average high °C (°F)−8.3
Daily mean °C (°F)−16.4
Average low °C (°F)−22.9
Average precipitation mm (inches)5.2
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average snowy days12.010.410.
Average relative humidity (%)74.869.864.360.361.870.477.177.873.866.872.575.670.4
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration [2]

Administrative divisions

Hyesan City is divided into 25 tong (neighbourhoods) and 4 ri (villages):

  • Ch'un-dong (춘동)
  • Hyegang-dong (혜강동)
  • Hyehŭng-dong (혜흥동)
  • Hyehwa-dong (혜화동)
  • Hyejang-dong (혜장동)
  • Hyemyŏng-dong (혜명동)
  • Hyesan-dong (혜산동)
  • Hyesin-dong (혜신동)
  • Hyet'an-dong (혜탄동)
  • Kangan-dong (강안동)
  • Kanggu-dong (강구동)
  • Kŏmsan-dong (검산동)
  • Masan 1-dong (마산1동)
  • Masan 2-dong (마산2동)
  • Ryŏnbong 1-dong (련봉1동)
  • Ryŏnbong 2-dong (련봉2동)
  • Ryŏndu-dong (련두동)
  • Sinhŭng-dong (신흥동)
  • Songbong 1-dong (송봉1동)
  • Songbong 2-dong (송봉2동)
  • Sŏnghu-dong (성후동)
  • T'apsŏng-dong (탑성동)
  • Wiyŏn-dong (위연동)
  • Yŏnhŭng-dong (영흥동)
  • Yŏnp'ung-dong (연풍동)
  • Changal-li (장안리)
  • Rojung-ri (로중리)
  • Sinjang-ri (신장리)
  • Unch'ong-ri (운총리)


Hyesan has lumber processing mills, paper mills and textile mills. Since the North Korean economic crisis that intensified in the mid-1990s, the city has suffered from economic stagnation, and some factories in the city have closed. Reports and pictures taken from the Chinese side of the river show a "Ghost City": there is almost no movement in the streets, and at night the city is dark and doesn't have electricity. Residents of the city reputedly wash their clothes in the river because homes have no running water.

First explored in the 1960s, Hyesan Mine produces 10,000 tons of copper concentrates annually. This area has 80% of North Korea's available copper, and the North had estimated that it will be able to continue mining copper there for the next forty years. When Kapsan Tongjum Mine, explored during the Japanese colonial period, was finally depleted and closed in 1990, Hyesan Mine became the lifeline of the nation’s copper production. At that time, the mine flooded because the pumping device stopped operating due to the lack of electricity across the country. Although the workers at the mine did their best to pump the water, they could not stop the water flowing into the mine at a speed of 480㎥/hour. In 1996, during the North's 'Arduous March', electricity was not provided to the mine, leading to flooding in the mineshafts in January 1997. Hyesan Mine flooded again, as did other mines throughout the country, and lost all mining facilities. Since 1998, Kim Jong Il budgeted 8.2 million USD to dewater the mine, and the mine was recovered using electricity and equipment provided by China.


Hyesan is connected to other cities in North Korea by road, and by the Paektusan Ch'ŏngnyŏn and Pukbunaeryuk lines of the Korean State Railway.

Hyesan allegedly has a trolleybus system, though its actual existence is unknown. [3]


Schools in Hyesan include Hyesan High School and Hyesan Girls' School. Higher education institutions include the Hyesan Medical University, the Hyesan University of Agriculture and Forestry, Kim Jŏng-suk College of Education, the Hyesan College of Light Engineering, and the Hyesan University of Industry.

The countryside near Hyesan has various attractions, including the Kwaegung Pavilion, Naegŏk Hot Spring and Mount Paektu.

Notable people

See also

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  1. "2008 Population Census of DPR Korea" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics, DPR Korea. 2009. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  2. "30 years report of Meteorological Observations in North Korea" (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. pp. 232–281. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  3. "발전하는 교통문화⑥ 궤도 전차와 무궤도 전차 (편)". 통일뉴스 (in Korean). 2018-05-21. Retrieved 2021-02-22.

Further reading