TO-92

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TO-92 Front with Pin Numbers.svg
TO-92 front view [1]
TO-92 Back with Pin Numbers.svg
TO-92 back view [1]

The TO-92 is a widely used style of semiconductor package mainly used for transistors. The case is often made of epoxy or plastic, and offers compact size at a very low cost.

A semiconductor package is a metal, plastic, glass, or ceramic casing containing one or more discrete semiconductor devices or integrated circuits. Individual components are fabricated on semiconductor wafers before being diced into die, tested, and packaged. The package provides a means for connecting the package to the external environment, such as printed circuit board, via leads such as lands, balls, or pins; and protection against threats such as mechanical impact, chemical contamination, and light exposure. Additionally, it helps dissipate heat produced by the device, with or without the aid of a heat spreader. There are thousands of package types in use. Some are defined by international, national, or industry standards, while others are particular to an individual manufacturer.

Transistor Basic electronics component

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.

Epoxy family of polymer

Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group. Epoxy resins, also known as polyepoxides, are a class of reactive prepolymers and polymers which contain epoxide groups.

Contents

History and origin

The JEDEC TO-92 descriptor is derived from the original full name for the package: Transistor Outline Package, Case Style 92. [1] The package is also known by the designations SOT54 and JEITA SC-43A. [2] By 1966 the package was being used by Motorola for their 2N3904 devices among others. [3]

JEDEC standards organization

The JEDEC Solid State Technology Association is an independent semiconductor engineering trade organization and standardization body.

2N3904 NPN transistor

The 2N3904 is a common NPN bipolar junction transistor used for general-purpose low-power amplifying or switching applications. It is designed for low current and power, medium voltage, and can operate at moderately high speeds.

Construction and orientation

The case is molded around the transistor elements in two parts; the face is flat, bearing a machine-printed part number. The back is semi-circularly-shaped. A line of moulding flash from the injection-moulding process can be seen around the case.

The leads protrude from the bottom of the case. When looking at the face of the transistor, the leads are commonly configured from left-to-right as the emitter, base, and collector for 2N series (JEDEC) transistors, however, other configurations are possible, such as emitter, collector, and base commonly used for 2S series (Japanese) transistors.

If the face has a part name made up of only one letter and a few numbers, it is usually assumed to be a Japanese part number (with the base on the end rather than in the center). Thus, "C1234" would likely be a 2SC1234 device.

The leads coming out of the case are spaced 0.05" (1.27 mm) apart. It is often convenient to bend them outward to a 0.10" (2.54 mm) spacing to make more room for wiring. [4] Units with their leads pre-bent may be ordered to fit specific board layouts, depending on the application. Otherwise, the leads may be bent manually; however, care must be taken as they can break easily, as with any other device that is manually configured.

The physical dimensions of the TO-92 housing may vary sightly depending of the manufacturer, however, the 1.27mm lead spacing must be respected.

Advantages

Disadvantages

The main disadvantage of this style of case is the lack of heat sinking.

Heat sink hardware component

A heat sink is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels. In computers, heat sinks are used to cool CPUs, GPUs, and some chipsets and RAM modules. Heat sinks are used with high-power semiconductor devices such as power transistors and optoelectronics such as lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs), where the heat dissipation ability of the component itself is insufficient to moderate its temperature.

TO-220

The TO-220 is a style of electronic package used for high-powered, through-hole components with 0.1 inches (2.54 mm) pin spacing. The "TO" designation stands for "transistor outline". TO-220 packages have three leads. Similar packages with two, four, five or seven leads are also manufactured. A notable characteristic is a metal tab with a hole, used in mounting the case to a heatsink, allowing the component to dissipate more heat than one constructed in a TO-92 case. Common TO-220-packaged components include discrete semiconductors such as transistors and silicon-controlled rectifiers, as well as integrated circuits.

Voltage and current

Although TO-92 devices are mainly used in low-voltage / low-current (<30 V; <1 A) applications, high-voltage (600 Volt Vce) and high-current (5 A Ic) devices are available. Nominal maximum power dissipation is less than one watt (600 mW).

Common transistors using a TO-92 case

Additional uses of the TO-92 case

See also

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TO-3

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References

  1. 1 2 3 "JEDEC TO-92 package specification" (PDF). JEDEC . Archived from the original (PDF) on June 18, 2017.
  2. "TO-92 (SOT54)". Nexperia. 2004-11-16. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  3. Motorola 1966 Semiconductor Handbook|https://archive.org/stream/bitsavers_motoroladaSemiconductorHandbook2edAug66_80459525/1966_Motorola_Semiconductor_Handbook_2ed_Aug66_djvu.txt
  4. Bourns. "Package Mechanical Information, TO-92" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  5. http://www.digikey.com/product-detail/en/OH090U/365-1001-ND/374779