Pin grid array

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Closeup of the pins of a pin grid array AMD Phenom II X6 1090T (HDT90ZFBK6DGR) CPU-pins PNrdeg0295.jpg
Closeup of the pins of a pin grid array
The pin grid array at the bottom of a XC68020, a prototype of the Motorola 68020 microprocessor XC68020 bottom p1160085.jpg
The pin grid array at the bottom of a XC68020, a prototype of the Motorola 68020 microprocessor
The pin grid array on the bottom of an AMD Phenom X4 9750 processor that uses the AMD AM2+ socket AMD Phenom X4 9750 (Underside).JPG
The pin grid array on the bottom of an AMD Phenom X4 9750 processor that uses the AMD AM2+ socket

A pin grid array, often abbreviated PGA, is a type of integrated circuit packaging. In a PGA, the package is square or rectangular, and the pins are arranged in a regular array on the underside of the package. The pins are commonly spaced 2.54 mm (0.1") apart, [1] and may or may not cover the entire underside of the package.

Integrated circuit packaging Final stage of semiconductor device fabrication

In electronics manufacturing, integrated circuit packaging is the final stage of semiconductor device fabrication, in which the block of semiconductor material is encapsulated in a supporting case that prevents physical damage and corrosion. The case, known as a "package", supports the electrical contacts which connect the device to a circuit board.

Contents

PGAs are often mounted on printed circuit boards using the through hole method or inserted into a socket. PGAs allow for more pins per integrated circuit than older packages, such as dual in-line package (DIP).

Printed circuit board board to support and connect electronic components

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate. Components are generally soldered onto the PCB to both electrically connect and mechanically fasten them to it.

Through-hole technology mounting scheme used for electronic components that involves the use of leads on the components that are inserted into holes drilled in printed circuit boards and soldered to pads on the opposite side manually or by automated insertion mount machines

Through-hole technology, refers to the mounting scheme used for electronic components that involves the use of leads on the components that are inserted into holes drilled in printed circuit boards (PCB) and soldered to pads on the opposite side either by manual assembly or by the use of automated insertion mount machines.

CPU socket provides mechanical and electrical connections between a microprocessor and a printed circuit board

In computer hardware, a CPU socket or CPU slot contains one or more mechanical components providing mechanical and electrical connections between a microprocessor and a printed circuit board (PCB). This allows for placing and replacing the central processing unit (CPU) without soldering.

PGA variants

Plastic

The topside of a Celeron-400 in a PPGA packing UpSL3A2.JPG
The topside of a Celeron-400 in a PPGA packing

Plastic pin grid array (PPGA) packaging was used by Intel for late-model Mendocino core Celeron processors based on Socket 370. [2] Some pre-Socket 8 processors also used a similar form factor, although they were not officially referred to as PPGA.

Celeron is a brand name given by Intel to a number of different low-end IA-32 and x86-64 computer microprocessor models targeted at low-cost personal computers.

Socket 370

Socket 370 is a CPU socket first used by Intel for Pentium III and Celeron processors to first complement and later replace the older Slot 1 CPU interface on personal computers. The "370" refers to the number of pin holes in the socket for CPU pins.

Underside of a Pentium 4 in a PGA package Pentium 4 Underside Demonstrating PGA Socket.JPG
Underside of a Pentium 4 in a PGA package

Flip chip

The underside of a FC-PGA package (the die is on the other side) Ppga.jpg
The underside of a FC-PGA package (the die is on the other side)

A flip-chip pin grid array (FC-PGA or FCPGA) is a form of pin grid array in which the die faces downwards on the top of the substrate with the back of the die exposed. This allows the die to have a more direct contact with the heatsink or other cooling mechanism.

Die (integrated circuit) an unpackaged integrated circuit

A die, in the context of integrated circuits, is a small block of semiconducting material on which a given functional circuit is fabricated. Typically, integrated circuits are produced in large batches on a single wafer of electronic-grade silicon (EGS) or other semiconductor through processes such as photolithography. The wafer is cut (diced) into many pieces, each containing one copy of the circuit. Each of these pieces is called a die.

The FC-PGA was introduced by Intel with the Coppermine core Pentium III and Celeron [3] processors based on Socket 370, and was later used for Socket 478-based Pentium 4 [4] and Celeron processors. FC-PGA processors fit into zero insertion force (ZIF) Socket 370 and Socket 478-based motherboard sockets; similar packages have also been used by AMD. It is still used today for mobile Intel processors.

Intel American semiconductor company

Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley. It is the world's second largest and second highest valued semiconductor chip manufacturer based on revenue after being overtaken by Samsung, and is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers (PCs). Intel ranked No. 46 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

Pentium III Line of desktop and mobile microprocessors produced by Intel

The Pentium III brand refers to Intel's 32-bit x86 desktop and mobile microprocessors based on the sixth-generation P6 microarchitecture introduced on February 26, 1999. The brand's initial processors were very similar to the earlier Pentium II-branded microprocessors. The most notable differences were the addition of the SSE instruction set, and the introduction of a controversial serial number embedded in the chip during the manufacturing process.

Socket 478 Processor socket made by Intel

Socket 478 is a 478-contact CPU socket used for Intel's Pentium 4 and Celeron series CPUs.

Staggered pin

The staggered pin grid array (SPGA) is used by Intel processors based on Socket 5 and Socket 7. Socket 8 used a partial SPGA layout on half the processor.

Socket 5

Socket 5 was created for the second generation of Intel P5 Pentium processors operating at speeds from 75 to 120 MHz as well as certain Pentium OverDrive and Pentium MMX processors with core voltage 3.3 V. It superseded the earlier Socket 4. It was released in March 1994. Consisting of 320 pins, this was the first socket to use a staggered pin grid array, or SPGA, which allowed the chip's pins to be spaced closer together than earlier sockets. Socket 5 was replaced by Socket 7 in 1997.

Socket 7

Socket 7 is a physical and electrical specification for an x86-style CPU socket on a personal computer motherboard. It was released June 1995. The socket supersedes the earlier Socket 5, and accepts P5 Pentium microprocessors manufactured by Intel, as well as compatibles made by Cyrix/IBM, AMD, IDT and others.

Socket 8

The Socket 8 CPU socket was used exclusively with the Intel Pentium Pro and Pentium II Overdrive computer processors. Intel discontinued Socket 8 in favor of Slot 1 with the introduction of the Pentium II and Slot 2 with the release of the Pentium II Xeon in 1999.

An example of a socket for a staggered pin grid array package Socket 7.jpg
An example of a socket for a staggered pin grid array package
View of the socket 7 321-pin connectors of a CPU Cyrix IBM CPU 6x86MX PR200 bottom.jpg
View of the socket 7 321-pin connectors of a CPU

It consists of two square arrays of pins, offset in both directions by half the minimum distance between pins in one of the arrays. Put differently: within a square boundary the pins form a diagonal square lattice. There is generally a section in the center of the package without any pins. SPGA packages are usually used by devices that require a higher pin density than what a PGA can provide, such as microprocessors.

Ceramic

A ceramic pin grid array (CPGA) is a type of packaging used by integrated circuits. This type of packaging uses a ceramic substrate with pins arranged in a pin grid array. Some CPUs that use CPGA packaging are the AMD Socket A Athlons and the Duron.

A CPGA was used by AMD for Athlon and Duron processors based on Socket A, as well as some AMD processors based on Socket AM2 and Socket AM2+. While similar form factors have been used by other manufacturers, they are not officially referred to as CPGA. This type of packaging uses a ceramic substrate with pins arranged in an array.

Organic

Demonstration of a PGA-ZIF socket (AMD 754)

An organic pin grid array (OPGA) is a type of connection for integrated circuits, and especially CPUs, where the silicon die is attached to a plate made out of an organic plastic which is pierced by an array of pins which make the requisite connections to the socket.

The organic pin grid array was originally introduced for the AMD Athlon XP processors based on Socket A, also used for AMD processors using Socket 754, Socket 939, Socket 940, Socket FM1, Socket FM2, Socket AM2, Socket AM2+, Socket AM3, Socket AM3+ and Socket AM4.

Stud

A stud grid array (SGA) is a short-pinned pin grid array chip scale package for use in Surface-mount technology. The polymer stud grid array or plastic stud grid array was developed jointly by the Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC) and Laboratory for Production Technology, Siemens AG. [5] [6]

rPGA

The reduced pin grid array was used by the socketed mobile variants of Intel's Core i3/5/7 processors and features a reduced pin pitch of 1mm, [7] as opposed to the 1.27mm pin pitch used by contemporary AMD processors and older Intel processors. It is used in the G1, G2, and G3 sockets.

See also

Related Research Articles

Athlon series of x86-compatible microprocessors

Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of x86-compatible microprocessors designed and manufactured by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). The original Athlon was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and was the first desktop processor to reach speeds of one gigahertz (GHz). It made its debut on June 23, 1999.

Ball grid array

A ball grid array (BGA) is a type of surface-mount packaging used for integrated circuits. BGA packages are used to permanently mount devices such as microprocessors. A BGA can provide more interconnection pins than can be put on a dual in-line or flat package. The whole bottom surface of the device can be used, instead of just the perimeter. The traces connecting the package's leads to the wires or balls which connect the die to package are also on average shorter than with a perimeter-only type, leading to better performance at high speeds.

Slot 1

Slot 1 refers to the physical and electrical specification for the connector used by some of Intel's microprocessors, including the Pentium Pro, Celeron, Pentium II and the Pentium III. Both single and dual processor configurations were implemented.

Land grid array type of surface-mount packaging for integrated circuits

The land grid array (LGA) is a type of surface-mount packaging for integrated circuits (ICs) that is notable for having the pins on the socket rather than the integrated circuit. An LGA can be electrically connected to a printed circuit board (PCB) either by the use of a socket or by soldering directly to the board.

Socket 479

Socket 479 (mPGA479M) is the CPU socket for the Intel Pentium M and Celeron M, mobile processors. Normally used in laptops, but has also been used with Tualatin-M Pentium III processors. The official naming by Intel is µFCPGA and µPGA479M.

Socket M

Socket M (mPGA478MT) is a CPU interface introduced by Intel in 2006 for the Intel Core line of mobile processors.

Socket 495 CPU socket for Intel mobile processors

Socket 495, sometimes referred to as µPGA2 is a CPU socket for the Intel Pentium III and Celeron mobile processors. This socket was also used in Microsoft's Xbox Console, but in a BGA format. This socket replaced Socket 615 (µPGA1), which was used in Pentium II and early Celeron mobile processors.

Socket G1

Socket G1, also known as rPGA 988A, is Intel's CPU socket for their line of mobile Core i7, the successor to the Core 2 line. It is based on Intel's Nehalem architecture which was first available for the 1366-pin "Socket B", which, like its predecessor, LGA775, uses the LGA socket configuration. Later followed the updated LGA-1156 socket, which moved the QPI and PCI-express controller off the Northbridge and onto the CPU. As a result of the lower pin count, LGA-1156 systems, and later, socket G1 systems, can only run in Dual-channel memory mode, as opposed to the Triple-channel mode which is unique to the LGA-1366 platform. The Nehalem's mobile variant was released on September 23, 2009 in the form of the i7-720QM, 820QM, and 920XM models, followed by the i7-740QM, 840QM, and 940XM models on June 21, 2010. The newer CPUs use the new Clarksfield core, which maintained the same 45 nm manufacturing process as the desktop-based Nehalems. Nehalem received a die shrink on January 7, 2010, under the core name of Westmere. With the Intel GMA HD Graphics Ironlake core packaged onto the CPU substrate, but not integrated directly to the processor die, it goes on to create the Arrandale-based line. The current CPUs to use this package are the Core i7-6x0M series, the Core i5-4x0M series, the Core i5-5x0M series, the Core i3-3x0M series, and finally the Pentium P6x00 series and Celeron P4x00 series which were released on March 28, 2010. However, not all of these are available for Socket G1, as some of them are only available in a BGA package. They are also known as PGA988 socket processors.

Socket G2 CPU socket for Intel mobile processors

Socket G2, also known as rPGA 988B is Intel's CPU socket used with their line of mobile Core i7, the successor to the Core 2 line, and also with several mobile Core i5 and Core i3 processors. It is based on Intel's Sandy Bridge architecture. Like its predecessor, socket G1 systems, it can only run in dual-channel memory mode, but with data rates up to 1600 MHz. Socket G2 CPUs are also known as FCPGA988 socket processors, which should be pin compatible with PPGA988.

References

  1. Vijay Nath (24 March 2017). Proceedings of the International Conference on Nano-electronics, Circuits & Communication Systems. Springer. p. 304. ISBN   978-981-10-2999-8.
  2. Robert Bruce Thompson; Barbara Fritchman Thompson (24 July 2003). PC Hardware in a Nutshell: A Desktop Quick Reference. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 44. ISBN   978-0-596-55234-3.
  3. "Intel Releases New Design for sub-$1,000 PCs". Philippine Daily Inquirer. April 24, 2000.Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  4. "Intel Mobile Pentium 4 552 / 3.46 GHz processor (mobile) (Manufacturer description)". CNET. December 26, 2004. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
  5. "BGA socket/BGA 소켓". Jsits.com. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
  6. link (in German) Archived October 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine .
  7. "Molex Sockets for Servers, Desktops and Notebooks Earn Intel® Validation" . Retrieved 2016-03-15.