The last Thorad Agena SLV-2G with four Poppy spacecraft
|Function||Expendable launch system|
|Country of origin||United States|
|Height||SLV-2G: 32.9m (107.9 ft)|
SLV-2H: 34m (111 ft)
|Diameter||2.44m (8 ft)|
|Mass||SLV-2G: 91,400kg (201,500 lb)|
SLV-2H: 88,731kg (195,618 lb)
|Launch sites||Vandenberg AFB, SLC-1, SLC-2E, SLC-3W|
|Total launches||43 (30 SLV-2G, 13 SLV-2H)|
|Successes||40 (28 SLV-2G, 12 SLV-2H)|
|Failures||2 (1 SLV-2G, 1 SLV-2H)|
|Partial failures||1 (SLV-2G)|
|First flight||SLV-2G: 9 August 1966|
SLV-2H: 5 June 1969
|Last flight||SLV-2G: 14 December 1971|
SLV-2H:25 May 1972
The Thorad-Agena was an American expendable launch system, derived from the Thor and Delta rockets. The first stage of the rocket was a stretched Thor variant named "Long Tank Thrust Augmented Thor". The Long Tank Thor first stage was later adopted by NASA's Delta program for its "Thrust Augmented Improved Delta", which first flew in 1968. The second stage was the Agena-D, which had already been used in conjunction with the standard configuration Thor, as the Thor-Agena. Three Castor rockets would be used as boosters. Most launches carried Corona (KeyHole) reconnaissance satellites, particularly spacecraft of the KH-4 series, however some scientific and technology development satellites were also flown, mostly towards the end of the program.
An expendable launch vehicle (ELV) is a launch system or launch vehicle stage that is used only once to carry a payload into space. Historically, satellites and human spacecraft were launched mainly using expendable launchers. ELV advantages include cost savings through mass production, and a greater payload fraction.
Thor was an American space launch vehicle derived from the PGM-17 Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile. The Thor rocket was the first in a large family of space launch vehicles that came to be known as Delta. The last derivative of the Thor was retired in 2018, which was the first stage of the Delta II.
Delta is an American versatile family of expendable launch systems that has provided space launch capability in the United States since 1960. There have been more than 300 Delta rockets launched, with a 95% success rate. Only the Delta IV remains in use as of 2018. Delta rockets are currently manufactured and launched by the United Launch Alliance.
43 launches took place from 1966-72 with two complete failures and one partial.
The launch of a KH-4A photoreconnaissance satellite on May 9, 1967, malfunctioned when the Thor's first stage failed to cut off on schedule and continued burning until LOX depletion, thus putting the satellite into an incorrect orbit that seriously reduced its image quality.
The first total failure was the launch of a Nimbus weather satellite on May 5, 1968, when control of the Thor failed during launch and it was destroyed by Range Safety action at T+120 seconds. This mission was noteworthy because the satellite carried a pair of isotopic power generators known as SNAP (Systems For Nuclear Auxiliary Power). As the possibility of a launch failure had been considered during their design, the power generators were equipped with a very sturdy casing to prevent their radioactive contents from escaping into the environment. After the destruction of Nimbus-B's launch vehicle, Navy crews began an extensive search for the SNAP generators. On September 27, the Nimbus satellite was located in 300 feet of water near the Santa Barbara Islands with the SNAP units nearby. They were successfully fished out of the ocean two weeks later and their protective casings found to be intact. The fuel inside them was taken out and reused in a subsequent Nimbus launch.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations. with the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, and two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches. It has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second largest and second most powerful air force in the world.
As part of the investigation, parts of the Thor were recovered and examined. It was discovered that the yaw gyro was installed improperly and had missing alignment pins, apparently because a pad technician had mistakenly broken them off during installation. Without the pins, the gyro rotated out of position with the effect that the booster lost control almost as soon as the pitch and roll sequence started.
The other total failure was the attempted launch of a KH-4B photo-reconnaissance satellite on February 17, 1971. A technician mistakenly added too much lubricant to the Thor's fuel system, the result being that the excess fluid formed a frozen plug in a section of plumbing. The booster lifted and flew normally until the start of the pitch and roll program about 20 seconds after liftoff at which point the turbopump gearbox disintegrated due to loss of lubricant. Flying debris tore up the Thor's thrust section, causing total loss of thrust. With the main engine being the only source of attitude control, the launch vehicle tumbled uncontrollably and exploded 30 seconds after launch, the debris impacting in Bear Creek Canyon a quarter mile from the launch complex.
The Thorad-Agena was flown in two different configurations, the SLV-2G, and the SLV-2H. These differed in that the SLV-2G used Castor 1 strap-on boosters, whereas the 2H used Castor 2s.
The RM-81 Agena was an American rocket upper stage and satellite bus which was developed by Lockheed initially for the canceled WS-117L reconnaissance satellite program. Following the split-up of WS-117L into SAMOS and Corona for image intelligence, and MIDAS for early warning, the Agena was later used as an upper stage, and an integrated component, for several programs, including Corona reconnaissance satellites and the Agena Target Vehicle used to demonstrate rendezvous and docking during Project Gemini. It was used as an upper stage on the Atlas, Thor, Thorad and Titan IIIB rockets, and considered for others including the Space Shuttle and Atlas V. A total of 365 Agena rockets were launched between February 28, 1959 and February 1987. Only 33 Agenas carried NASA payloads and the vast majority were for DoD programs.
Codenamed Gambit, the KH-7 was a reconnaissance satellite used by the United States from July 1963 to June 1967. Like the older Corona system, it acquired imagery intelligence by taking photographs and returning the undeveloped film to earth. It achieved a typical ground-resolution of 2 ft (0.61 m) to 3 ft (0.91 m). Though most of the imagery from the KH-7 satellites was declassified in 2002, details of the satellite program remained classified until 2011.
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The Atlas-Agena was an American expendable launch system derived from the SM-65 Atlas missile. It was a member of the Atlas family of rockets, and was launched 109 times between 1960 and 1978. It was used to launch the first five Mariner unmanned probes to the planets Venus and Mars, and the Ranger and Lunar Orbiter unmanned probes to the Moon. The upper stage was also used as an unmanned orbital target vehicle for the Gemini manned spacecraft to practice rendezvous and docking. However, the launch vehicle family was originally developed for the Air Force and most of its launches were classified DoD payloads.
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