Tilikum Crossing

Last updated

Tilikum Crossing
Tilikum Crossing from Ross Island Bridge with MAX.jpg
The bridge in 2016 with a MAX light rail train crossing it
Coordinates 45°30′18″N122°40′01″W / 45.5049°N 122.6670°W / 45.5049; -122.6670 Coordinates: 45°30′18″N122°40′01″W / 45.5049°N 122.6670°W / 45.5049; -122.6670
Carries TriMet MAX light rail and buses; Portland Streetcar Loop Service; bicycles and pedestrians
Crosses Willamette River
Locale Portland, Oregon
Official nameTilikum Crossing, Bridge of the People
Owner TriMet
Characteristics
Design cable-stayed [1]
Total length1,720 feet (520 m) [1]
Height180 feet (55 m) [2]
Longest span780 feet (240 m) [2]
No. of spans5 [3]
Piers in water2 [3]
Clearance below 77.5 feet (23.6 m) [2]
History
ArchitectDonald MacDonald [4]
Designer T.Y. Lin International [5]
Construction startJune 2011
Construction end2014 (of bridge only, not surface infrastructure) [2]
OpenedSeptember 12, 2015
Location
Tilikum Crossing

Tilikum Crossing, Bridge of the People is a cable-stayed bridge across the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon, United States. It was designed by TriMet, the Portland metropolitan area's regional transit authority, for its MAX Orange Line light rail passenger trains. The bridge also serves city buses and the Portland Streetcar, as well as bicycles, pedestrians, and emergency vehicles. Private cars and trucks are not permitted on the bridge. It is the first major bridge in the U.S. that was designed to allow access to transit vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians but not cars. [6]

Contents

Construction began in 2011, and the bridge was officially opened on September 12, 2015. In homage to Native American civilizations, the bridge was named after the local Chinook word for people. The Tilikum Crossing was the first new bridge to be opened across the Willamette River in the Portland metropolitan area since the Fremont Bridge, in 1973. [2]

Route and function

Tilikum Crossing has its western terminus in the city's South Waterfront area, and stretches across the river to the Central Eastside district. [6] In the 21st century, these two industrial zones have been evolving into mixed residential and commercial neighborhoods, and new transit accommodations are required by the growing populations. Both districts, however, are limited by antiquated road infrastructure that was deemed incapable of handling the increased traffic that could be expected from a conventional automobile bridge. [6] The primary rationale for the bridge was thus "first and foremost as a conduit for a light-rail line." [6]

Viewed from the west with a MAX train and a bus crossing the bridge MAX and bus on Tilikum Crossing Sep 2015.jpg
Viewed from the west with a MAX train and a bus crossing the bridge

The bridge is south of, and approximately parallel to, the Marquam Bridge. The west "landing" is midway between the Marquam and Ross Island Bridges, and the east landing is just north of Southeast Caruthers Street, with the east approach viaduct reaching the surface at the west end of Sherman Street, [2] which the tracks follow to a new Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) MAX station located near an existing Portland Streetcar station and the Oregon Rail Heritage Center.

Although the planned MAX Orange Line was the impetus for construction of the bridge, the structure also carries TriMet buses, the Portland Streetcar Loop Service and emergency vehicles, and is open for public use by bicyclists and pedestrians. Use by private motor vehicles (except emergency vehicles) is not permitted. [2] Rerouting of TriMet bus routes onto the new bridge from more-congested crossings will shorten the travel time for riders on those routes. [7] Bike and pedestrian paths line both sides of the bridge and are 14 feet (4.3 m) wide. [2] The bridge connects a MAX station at OMSI on the east side of the river with a new OHSU/South Waterfront Campus MAX station on the west side. [2] OHSU is the city's largest employer, [8] while OMSI is one of the city's largest tourist and educational venues, and the new bridge facilitates the connection of both to the regional MAX light rail system. The Orange Line continues south from OMSI to Milwaukie and northern Oak Grove and north from South Waterfront into downtown Portland.

Bicyclists riding across the bridge during the Providence Bridge Pedal Tilikum Crossing - bicycles 4.jpg
Bicyclists riding across the bridge during the Providence Bridge Pedal

Two bus lines moved to the new bridge from the Ross Island Bridge on September 13, 2015: Lines 9-Powell and 17-Holgate/Broadway. [9]

Design

City planners initially focused on three designs: cable-stayed, wave-frame girder, and through arch, [10] but the design committee eventually recommended a hybrid suspension/cable-stayed design by architect, Miguel Rosales. [11] Despite the recommendation, TriMet chose a cable-stayed option by MacDonald Architects [4] [12] [13] [14] in order to reduce cost. [15] MacDonald had previously designed the similarEastern span replacement of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge.

T.Y. Lin International (TYLI), Engineer of Record on the Tilikum Crossing project, designed the distinctive, 180-foot-tall (55 m), pentagonal shaped stay-cable towers as the bridge's focal point. The 1,720-foot-long (520 m) bridge also features two landside piers and two in-water piers. The 780-foot-long (240 m) main span deck is separated into a 31-foot-wide (9.4 m) transitway between the tower legs to accommodate two lanes of track and two flanking multi-use paths for pedestrians and cyclists. [5]

Cable saddles were incorporated in TYLI's bridge design to allow for more slender, solid towers and a cleaner bridge profile. Tilikum Crossing is the first bridge in the U.S. to use the Freyssinet multi-tube saddle design, which allows each cable to run continuously from the deck, through the top of the tower and back down to the other side. Approximately 3.5 miles (5.6 km) of cables run continuously through the tower saddle, instead of terminating in each tower. [16]

Lighting

Light art system on bridge at night Tilikum Crossing at night Nov 2015.jpg
Light art system on bridge at night
Three of the 178 LED lighting modules, each containing about 36 LEDs LED lighting modules of Tilikum Crossing - Portland, Oregon.jpg
Three of the 178 LED lighting modules, each containing about 36 LEDs

A light art aesthetic lighting system, designed by installation artists Anna Valentina Murch and Doug Hollis, alters the bridge’s lighting effects based on the Willamette's speed, depth, and water temperature. [17] It uses 178 LED modules to illuminate the cables, towers, and underside of the deck. [18] The USGS environmental data is translated by specialized software to a processor that issues cues programmed for each of the changing conditions. [17] The base color is determined by the water's temperature. The timing and intensity of the base color's changes, moving the light across the bridge, are determined by the river's speed. A secondary color pattern is determined by the river's depth, that changes on the two towers and the suspension cables. [17]

History

The alignment was finalized in 2008, after consideration of several alternative alignments. [19] [20] However, some studies and public discussion had taken place more than a decade earlier, when a MAX light rail line to Milwaukie was part of the so-called "South/North MAX" project (Vancouver–Downtown Portland–Milwaukie–Clackamas Town Center) for which voters in the Metro district approved funding in November 1994. [21] Alternatives had included routing the proposed MAX line across the existing Hawthorne Bridge and, instead, building a new bridge on any of various alternative alignments, one of which was known as the "Caruthers Street bridge" alignment or simply "Caruthers Bridge" because its east end would roughly align with S.E. Caruthers Street. [22] The "South/North" MAX project was ultimately mothballed after Clark County voters rejected funding their share of the project in 1995 and subsequent efforts by TriMet and Portland officials to secure funding for a scaled-back Vancouver–Portland–Milwaukie MAX line were unsuccessful. However, the planning undertaken during that period included finalizing, by 1998, the choice of a 'Caruthers' alignment for the planned new bridge. [23] [24] After planning for a light rail line to Milwaukie resumed, in the early 2000s, the bridge-alignment question was revisited, with a Hawthorne Bridge routing again among the options (because of its much lower cost) [25] but with a new bridge having the widest support. [26] In 2008, the earlier bridge routing choice was reaffirmed, except with the planned west end positioned farther south than previously, so as to better serve the then-new South Waterfront district, [19] where major redevelopment had occurred in the several years since the "South/North" project's planning was undertaken.

Construction

Bridge support towers under construction in January 2013 Portland-Milwaukie Light Rail Bridge towers under construction 2013-1-12.jpg
Bridge support towers under construction in January 2013

The project received required approval from both the Portland and Milwaukie city councils and Oregon's Metro regional governmental agency in 2008. [7] [27] TriMet approved a $127 million contract to build the bridge in December 2010. [1] Onsite engineering of the TriMet design was handled by the HNTB Corporation [6] with primary contracting performed by Kiewit. [5]

Construction of the bridge was estimated to cost $134.6 million, to be paid for by federal grants, Oregon Lottery revenue and TriMet. Construction of the bridge began in June 2011, with a slow/no wake zone put in place to ensure the safety of river users and bridge construction workers. Beginning in July 2011, an exclusion area around the in-water bridge construction site went into effect. Construction of the bridge itself was scheduled for completion in 2014, followed by several months of work to install tracks and other infrastructure across the bridge. [2]

As part of testing the signaling and overhead catenary systems, MAX and streetcar vehicles first ran across the bridge under their own power on January 21, 2015. [28] [29] [30]

Naming

TriMet selected the name of the bridge in April 2014 from a list of four finalists chosen by the public. [31] Tilikum is a Chinook Jargon word meaning people, tribe, or family, and the name is intended to honor the Multnomah, Cascade, Clackamas, and other Chinookan peoples who lived in the area as long as 14,000 years ago. [32] The Tilikum name also references the pervasive use of Chinook Jargon in Portland’s first half century in the frequent trade interactions between pioneers and Native Americans. [33] Before being named, the still-uncompleted bridge had usually been referred to as the Portland–Milwaukie Light Rail Bridge, or as Caruthers Crossing due to its proximity to Caruthers Street.

After the public was invited to suggest names for the bridge in the summer of 2013, [34] [35] the favorite choice of participants was, by an overwhelming margin, street musician Kirk Reeves. However, TriMet rejected the nomination of the recently deceased performer, [36] and in January 2014, it chose four other, less popular finalists: [37]

Public commentary on the names was accepted until March 1 and TriMet chose the final name, Tilikum Crossing, Bridge of the People in April, using the spelling preferred by the Chinookan peoples. [31] [35] [37] [38]

Inauguration

Although the bridge is owned by TriMet, the city-owned Portland Streetcar system is also allowed to use it. Portland Streetcar on Tilikum Crossing bridge Sep 2015.jpg
Although the bridge is owned by TriMet, the city-owned Portland Streetcar system is also allowed to use it.

The crossing opened for general use on September 12, 2015, [39] [40] becoming the first new bridge built across the river in the Portland metropolitan area since 1973. [2] [41] The first public access to the bridge was given on August 9, 2015, in the morning for the 20th annual Providence Bridge Pedal and in the afternoon with a three-hour period in which the bridge was open to everyone. [42]

See also

Related Research Articles

MAX Light Rail Light rail system serving Portland, Oregon

MAX Light Rail is a light rail system in Portland, Oregon, United States, owned and operated by TriMet. The system is 59.7 miles (96.1 km) long, consists of 94 stations, and is served by five color-designated lines. It operates in Oregon's Clackamas, Multnomah, and Washington counties, connecting all six sections of Portland; the communities of Beaverton, Clackamas, Gresham, Hillsboro, and Milwaukie; and Portland International Airport to Portland City Center. As of 2018, MAX is the fourth-busiest light rail system in the United States after comparable light rail services in Los Angeles, Boston, and San Francisco. The system had an average daily ridership of 120,900 and nearly 39 million annual riders in 2019. Lines run seven days a week with headways of between 30 minutes off-peak and three minutes during rush hours.

Milwaukie, Oregon City in Oregon, United States

Milwaukie is a city mostly in Clackamas County, Oregon, United States; a very small portion of the city extends into Multnomah County. The population was 20,291 at the 2010 census. Founded in 1847 on the banks of the Willamette River, the city, known as the Dogwood City of the West, was incorporated in 1903 and is the birthplace of the Bing cherry. The city is now a suburb of Portland and also adjoins the unincorporated areas of Clackamas and Oak Grove.

Portland Streetcar Streetcar system in Portland, Oregon

The Portland Streetcar is a streetcar system in Portland, Oregon, that opened in 2001 and serves areas surrounding downtown Portland. The 3.9-mile (6.3 km) NS Line runs from Northwest Portland to the South Waterfront via Downtown and the Pearl District. The Loop Service, which opened in September 2012 as the Central Loop, runs from Downtown to the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry via the Pearl District, the Broadway Bridge across Willamette River, the Lloyd District, and the Central Eastside Industrial District and added 3.3 miles (5.3 km) of route. In September 2015 the line was renamed as the Loop Service, with the A Loop traveling clockwise, and the B Loop traveling counterclockwise. The two-route system serves some 20,000 daily riders.

TriMet, formally known as the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon, is a public agency that operates mass transit in a region that spans most of the Portland metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Oregon. Created in 1969 by the Oregon legislature, the district replaced five private bus companies that operated in the three counties: Multnomah, Washington, and Clackamas. TriMet started operating a light rail system, MAX, in 1986, which has since been expanded to 5 lines that now cover 59.7 miles (96.1 km), as well as the WES Commuter Rail line in 2009. It also provides the operators and maintenance personnel for the City of Portland-owned Portland Streetcar system.

Steel Bridge Bridge in Portland, Oregon

The Steel Bridge is a through truss, double-deck vertical-lift bridge across the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon, United States, opened in 1912. Its lower deck carries railroad and bicycle/pedestrian traffic, while the upper deck carries road traffic, and light rail (MAX), making the bridge one of the most multimodal in the world. It is the only double-deck bridge with independent lifts in the world and the second oldest vertical-lift bridge in North America, after the nearby Hawthorne Bridge. The bridge links the Rose Quarter and Lloyd District in the east to Old Town Chinatown neighborhood in the west.

Hawthorne Bridge Bridge over the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon

The Hawthorne Bridge is a truss bridge with a vertical lift that spans the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon, joining Hawthorne Boulevard and Madison Street. It is the oldest vertical-lift bridge in operation in the United States and the oldest highway bridge in Portland. It is also the busiest bicycle and transit bridge in Oregon, with over 8,000 cyclists and 800 TriMet buses daily. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in November 2012.

Interstate 205 (I-205) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in the Portland metropolitan area of Oregon and Washington. It serves as a bypass route of I-5, traveling north–south along the east side of Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, intersecting several major highways and serving Portland International Airport.

MAX Blue Line Light rail line in Portland, Oregon

The MAX Blue Line is a light rail service in Portland, Oregon, United States, operated by TriMet as part of the MAX Light Rail system. The longest line in the network, it travels mainly east–west for approximately 33 miles (53 km) between Hillsboro, Beaverton, Portland, and Gresham, serving 48 stations between Hatfield Government Center and Cleveland Avenue. The line is the busiest of the five MAX lines, carrying an average 55,370 riders daily on weekdays in September 2018. It runs for 2212 hours per day from Monday to Thursday, with headways of between 30 minutes off-peak and five minutes during rush hour. Service runs later in the evening on Fridays and Saturdays and ends earlier on Sundays.

MAX Yellow Line Light rail line in Portland, Oregon

The MAX Yellow Line is a light rail service in Portland, Oregon, United States, operated by TriMet as part of the MAX Light Rail system. It connects North Portland to Portland City Center and Portland State University (PSU). The Yellow Line begins at Portland Expo Center in the north and runs south to the Rose Quarter through a 5.8-mile (9.3 km) light rail segment along the median of North Interstate Avenue called the Interstate MAX. From there, it crosses the Willamette River via the Steel Bridge and enters downtown Portland, where it operates as a northbound-only service of the Portland Transit Mall on 6th Avenue. The line serves 17 stops from Expo Center station to PSU South/Southwest 6th and College station. It runs for approximately 21 hours daily with a minimum headway of 15 minutes during most of the day.

Transportation in Portland, Oregon Overview of movement of goods and passengers in Portland

Like transportation in the rest of the United States, the primary mode of local transportation in Portland, Oregon is the automobile. Metro, the metropolitan area's regional government, has a regional master plan in which transit-oriented development plays a major role. This approach, part of the new urbanism, promotes mixed-use and high-density development around light rail stops and transit centers, and the investment of the metropolitan area's share of federal tax dollars into multiple modes of transportation. In the United States, this focus is atypical in an era when automobile use led many areas to neglect their core cities in favor of development along interstate highways, in suburbs, and satellite cities.

Portland is "an international pioneer in transit orientated developments."

Downtown Portland, Oregon Neighborhood in Portland, Oregon, United States

Downtown Portland is the city center of Portland, Oregon, United States. It is on the west bank of the Willamette River in the northeastern corner of the southwest section of the city and where most of the city's high-rise buildings are found.

MAX Green Line Light rail line in Portland, Oregon

The MAX Green Line is a light rail service in Portland, Oregon, United States, operated by TriMet as part of the MAX Light Rail system. The line is 15 miles (24.1 km) long and serves 30 stations between the PSU South stations and Clackamas Town Center Transit Center. It connects Portland State University (PSU), Portland City Center, Northeast Portland, Southeast Portland, and Clackamas. The Green Line is the only service that shares parts of its alignment with the four other MAX services; it shares the Portland Transit Mall with the Orange Line and the Yellow Line, and the Banfield segment of the Eastside MAX with the Blue Line and the Red Line. Southbound from Gateway/Northeast 99th Avenue Transit Center, the Green Line operates the Interstate 205 (I-205) MAX segment through to Clackamas Town Center. Service runs for approximately 2112 hours daily with a headway of 15 minutes during most of the day. It is the third-busiest line in the system, carrying an average of 19,160 riders per day on weekdays in September 2019.

MAX Orange Line Light rail line in Portland, Oregon

The MAX Orange Line is a light rail service in Portland, Oregon, United States, operated by TriMet as part of the MAX Light Rail system. It connects Portland City Center to Portland State University (PSU), Southeast Portland, Milwaukie, and Oak Grove. The Orange Line starts near Portland Union Station heading southbound within downtown Portland along the Portland Transit Mall on 5th Avenue. From the transit mall, it continues along a 7.3-mile (11.7 km) segment, which runs through the South Waterfront, across the Willamette River into Southeast Portland, then south to Oak Grove, just outside Milwaukie proper in unincorporated Clackamas County. The Orange Line serves 17 stations from Union Station/Northwest 5th & Glisan to Southeast Park Avenue and runs for 2012 hours daily with a minimum headway of 15 minutes during most of the day. The line carried an average of 3,480 daily weekday riders in September 2020.

South Waterfront, Portland, Oregon

The South Waterfront is a high-rise district under construction on former brownfield industrial land in the South Portland neighborhood south of downtown Portland, Oregon, U.S. It is one of the largest urban redevelopment projects in the United States. It is connected to downtown Portland by the Portland Streetcar and MAX Orange Line, and to the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) main campus atop Marquam Hill by the Portland Aerial Tram, as well as roads to Interstate 5 and Oregon Route 43.

Rail transportation is an important element of the transportation network in the U.S. state of Oregon. Rail transportation has existed in Oregon in some form since 1855, and the state was a pioneer in development of electric railway systems. While the automobile has displaced many uses of rail in the state, rail remains a key means of moving passengers and freight, both within the state and to points beyond its borders.

Southeast Bybee Boulevard station MAX Orange Line station in Portland, Oregon, U.S.

Southeast Bybee Boulevard is a light rail station in Portland, Oregon, United States, that is served by TriMet as part of the MAX Light Rail system. Situated between the Southeast Tacoma/Johnson Creek and Southeast 17th Avenue and Holgate Boulevard stations, it is the 14th southbound station on the Orange Line. The station's entrances are located on the Bybee Bridge, which spans Southeast McLoughlin Boulevard and Union Pacific Railroad freight tracks and connects Portland's Sellwood-Moreland and Eastmoreland neighborhoods. They lead to a lower level island platform adjoining Eastmoreland Golf Course and Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden to the east and Westmoreland's park of the same name to the west.

Loop Service Circle route on the Portland Streetcar system serving central Portland, Oregon

The Loop Service is a streetcar circle route of the Portland Streetcar system in Portland, Oregon, United States. Operated by Portland Streetcar, Inc. and TriMet, it consists of two distinct services: the 6.1-mile (9.8 km) A Loop, which runs clockwise, and the 6.6-mile (10.6 km) B Loop, which runs counterclockwise. Each service travels a loop between the east and west sides of the Willamette River, crossing it on the Broadway Bridge in the north and Tilikum Crossing in the south. The route connects Portland's downtown, Pearl District, Lloyd District, Central Eastside, and South Waterfront. It serves the city's various landmarks and institutions, including the Rose Quarter, the Oregon Convention Center, the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI), Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU), and Portland State University (PSU).

South Waterfront/Southwest Moody station Light rail and bus station in Portland, Oregon, U.S.

South Waterfront/SW Moody is a combined light rail and bus station located at 698 Southwest Porter Street in the South Waterfront neighborhood of Portland, Oregon, at the west end of the Tilikum Crossing bridge. It is serviced by the MAX Orange Line and TriMet buses. Portland Streetcar travels through it but does not service it.

OMSI/Southeast Water station

OMSI/Southeast Water is a light rail station on the MAX Orange Line, located at 2210 Southeast 2nd Place on the east foot of the Tilikum Crossing bridge in Portland, Oregon. Like South Waterfront/SW Moody Station on the west side of the Willamette River, it consists of two island platforms. MAX trains stop on the outside of the platforms, while TriMet buses stop on the inner lanes. Just northwest of the platforms is a Portland Streetcar stop served by the A and B Loop lines. The station is named after the nearby Oregon Museum of Science and Industry.

<i>We Have Always Lived Here</i> 2015 public artwork in Portland, Oregon, U.S.

We Have Always Lived Here is a 2015 public art installation by Greg A. Robinson, installed at Tilikum Crossing in Portland, Oregon, in the United States. The work consists of two traditional Chinook basalt carvings sited at both ends of the bridge, plus a bronze medallion on the northeast side of the bridge.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Rose, Joseph (December 8, 2010). "TriMet board gives greenlight to Portland-Milwaukie Light Rail bridge funding". The Oregonian . Retrieved December 11, 2010.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Portland–Milwaukie Light Rail Bridge Fact Sheet/August 2013" (PDF). TriMet. August 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
  3. 1 2 "Tilikum Crossing, Bridge of the People". Portland Milwaukie Light Rail Project. TriMet. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
  4. 1 2 Lum, Brian (August 21, 2015). "Tilikum Crossing: Set Apart by Design". TriMet. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  5. 1 2 3 Goodyear, David. "Tilikum Crossing, Bridge of the People" (Spring 2015). Aspire Magazine. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Libby, Brian (October 2015). "Bridge to the Future (The Bridge that Bans Cars)". The Atlantic . 316 (3): 42–43. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
  7. 1 2 Larabee, Mark (July 17, 2008). "Portland council approves Willamette bridge, MAX alignment". The Oregonian . Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  8. Kleckner, Michael (October 4, 2007). "A new bridge, Portland-style". The Oregonian. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
  9. "Ten bus lines that will change when the MAX Orange Line opens". TriMet. July 1, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  10. "New Portland bridge designed for commuters, not cars". SmartBrief. October 8, 2008. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
  11. Rivera, Dylan (March 4, 2009). "Portland has designs on a new bridge". The Oregonian . Retrieved April 27, 2013.
  12. "Willamette River Bridge - MacDonald Architects" . Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  13. "Cup of Joe: Tilikum Crossing". KGW. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  14. "Portland Architecture: A first look at the Tilikum Crossing" . Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  15. Weinstein, Nathalie (June 24, 2009). "New bridge will have cable-stayed design: Advisory committee chooses cheaper option for multiuse span across Willamette River". Daily Journal of Commerce. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  16. 1 2 3 Live Design Briefing Room press release archives: "Light-Art Bridges The Willamette River", October 28, 2015.
  17. Rose, Joseph (October 15, 2014). "TriMet will test aesthetic 'river mood lighting' on Portland's Tilikum Crossing this week". The Oregonian. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  18. 1 2 Mortenson, Eric (May 2, 2008). "Panel realigns route of new light-rail span". The Oregonian, p. D1.
  19. Rivera, Dylan; and Zuckerman, Peter (July 25, 2008). "Metro: 'Yes' to Milwaukie light-rail line". The Oregonian, p. B1.
  20. Oliver, Gordon (November 10, 1994). "One down, more to go for reality of north-south rail line". The Oregonian, p. C10.
  21. Oliver, Gordon (October 4, 1994). "Advisors approve rail routes". The Oregonian, p. B5. Excerpt: "The [citizen advisory] committee heard strong support for the so-called Caruthers Bridge, which would cross the Willamette near RiverPlace."
  22. Stewart, Bill (June 19, 1998). "Portland officially maps a South-North rail line". The Oregonian, p. B3. Excerpt: "The line will cross the Willamette River via the 'Caruthers Crossing', running from the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry to the western foot of the Marquam Bridge."
  23. Young, Bob (June 24, 1998). "The Rumble That Wasn't: The fight over where the south-north light-rail line should cross the Willamette River ends with a whimper. But that doesn't mean the project is completely on-track." Willamette Week .
  24. Oppenheimer, Laura (February 17, 2003). "South Corridor MAX plan unveiled". The Oregonian, p. E1.
  25. Leeson, Fred (April 6, 2006). "News Update: Cross the river at Caruthers Street?" The Oregonian, Portland "Neighbors" section, p. 21.
  26. Graham, Matthew (July 24, 2008). "Metro OKs Portland-to-Milwaukie light rail line alignment". Portland Tribune . Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
  27. "TriMet tests train, streetcar on new Tilikum Crossing bridge". Progressive Railroading. January 27, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  28. Tomlinson, Stuart (January 21, 2015). "Portland-Milwaukie light rail: TriMet sends electrified MAX train over Tilikum Crossing". The Oregonian. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  29. Tomlinson, Stuart (January 21, 2015). "Portland-Milwaukie light rail: TriMet sends electrified MAX train over Tilikum Crossing". The Oregonian . Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
  30. 1 2 Rose, Joseph (April 16, 2014). "Tilikum Crossing: New Portland bridge named after Chinook word for 'people'". The Oregonian. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  31. Rose, Joseph (April 16, 2014). "Tilikum Crossing: Why TriMet chose to honor Native Americans with new Portland bridge name". The Oregonian. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  32. Prince, Tracy J. (February 27, 2014). "Why Tillicum is the right name for TriMet's new bridge: Guest opinion". The Oregonian. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
  33. Redden, Jim (April 24, 2013). "TriMet announces bridge naming process". Portland Tribune . Retrieved April 26, 2013.
  34. 1 2 "Naming process announced for Portland-Milwaukie Light Rail Bridge" (Press release). TriMet. August 16, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
  35. Rose, Joseph (January 20, 2014). "TriMet bridge name: Oregonian readers frustrated 'Kirk Reeves Bridge' snubbed as finalist". The Oregonian . Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  36. 1 2 Redden, Jim (January 15, 2014). "Bridge names: Duniway, Cascadia, Tillicum or Wy'east". Portland Tribune. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
  37. "Name the Bridge". TriMet. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  38. Duffy, Lizzy (September 12, 2015). "Portland's Tilikum Crossing Bridge Is Open For Business". Oregon Public Broadcasting . Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  39. Giegerich, Andy (September 14, 2015). "Orange Line opens with help from tribe members, artists". Portland Business Journal . Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  40. Rose, Joseph (June 30, 2011). "Construction begins on new light-rail bridge in Portland that will go up 'piece by piece'". The Oregonian . Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  41. Yao Long, Stephanie (August 9, 2015). "Tilikum Crossing: public treated to an open house". The Oregonian . Retrieved August 15, 2015.

Further reading