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Bully trees
Starr 010330-0568 Sideroxylon persimile.jpg
Sideroxylon persimile
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Sapotaceae
Subfamily: Sapotoideae
Tribe: Sideroxyleae
L. [1]
Type species
Sideroxylon inerme
Synonyms [4]
  • ApterygiaBaehni
  • Bumelia Sw.
  • CalvariaComm. ex C.F.Gaertn.
  • CryptogyneHook.f.
  • DecatelesRaf.
  • DipholisA.DC.
  • EdgeworthiaFalc. 1842, illegitimate homonym, not Meisn. 1841 (Thymelaeaceae)
  • LyciodesKuntze
  • Mastichodendron(Engl.) H.J.Lam
  • MonothecaA.DC.
  • NesolumaBaill.
  • ReptoniaA.DC.
  • RobertiaScop., rejected name
  • RobertsiaEndl.
  • RostellariaC.F.Gaertn.
  • SclerocladusRaf.
  • Sinosideroxylon(Engl.) Aubrév.
  • Spiniluma(Baill.) Aubrév.
  • SpondogonaRaf., rejected name
  • TatinaRaf.
Leaves of Sideroxylon marmulano Sideroxylon mirmulano leaves.jpg
Leaves of Sideroxylon marmulano

Sideroxylon is a genus of trees in the family Sapotaceae described as a genus by Linnaeus in 1753. [3] [5] They are collectively known as bully trees. The generic name is derived from the Greek words σιδηρος (sideros), meaning "iron", and ξύλον (xylon), meaning "wood." [6]

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family".

Sapotaceae family of plants

The Sapotaceae are a family of flowering plants belonging to the order Ericales. The family includes about 800 species of evergreen trees and shrubs in around 65 genera. Their distribution is pantropical.



The genus is distributed mainly in North and South America, but also in Africa, Madagascar, southern Asia, and various oceanic islands. [4] Some species, such as gum bully ( S. lanuginosum ), S. tenax , and buckthorn bully ( S. lycioides ), are found in subtropical areas of North America. The only South African species, the white milkwood ( S. inerme ), is associated with three historical sites, and these individuals were declared national monuments due to their unusual longevity. [7] [8]

North America Continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.

South America A continent in the Western Hemisphere, and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics.

Africa The second largest and second most-populous continent, mostly in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.


Several species have become rare due to logging and other forms of habitat destruction. The Tambalacoque ( S. grandiflorum , syn. Calvaria major) of Mauritius was affected by the extinction of the birds which dispersed its seed; it was suggested that the species entirely depended on the dodo (Raphus cucullatus) for that purpose and nearly became a victim of coextinction, but this is not correct. [9] [10] Bully trees provide food for the larvae of certain Lepidoptera, such as the bumelia webworm moth ( Urodus parvula ) as well as several species of Coleoptera of the genus Plinthocoelium , commonly known as bumelia borers.

Habitat destruction is the process by which natural habitat becomes incapable of supporting its native species. In this process, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed reducing biodiversity. Habitat destruction by human activity is mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industrial production and urbanization. Clearing habitats for agriculture is the principal cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction include mining, logging, trawling, and urban sprawl. Habitat destruction is currently ranked as the primary cause of species extinction worldwide. It is a process of natural environmental change that may be caused by habitat fragmentation, geological processes, climate change or by human activities such as the introduction of invasive species, ecosystem nutrient depletion, and other human activities.

<i>Sideroxylon grandiflorum</i> species of plant

Sideroxylon grandiflorum, known as tambalacoque or dodo tree, is a long-lived tree in the family Sapotaceae, endemic to Mauritius. It is valued for its timber. The Sideroxylon grandiflorum fruit is analogous to the peach. They are both termed drupes because both have a hard endocarp, or pit, surrounding the seed, with the endocarp naturally splitting along a fracture line during germination.

Mauritius Island nation in the Indian Ocean

Mauritius, officially the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The main Island of Mauritius is located about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) off the southeast coast of the African continent. The Republic of Mauritius also includes the islands of Rodrigues, Agalega and St. Brandon. The capital and largest city Port Louis is located on the main island of Mauritius.


Accepted species [4]
  1. Sideroxylon acunae (Borhidi) T.D.Penn. - Cuba
  2. Sideroxylon alachuense L.C.Anderson - Florida
  3. Sideroxylon altamiranoi (Rose & Standl.) T.D.Penn. - Hidalgo, Querétaro
  4. Sideroxylon americanum (Mill.) T.D.Penn. - Yucatan, West Indies
  5. Sideroxylon anomalum (Urb.) T.D.Penn. - Barahona
  6. Sideroxylon beguei Capuron ex Aubrév. - Madagascar
  7. Sideroxylon bequaertii De Wild. - Zaïre
  8. Sideroxylon betsimisarakum Lecomte - Madagascar
  9. Sideroxylon borbonicum A.DC. - Réunion
  10. Sideroxylon boutonianum A.DC. - Mauritius
  11. Sideroxylon bullatum (R.A.Howard & Proctor) T.D.Penn. - Jamaica
  12. Sideroxylon canariense Leyens, Lobin & A.Santos - Canary Is
  13. Sideroxylon cantoniense Lour. - SE China
  14. Sideroxylon capiri (A.DC.) Pittier - Mesoamerica, West Indies
  15. Sideroxylon capuronii Aubrév. - Madagascar
  16. Sideroxylon cartilagineum (Cronquist) T.D.Penn. - Sinaloa, Jalisco, Guerrero
  17. Sideroxylon celastrinum (Kunth) T.D.Penn. - Texas, Mesoamerica, Colombia, Venezuela, Cuba, Bahamas
  18. Sideroxylon cinereum Lam. - Mauritius
  19. Sideroxylon contrerasii (Lundell) T.D.Penn. - Mesoamerica
  20. Sideroxylon cubense (Griseb.) T.D.Penn. - West Indies
  21. Sideroxylon discolor Radcl.-Sm. - Socotra
  22. Sideroxylon dominicanum (Whetstone & T.A.Atk.) T.D.Penn. - Dominican Rep
  23. Sideroxylon durifolium (Standl.) T.D.Penn. - Chiapas, Belize
  24. Sideroxylon ekmanianum (Urb.) Bisse, J.E.Gut. & Iglesias - Cuba
  25. Sideroxylon eriocarpum (Greenm. & Conz.) T.D.Penn. - Oaxaca
  26. Sideroxylon eucoriaceum (Lundell) T.D.Penn. - Veracruz, Guatemala
  27. Sideroxylon eucuneifolium (Lundell) T.D.Penn. - Guatemala
  28. Sideroxylon excavatum T.D.Penn. - Guerrero, Oaxaca
  29. Sideroxylon fimbriatum Balf.f. - Socotra
  30. Sideroxylon floribundum Griseb. - Belize, Guatemala, Jamaica
  31. Sideroxylon foetidissimum Jacq. - West Indies, S Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Florida
  32. Sideroxylon galeatum (A.W.Hill) Baehni - Rodrigues
  33. Sideroxylon gerrardianum (Hook.f.) Aubrév. - Madagascar
  34. Sideroxylon grandiflorum A.DC. - Mauritius
  35. Sideroxylon hirtiantherum T.D.Penn. - Guatemala, Honduras
  36. Sideroxylon horridum (Griseb.) T.D.Penn. - Cuba, Cayman Is
  37. Sideroxylon ibarrae (Lundell) T.D.Penn. - Baja Verapaz
  38. Sideroxylon inerme L. - Africa (from Somalia to Cape Province), Aldabra, Juan de Nova I
  39. Sideroxylon jubilla (Ekman ex Urb.) T.D.Penn. - Cuba
  40. Sideroxylon lanuginosum Michx. - United States (AZ to SC + KY), [11] NE Mexico
  41. Sideroxylon leucophyllum S.Wats. - Baja California, Sonora
  42. Sideroxylon lycioides L. buckthorn bully - United States (TX to DE) [12]
  43. Sideroxylon macrocarpum (Nutt.) J.R.Allison - Georgia
  44. Sideroxylon majus (Gaertn.f.) Baehni Réunion
  45. Sideroxylon marginatum (Decne. Ex Webb) - Cape Verde
  46. Sideroxylon mascatense (A. DC.) T.D. Penn. - from Ethiopia to Pakistan
  47. Sideroxylon mirmulans R.Br. - Madeira
  48. Sideroxylon moaense (Bisse & J.E.Gut.) J.E.Gut. - Cuba
  49. Sideroxylon montanum (Sw.) T.D.Penn. - Jamaica
  50. Sideroxylon nadeaudii (Drake) Smedmark & Anderb. - Tahiti
  51. Sideroxylon nervosum Wall. ex G.Don - Myanmar
  52. Sideroxylon obovatum Lam. - West Indies, Venezuela
  53. Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. & Schult.) T.D.Penn. - from Veracruz to Paraguay
  54. Sideroxylon occidentale (Hemsl.) T.D.Penn. - Baja California, Sonora
  55. Sideroxylon octosepalum (Urb.) T.D.Penn. - Clarendon
  56. Sideroxylon oxyacanthum Baill. - Ethiopia, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia
  57. Sideroxylon palmeri (Rose) T.D.Penn. - Mexico
  58. Sideroxylon peninsulare (Brandegee) T.D.Penn. - Baja California
  59. Sideroxylon persimile (Hemsl.) T.D.Penn. - Mesoamerica, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad
  60. Sideroxylon picardae (Urb.) T.D.Penn. - Hispaniola
  61. Sideroxylon polynesicum (Hillebr.) Smedmark & Anderb. - Hawaii, Rapa-Iti
  62. Sideroxylon portoricense Urb. - Mesoamerica, Greater Antilles
  63. Sideroxylon puberulum A.DC. - Mauritius
  64. Sideroxylon reclinatum Michx. - United States (LA, MS, AL, GA, FL, SC) [13]
  65. Sideroxylon repens (Urb. and Ekman) T.D.Penn. - Hispaniola
  66. Sideroxylon retinerve T.D.Penn. - Honduras
  67. Sideroxylon rotundifolium (Sw.) T.D.Penn. - Jamaica
  68. Sideroxylon rubiginosum T.D.Penn. - Dominican Rep
  69. Sideroxylon salicifolium (L.) Lam. - West Indies, Mesoamerica, Florida
  70. Sideroxylon saxorum Lecomte - Madagascar
  71. Sideroxylon sessiliflorum (Poir.) Capuron ex Aubrév. - Mauritius
  72. Sideroxylon socorrense (Brandegee) T.D.Penn. - Socorro I
  73. Sideroxylon st-johnianum (H.J.Lam & B.Meeuse) Smedmark & Anderb. - Henderson I
  74. Sideroxylon stenospermum (Standl.) T.D.Penn. - Mesoamerica
  75. Sideroxylon stevensonii (Standl.) Standl. & Steyerm. - Chiapas, Belize, Guatemala
  76. Sideroxylon tambolokoko Aubrév. - Madagascar
  77. Sideroxylon tenax L. - United States (FL, GA, SC, NC) [14]
  78. Sideroxylon tepicense (Standl.) T.D.Penn. - Mesoamerica
  79. Sideroxylon thornei (Cronquist) T.D.Penn. - USA (FL, GA, AL) [15]
  80. Sideroxylon verruculosum (Cronquist) T.D.Penn. - Mexico
  81. Sideroxylon wightianum S.Mori - Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangdong, Vietnam

Formerly placed here

<i>Micropholis crassipedicellata</i> species of plant

Micropholis crassipedicellata is a species of tree in the family Sapotaceae. The plant is endemic to the Atlantic Forest ecoregion in southeastern Brazil. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Micropholis rugosa is a species of plant in the family Sapotaceae. It is endemic to Jamaica.

<i>Olinia ventosa</i> species of plant

Olinia ventosa, commonly known as the hard-pear. is a large, evergreen forest tree indigenous to South Africa.

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Ironwood is a common name for many woods or plants that have a reputation for hardness, or specifically a wood density that is over 1000 kg/m3 and sinks in water. Usage of the name ironwood in English may include the tree that yields this heavy wood.

<i>Plumeria</i> species of flowering plant

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Cedrela is a genus of several species in the mahogany family, Meliaceae. They are evergreen or dry-season deciduous trees with pinnate leaves, native to the tropical and subtropical New World, from southern Mexico south to northern Argentina.

<i>Chrysophyllum</i> genus of plants

Chrysophyllum is a group of trees in the Sapotaceae described as a genus by Linnaeus in 1753.

<i>Manilkara zapota</i> evergreen tree

Manilkara zapota, commonly known as sapodilla, sapota, chikoo, naseberry, or nispero is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to southern Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. An example natural occurrence is in coastal Yucatán in the Petenes mangroves ecoregion, where it is a subdominant plant species. It was introduced to the Philippines during Spanish colonization. It is grown in large quantities in India, Pakistan, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Bangladesh and Mexico.

<i>Zanthoxylum</i> genus of plants

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<i>Rauvolfia</i> genus of plants

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<i>Pradosia</i> A genus of plants in the family Sapotaceae

Pradosia is a genus of plants in the family Sapotaceae described as a genus in 1872.

<i>Citharexylum</i> genus of plants

Citharexylum is a genus of flowering plants in the verbena family, Verbenaceae. It contains shrub and tree species commonly known as fiddlewoods or zitherwoods. They are native to the Americas, ranging from southern Florida and Texas in the United States to Argentina. The highest diversity occurs in Mexico and the Andes. The generic name is derived from the Greek words κιθάρα (kithara), meaning "lyre", and ξύλον (xylon), meaning "wood," referring to the use of the wood in the sounding boards of string instruments. Several species, especially C. caudatum and C. spinosum, are cultivated as ornamentals.

  1. Citharexylum affineD.Don - from northern Mexico to Nicaragua
  2. Citharexylum alainiiMoldenke - Dominican Republic
  3. Citharexylum albicauleTurcz. - Cuba
  4. Citharexylum altamiranumGreenm. - northeastern Mexico
  5. Citharexylum andinumMoldenke - Bolivia, Jujuy Province of Argentina
  6. Citharexylum argutedentatumMoldenke - Peru
  7. Citharexylum berlandieriB.L. Rob. - from Texas to Oaxaca - Berlandier's fiddlewood, Tamaulipan fiddlewood
  8. Citharexylum bourgeauanumGreenm. - Veracruz, Oaxaca
  9. Citharexylum brachyanthum(A.Gray ex Hemsl.) A.Gray - Texas, Coahuila, Nuevo León - Boxthorn fiddlewood, Mexican fiddlewood
  10. Citharexylum bullatumMoldenke - Colombia
  11. Citharexylum calvumMoldenke - Quintana Roo
  12. Citharexylum caudatumL. - southern Mexico, West Indies, Central America, Colombia, Peru - Juniper berry
  13. Citharexylum chartaceumMoldenke - Peru, Ecuador
  14. Citharexylum cooperiStandl. - Costa Rica, Panama, Guatemala
  15. Citharexylum costaricenseMoldenke - Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras
  16. Citharexylum crassifoliumGreenm - Chiapas, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras
  17. Citharexylum daniraeLeón de la Luz & F.Chiang - Revillagigedo Islands of Baja California
  18. Citharexylum decorumMoldenke - Colombia, Venezuela
  19. Citharexylum dentatumD.Don - Peru
  20. Citharexylum discolorTurcz. - Cuba, Hispaniola
  21. Citharexylum donnell-smithiiGreenm. - Oaxaca, Chiapas, Central America
  22. Citharexylum dryanderaeMoldenke - Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Ecuador
  23. Citharexylum ekmaniiMoldenke - Cuba
  24. Citharexylum ellipticumMoc. & Sessé ex D.Don - Veracruz, Campeche, Tabasco; naturalized in Cuba + Cayman Islands
  25. Citharexylum endlichiiMoldenke - northeastern Mexico
  26. Citharexylum flabellifoliumS.Watson - Sonora, Baja California
  27. Citharexylum flexuosum(Ruiz & Pav.) D.Don - Bolivia, Peru
  28. Citharexylum fulgidumMoldenke - Veracruz, northeastern Mexico
  29. Citharexylum gentryiMoldenke - Ecuador
  30. Citharexylum glabrum(S.Watson) Greenm - Oaxaca
  31. Citharexylum glazioviiMoldenke - eastern Brazil
  32. Citharexylum grandiflorumAymard & Rueda - Ecuador
  33. Citharexylum guatemalense(Moldenke) D.N.Gibson - Guatemala, Nicaragua
  34. Citharexylum herreraeMansf. - Peru
  35. Citharexylum hexangulareGreenm. - from northern Mexico to Costa Rica
  36. Citharexylum hidalgenseMoldenke - Mexico
  37. Citharexylum hintoniiMoldenke - México State
  38. Citharexylum hirtellumStandl. - from Veracruz to Panama
  39. Citharexylum ilicifoliumKunth - Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador
  40. Citharexylum iltisiiMoldenke - Peru
  41. Citharexylum × jamaicenseMoldenke - Jamaica, Haiti, Puerto Rico (C. caudatum × C. spinosum)
  42. Citharexylum joergensenii(Lillo) Moldenke - Argentina, Bolivia
  43. Citharexylum karsteniiMoldenke - Colombia, Venezuela
  44. Citharexylum kerberiGreenm. - Veracruz
  45. Citharexylum kobuskianumMoldenke - Peru
  46. Citharexylum krukoviiMoldenke - eastern Brazil
  47. Citharexylum kunthianumMoldenke - Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador
  48. Citharexylum laetumHiern - southern Brazil
  49. Citharexylum laurifoliumHayek - Bolivia, Peru
  50. Citharexylum lemsiiMoldenke - Guanacaste Province in Costa Rica
  51. Citharexylum × leonisMoldenke - Cuba (C. caudatum × C. tristachyum)
  52. Citharexylum ligustrifolium(Thur. ex Decne.) Van Houtte - Mexico
  53. Citharexylum lojenseMoldenke - Ecuador
  54. Citharexylum lucidumCham. & Schltdl. - Mexico
  55. Citharexylum lycioidesD.Don - Mexico
  56. Citharexylum macradeniumGreenm. - Panama, Costa Rica
  57. Citharexylum macrochlamysPittier - Panama, Colombia
  58. Citharexylum macrophyllumPoir. - Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Guianas, northwestern Brazil
  59. Citharexylum matheanumBorhidi & Kereszty - Cuba
  60. Citharexylum matudaeMoldenke - Chiapas
  61. Citharexylum mexicanumMoldenke - Veracruz, Puebla, Oaxaca
  62. Citharexylum microphyllum(DC.) O.E.Schulz - Hisipaniola
  63. Citharexylum mirifoliumMoldenke - Colombia, Venezuela
  64. Citharexylum mocinoiD.Don - Mexico, Central America
  65. Citharexylum montanumMoldenke - Colombia, Ecuador
  66. Citharexylum montevidense(Spreng.) Moldenke - Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay
  67. Citharexylum myrianthumCham. - Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay
  68. Citharexylum obtusifoliumKuhlm - Espírito Santo
  69. Citharexylum oleinum Moldenke - Mexico
  70. Citharexylum ovatifoliumGreenm. - Mexico
  71. Citharexylum pachyphyllumMoldenke - Peru
  72. Citharexylum pernambucenseMoldenke - eastern Brazil
  73. Citharexylum poeppigiiWalp. - Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru, Brazil
  74. Citharexylum punctatumGreenm. - Bolivia, Peru
  75. Citharexylum quercifoliumHayek - Peru
  76. Citharexylum quitenseSpreng. - Ecuador
  77. Citharexylum racemosumSessé & Moc. - Mexico
  78. Citharexylum reticulatumKunth - Ecuador, Peru
  79. Citharexylum rigidum(Briq.) Moldenke - Paraguay, southern Brazil
  80. Citharexylum rimbachiiMoldenke - Ecuador
  81. Citharexylum roseiGreenm. - Mexico
  82. Citharexylum roxanaeMoldenke - Baja California
  83. Citharexylum scabrumMoc. & Sessé ex D.Don - northern Mexico
  84. Citharexylum schottiiGreenm. - southern Mexico, Central America
  85. Citharexylum schulziiUrb. & Ekman - Hispaniola
  86. Citharexylum sessaeiD.Don - Mexico
  87. Citharexylum shreveiMoldenke - Sonora
  88. Citharexylum solanaceumCham. - southern Brazil
  89. Citharexylum spinosumL. – Spiny fiddlewood - West Indies, Panama, Venezuela, the Guianas; naturalized in India, Mozambique, Fiji, Bermuda
  90. Citharexylum stenophyllumUrb. & Ekman - Haiti
  91. Citharexylum steyermarkiiMoldenke - Veracruz, Chiapas, Guatemala
  92. Citharexylum suberosumLoes. ex Moldenke - Cuba
  93. Citharexylum subflavescensS.F.Blake - Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru
  94. Citharexylum subthyrsoideumPittier - Colombia, Venezuela
  95. Citharexylum subtruncatumMoldenke - northwestern Brazil
  96. Citharexylum sulcatumMoldenke - Colombia
  97. Citharexylum svensoniiMoldenke - Ecuador
  98. Citharexylum teclenseStandl. - El Salvador
  99. Citharexylum ternatumMoldenke - Cuba
  100. Citharexylum tetramerumBrandegee - Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán in Mexico
  101. Citharexylum tristachyumTurcz. – Threespike Fiddlewood - Cuba, Jamaica, Leeward Islands
  102. Citharexylum uleiMoldenke - Colombia, Peru, northwestern Brazil
  103. Citharexylum vallenseMoldenke - Colombia
  104. Citharexylum venezuelenseMoldenke - Venezuela
  105. Citharexylum weberbaueriHayek - Peru
<i>Schizachyrium</i> genus of plants

Schizachyrium is a widespread genus of plants in the grass family. The name is derived from the Ancient Greek words σχίζειν, meaning "to split," and ἄχυρον, meaning "chaff." It refers to either the glume or the toothed lemmas.

Salmea is a genus of plants in the sunflower tribe within the daisy family.

Planchonella is a genus of flowering trees in the gutta-percha family, Sapotaceae. Named in honour of Jules Émile Planchon, it contains around 100 mainly tropical species, two of which occur in South America and about 18 in Australasia. It was described by Jean Baptiste Louis Pierre. The genus is included in the larger genus Pouteria by some authorities, hence species such as Planchonella queenslandica are also known as Pouteria queenslandica.

<i>Labourdonnaisia</i> genus of plants

Labourdonnaisia is a genus of plants in the family Sapotaceae found in tropical Asia, described as a genus in 1841.


  1. "Genus: Sideroxylon L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-09-30. Retrieved 2010-11-01.
  2. lectotype designated by Baillon, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 908 (1891)
  3. 1 2 Tropicos, Sideroxylon L.
  4. 1 2 3 Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  5. Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 192-193 in Latin
  6. Gledhill, D. (2008). The Names of Plants (4 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 352. ISBN   978-0-521-86645-3.
  7. Flora of North America, Vol. 8 Page 236, Bully, Sideroxylon Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 192. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 89. 1754.
  8. Flora of China, Vol. 15 Page 212, 铁榄属 tie lan shu Sinosideroxylon (Engler) Aubreville, Adansonia, n.s. 3: 32. 1963.
  9. Witmer, M. C.; A. S. Cheke (1991). "The dodo and the tambalacoque tree: an obligate mutualism reconsidered". Oikos . 61 (1): 133–137. doi:10.2307/3545415.
  10. Hershey, D. R. (2004). "The widespread misconception that the tambalacoque absolutely required the dodo for its seeds to germinate". Plant Science Bulletin. 50: 105–108.
  11. Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution map, Sideroxylon lanuginosum
  12. Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution map, Sideroxylon lycioides
  13. Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution map, Sideroxylon reclinatum
  14. Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution map, Sideroxylon tenax
  15. Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution map, Sideroxylon thornei
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "GRIN Species Records of Sideroxylon". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System Authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ITIS was originally formed in 1996 as an interagency group within the US federal government, involving several US federal agencies, and has now become an international body, with Canadian and Mexican government agencies participating. The database draws from a large community of taxonomic experts. Primary content staff are housed at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and IT services are provided by a US Geological Survey facility in Denver. The primary focus of ITIS is North American species, but many biological groups exist worldwide and ITIS collaborates with other agencies to increase its global coverage.