Marc Garneau

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Marc Garneau

Marc Garneau - 2018 (42748534304) (cropped).jpg
Garneau in 2018
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Assumed office
January 12, 2021
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
Preceded by François-Philippe Champagne
Minister of Transport
In office
November 4, 2015 January 12, 2021
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
Preceded by Lisa Raitt
Succeeded by Omar Alghabra
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount
Assumed office
October 19, 2015
Preceded byRiding Established
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for Westmount—Ville-Marie
In office
October 14, 2008 October 19, 2015
Preceded by Lucienne Robillard
Succeeded byRiding Abolished
Personal details
Born
Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau

(1949-02-23) February 23, 1949 (age 72)
Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
Political party Liberal
Residence Westmount, Quebec, Canada
Alma mater Royal Military College of Canada, B.S. 1970
Imperial College London, Ph.D. 1973
Canadian Forces College
Website Official website
Military service
AllegianceFlag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Branch/serviceNaval ensign of Canada; Naval jack of Canada (1968-2013).svg  Maritime Command
Years of service1974–1989
Rank CDN-Navy-Capt (pre2010).svg Captain(N)
Space career
National Research Council
Canadian Space Agency
Astronaut
RankCaptain(N)
Time in space
29d 02h 01min
Selection 1983 NRC Group
Missions STS-41-G, STS-77, STS-97
Mission insignia
STS-41-G patch.png STS-77 patch.svg Sts-97-patch.svg

Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau PC CC CD MP (born February 23, 1949) is a Canadian politician and former astronaut who has served as Minister of Foreign Affairs since 2021. A member of the Liberal Party, Garneau is the member of Parliament (MP) for Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount. Prior to entering politics, Garneau served as a naval officer and was selected as an astronaut, part of the 1983 NRC Group. On October 5, 1984, he became the first Canadian in outer space as part of STS-41-G and served on two subsequent space shuttle missions—STS-77 and STS-97.

Contents

Personal life

Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau was born on February 23, 1949, in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. He attended primary and secondary schools in Quebec City and Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu. He also has a brother, Philippe Garneau [1]

Education and military career

Garneau graduated from the Royal Military College of Canada in 1970 with a bachelor of science in engineering physics and began his career in the Canadian Forces Maritime Command. [2]

In 1973 he received a PhD in electrical engineering from the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, England. His thesis was entitled "The Perception of Facial Images". The Photofit analogue computer was used by him to discriminate facial features. [3]

In 1974, Garneau served as a naval combat systems engineer aboard HMCS Algonquin.

From 1982 to 1983, he attended the Canadian Forces Command and Staff College in Toronto. While there, he was promoted to the rank of commander and was transferred to Ottawa in 1983. In January 1986, he was promoted to captain(N). Garneau retired from the Canadian Forces in 1989. [2]

Space career

Marc Garneau, STS-97 in 2000 Marc Garneau STS-97.jpg
Marc Garneau, STS-97 in 2000

Garneau was one of six first Canadian Astronauts and he became the first Canadian in outer space on October 5, 1984. [4] In 1984, he was seconded to the new Canadian Astronaut Program (CAP), one of six chosen from over 4,000 applicants; of these six he was the only military officer.

Garneau flew on the shuttle Challenger, STS-41-G from October 5 to 13, 1984, as payload specialist. He was promoted to captain(N) in 1986, and left the Canadian Forces in 1989, to become deputy director of the CAP. In 1992–93, he underwent further training to become a mission specialist. He worked as CAPCOM for a number of shuttle flights and was on two further flights himself: STS-77 (May 19 to 29, 1996) and STS-97 (to the ISS, November 30 to December 11, 2000). He has logged over 677 hours in space. [5]

In February 2001, Garneau was appointed executive vice-president of the Canadian Space Agency, and became its president on November 22, 2001. [6]

Political career

Garneau has served as the member of Parliament (MP) for the Montreal riding of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount, and its predecessor Westmount—Ville-Marie since the 2008 federal election, winning by over 9,000 votes. [7] He was re-elected to the House of Commons in the 2011 federal election by 642 votes, [8] [9] and in the 2015 federal election with a majority of over 18,000. Previously, he unsuccessfully stood in the riding of Vaudreuil-Soulanges at the 2006 federal election.

On November 28, 2012, Garneau announced his candidacy for the leadership of the Liberal Party to be decided in April 2013. On March 13, 2013, Garneau formally withdrew his bid for the party leadership. [10] On November 4, 2015, Garneau was appointed as Minister of Transport in the 29th Canadian Ministry. He became Minister of Foreign Affairs on January 12, 2021 after a cabinet reshuffle. [11]

Initial candidacy

Garneau resigned as the president of the Canadian Space Agency to run for the Liberal Party of Canada in the 2006 federal election in the riding of Vaudreuil—Soulanges, which was then held by Meili Faille of the Bloc Québécois. [12] The Liberal Party's support dropped off considerably in Quebec after the Sponsorship scandal and though considered a star candidate, Garneau lost to Faille by over nine-thousand votes. [13] [14]

In the 2006 Liberal Party leadership election Garneau announced his support for perceived front-runner Michael Ignatieff, who lost to Stéphane Dion on the final ballot. [15] With the resignation of Liberal MP Jean Lapierre in 2007, Garneau expressed interest in being the party's candidate in Lapierre's former riding of Outremont. [16] Dion instead appointed Jocelyn Coulon as the party's candidate, who went on to be defeated by the New Democratic Party's Thomas Mulcair in the by-election. [17]

In May 2007, Garneau filed nomination papers to be the party's candidate in Westmount—Ville-Marie, after former Liberal Party deputy leader Lucienne Robillard announced she would not be seeking re-election. However, a week after filing his nomination papers Dion announced that he had hand-picked a candidate for the riding. Garneau later withdrew his nomination papers and announced he no longer had an interest in politics. In October 2007, Garneau and Dion held a joint news conference where they announced that Garneau would be the Liberal Party candidate in Westmount—Ville-Marie. [16] Robillard announced her resignation as Member of Parliament in January and a by-election was later scheduled for September 8, 2008. [18] [19] However, the by-election was cancelled during the campaign when Prime Minister Stephen Harper called a general election for October 14, 2008. Though some pundits predicted a close race between Garneau and NDP candidate Anne Lagacé-Dowson, Garneau went on to win the riding by over 9,000 votes. [7] [20]

41st Parliament and leadership campaign

Garneau was narrowly re-elected in the 2011 election where he beat New Democratic Party candidate Joanne Corbeil. He was Liberal House leader and served as Liberal foreign affairs critic. He was a candidate for interim leadership of the Liberal Party, but was ultimately defeated by Bob Rae. [21] [22] Garneau announced later that year that he was considering a bid for the permanent leadership of the party. [23] In the summer of 2012, he announced that he was looking for a "dream team" to run his leadership bid and that he would only run if he could find the right people. [24] [25]

On November 21, 2012, Garneau was named his party's natural resources critic after David McGuinty resigned the post. [26]

On November 28, 2012, Garneau announced his bid for the leadership of the Liberal Party, placing a heavy focus on the economy. [27] [28] While fellow leadership candidate Justin Trudeau was widely seen as the front-runner in the race, Garneau was thought to be his main challenger among the candidates. [29] With his entrance into the leadership race he resigned his post as Liberal House leader, while remaining the party's critic for natural resources. [30]

At the press conference announcing his candidacy Garneau ruled out any form of co-operation with the Green Party or New Democratic Party to help defeat the Conservative Party in the next election, which was proposed by leadership candidate Joyce Murray. [31]

On January 30, 2013, Garneau was replaced as natural resources critic by Ted Hsu. Garneau had been serving in the position on an interim basis. [32]

On March 13, 2013 Garneau announced his withdrawal from the race, and threw his support to front-runner Justin Trudeau. On September 18, 2013, Garneau was named co-chair of the Liberal International Affairs Council of Advisors, providing advice on foreign and defence issues to Liberal Party of Canada leader Justin Trudeau. [33] [34]

Minister of Transport

Garneau and other members of Trudeau's cabinet welcoming U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security John F. Kelly in March 2017 Secretary Kelly Visits Ottawa (33317504551).jpg
Garneau and other members of Trudeau's cabinet welcoming U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security John F. Kelly in March 2017

In the 2015 elections held on October 19, 2015, Garneau was re-elected as MP in the newly created riding of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount. Two weeks later, on November 4, 2015, Garneau was appointed the minister of transport by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.

In May 2017, Garneau introduced an airline passenger bill of rights to standardize how passengers can be treated by airlines which operate any flights in and out of Canada. The legislation would create minimum compensation rates for overbooking, lost or damaged luggage, and bumping passengers off flights. It would also prohibit airlines from removing people from the flight if they have purchased a ticket and set the standard for tarmac delays and airline treatment of passengers when flights are delayed or cancelled over events in the airline's control, or because of weather conditions. [35]

In March 2019, after days of initial refusal to take actions following the crash of Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, Garneau finally agreed to ground and prohibit all Boeing 737 Max aircraft from flying in Canadian airspace. [36] This stood in contrast to the ministry's previous stance, where he insisted the plane was safe to fly, thus making Canada one of the only two nations still flying a substantial number of Boeing 737 Max planes at the time. [37] [38] Garneau even went so far as saying he would board 737 MAX 8 "without hesitation", as an apparent show of support for the Boeing Company. [39]

Minister of Foreign Affairs

On January 12, 2021, following the resignation of Navdeep Bains as minister of innovation, science and industry, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau shuffled the Cabinet, with Garneau becoming Minister of Foreign Affairs. [40]

Awards and honours

Order of Canada (CC) ribbon bar.svg Canada125 ribbon.png
QEII Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon.png QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon.png CAN Canadian Forces Decoration ribbon.svg

RibbonDescriptionNotes
CAN Order of Canada Companion ribbon.svg Companion of the Order of Canada (C.C.)
  • Awarded on: May 8, 2003
  • Invested on: December 12, 2003 [41]
CAN Order of Canada Officer ribbon.svg Officer of the Order of Canada (O.C.)
  • Awarded on: December 17, 1984
  • Invested on: April 10, 1985 [41]
Canada125 ribbon.png 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal
  • 1993
  • As an officer of the Order of Canada, he has also received the 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal. [42]
QEII Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon.png Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal for Canada
  • 2002
  • As an officer of the Order of Canada, he has also received the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal of Canada Medal. [42] [43]
  • Canadian version
QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon.png Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal for Canada
  • 2012
  • * As a Companion of the Order of Canada, and an elected Member of Parliament he has also received the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal. [42] [44]
  • Canadian version
CAN Canadian Forces Decoration ribbon.svg Canadian Forces' Decoration (C.D.)

Garneau was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1984 in recognition of his role as the first Canadian astronaut. He was promoted the rank of Companion within the order in 2003 for his extensive work with Canada's space program.

He was awarded the Canadian Forces Decoration for 12 years of honourable service with the Canadian Forces.

He is honoured with a high school named after him, Marc Garneau Collegiate Institute in Toronto [45] and É.S.P. Marc-Garneau [46] in Trenton, Ontario.

Garneau is the Honorary Captain of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets. In addition, no 599 Royal Canadian Air Cadets squadron is named in his honour.

Garneau was awarded the Key to the City of Ottawa from Marion Dewar the Mayor of Ottawa on December 10, 1984. [47] [48]

He was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1992. [49]

Honorary degrees

LocationDateSchoolDegree
Flag of Ontario.svg OntarioMay 17, 1985 Royal Military College of Canada Doctor of Military Science (DMSc) [50]
Flag of Nova Scotia.svg Nova Scotia1985 Technical University of Nova Scotia Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng) [51]
Flag of Quebec.svg Quebec1985 Laval University
Flag of Quebec.svg Quebec1990 Royal Military College Saint-Jean
Flag of Ontario.svg Ontario1997 University of Ottawa Doctor of the University (D.Univ) [52]
Flag of Alberta.svg AlbertaSpring 2001 University of Lethbridge Doctor of Science (D.Sc) [53]
Flag of Ontario.svg OntarioSpring 2002 York University Doctor of Science (D.Sc) [54]
Flag of Quebec.svg QuebecDecember 2004 Concordia University Doctor of Laws (LL.D) [55]
Flag of Ontario.svg OntarioNovember 2005 McMaster University Doctor of Science (D.Sc) [56]
Flag of Alberta.svg Alberta2006 Athabasca University Doctor of Science (D.Sc) [57]
Flag of British Columbia.svg British Columbia2006 British Columbia Institute of Technology Doctor of Technology (D.Tech) [58]

Electoral record

2019 Canadian federal election : Notre-Dame-de-Grâce-Westmount
PartyCandidateVotes%±%Expenditures
Liberal Marc Garneau28,32356.281.39
New Democratic Franklin Gertler7,75315.416.35
Conservative Neil Drabkin575911.442.93
Green Robert Green5,39710.73+7.67
Bloc QuébécoisJennifer Jetté23594.69+2.21
People'sAndré Valiquette5651.12-
Independent Jeffrey A. Thomas980.19
Marxist–Leninist Rachel Hoffman670.130.22
Total valid votes/Expense limit50,321100.0$107,259.16

[59]

Total rejected ballots446
Turnout50,76766.4

[60]

Eligible voters76,499
2015 Canadian federal election : Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount
PartyCandidateVotes%±%Expenditures
Liberal Marc Garneau29,75557.67+19.43$116,633.55
New Democratic James Hughes11,22921.7613.29$121,985.65
Conservative Richard Sagala7,41414.373.28$23,826.12
Green Melissa Kate Wheeler1,5813.061.32$1,243.50
Bloc Québécois Simon Quesnel1,2822.481.59$2,358.94
Marxist–Leninist Rachel Hoffman1810.35
Independent Lisa Julie Cahn1510.29
Total valid votes/Expense limit51,593100.00$214,383.86
Total rejected ballots3110.60
Turnout51,90465.21
Eligible voters79,597
Source: Elections Canada [61] [62]
2011 Canadian federal election : Westmount—Ville-Marie
PartyCandidateVotes%±%Expenditures
Liberal Marc Garneau 15,34637.189.29
New Democratic Joanne Corbeil14,70435.62+12.69
Conservative Neil Drabkin7,21817.49+1.68
Bloc Québécois Véronique Roy2,2785.521.74
Green Andrew Carkner1,5163.673.37
Rhinoceros Victoria Haliburton1400.34+0.18
Communist Bill Sloan730.18+0.09
Total valid votes/Expense limit41,275100.00 
Total rejected ballots1650.40
Turnout41,44053.76
Electors on the lists77,084
Liberal hold Swing 10.99
2008 Canadian federal election : Westmount—Ville-Marie
PartyCandidateVotes%±%Expenditures
Liberal Marc Garneau 18,04146.47+0.79$78,009
New Democratic Anne Lagacé Dowson 8,90422.93+7.56$79,186
Conservative Guy Dufort6,13915.811.84$34,968
Bloc Québécois Charles Larivée2,8187.265.30$8,281
Green Claude William Genest 2,7337.041.31
Rhinoceros Judith Vienneau620.16
Marxist–Leninist Linda Sullivan490.130.10
Independent David Rovins470.12$30
Communist Bill Sloan340.090.08$2,433
Total valid votes/Expense limit38,827100.00 $83,153
Total rejected ballots2240.57
Turnout39,05150.64
Eligible voters77,112
Liberal hold Swing +1.34
2006 Canadian federal election : Vaudreuil—Soulanges
PartyCandidateVotes%±%Expenditures
Bloc Québécois Meili Faille 27,01243.161.13$85,133
Liberal Marc Garneau17,76828.3910.41$79,413
Conservative Stephane Bourgon11,88919.00+10.81$35,090
New Democratic Bert Markgraf3,4685.54+1.64$3,385
Green Pierre Pariseau-Legault2,4503.91+0.14$1,144
Total valid votes/Expense limit62,587100.00 $85,543
Bloc Québécois hold Swing +9.28

See also

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References

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Academic offices
Preceded by
Ray Hnatyshyn
Chancellor of Carleton University
2003–2008
Succeeded by
Herb Gray
Party political offices
Preceded by
???
Caucus Chair of the Liberal Party in Quebec
2008
Succeeded by
Pablo Rodriguez
Preceded by
Denis Coderre
Quebec Lieutenant of the Liberal Party
2008–present
Incumbent
29th Ministry – Cabinet of Justin Trudeau
Cabinet posts (2)
PredecessorOfficeSuccessor
François-Philippe Champagne Minister of Foreign Affairs
2021-present
Incumbent
Lisa Raitt Minister of Transport
2015–2021
Omar Alghabra