Waukon, Iowa

Last updated
Waukon, Iowa
Allamakee County Iowa Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Waukon Highlighted.svg
Location of Waukon within County and State
Waukon IA map.gif
Detailed local map of Waukon
Coordinates: 43°16′8″N91°28′45″W / 43.26889°N 91.47917°W / 43.26889; -91.47917 Coordinates: 43°16′8″N91°28′45″W / 43.26889°N 91.47917°W / 43.26889; -91.47917
Country Flag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of Iowa.svg  Iowa
County Allamakee
Township Makee
Area
[1]
  Total2.82 sq mi (7.30 km2)
  Land2.82 sq mi (7.30 km2)
  Water0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation
1,237 ft (377 m)
Population
 (2010) [2]
  Total3,897
  Estimate 
(2016) [3]
3,733
  Density1,400/sq mi (530/km2)
Time zone UTC-6 (Central (CST))
  Summer (DST) UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP code
52172
Area code(s) 563
FIPS code 19-82740
GNIS feature ID0462754
Website cityofwaukon.com

Waukon is a city in Makee Township, Allamakee County, Iowa, United States, and the county seat of Allamakee County. [4] The population was 3,897 at the 2010 census. It is home to the annual Allamakee County Fair.

Makee Township, Allamakee County, Iowa Township in Iowa, United States

Makee Township is one of eighteen townships in Allamakee County, Iowa, USA. At the 2010 census, its population was 4,176.

Allamakee County, Iowa County in the United States

Allamakee County is the northeastern-most county in the U.S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,330. Its county seat is Waukon.

Iowa State of the United States of America

Iowa is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states; Wisconsin to the northeast, Illinois to the east, Missouri to the south, Nebraska to the west, South Dakota to the northwest, and Minnesota to the north.

Contents

History

Waukon is often said to be named for Waukon Decorah, [5] a Ho Chunk (Winnebago) leader who was a U.S. ally during the 1832 Black Hawk War, although the city is also said to be named for his son Chief John Waukon. [6] Winnebagos lived in this area of Iowa in the 1840s, before being forced to relocate to Minnesota.

Waukon Decorah Ho-Chunk leader

Waukon Decorah, also known as Wau-kon-haw-kaw or "Snake-Skin", was a prominent Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) warrior and orator during the Winnebago War of 1827 and the Black Hawk War of 1832. Although not a hereditary chief, he emerged as a diplomatic leader in Ho-Chunk relations with the United States.

Black Hawk War 1832 conflict between the United States and Native Americans

The Black Hawk War was a brief conflict between the United States and Native Americans led by Black Hawk, a Sauk leader. The war erupted soon after Black Hawk and a group of Sauks, Meskwakis, and Kickapoos, known as the "British Band", crossed the Mississippi River, into the U.S. state of Illinois, from Iowa Indian Territory in April 1832. Black Hawk's motives were ambiguous, but he was apparently hoping to avoid bloodshed while resettling on tribal land that had been ceded to the United States in the disputed 1804 Treaty of St. Louis.

The first white settler arrived in 1849, and the town was founded and the Waukon Post Office opened in 1853. [7] A courthouse was completed in 1861, and the county seat was moved to Waukon in 1867 after 8 elections attempting to decide the location of the county seat. [8] The town was incorporated in 1883. Ryan Griffith was the first mayor of Waukon, winning the 1883 election by unanimous decision. [9]

Waukon is only about 16 miles from Waukon Junction, on the Mississippi River, but the rail line between these two points was 33 miles long, climbing 600 feet through some of the roughest terrain in Iowa. [10] The Waukon and Mississippi Railroad, which opened in 1877, was originally built as a narrow gauge line. [8] The line was originally controlled by the Chicago and Northwestern but was quickly acquired by the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway. [11] The line was widened to standard gauge after purchase by the Milwaukee Road. Its only marginal traffic through its existence led to the road's abandonment in the late 1960s. [12]

Waukon Junction, Iowa Unincorporated community in Iowa, United States

Waukon Junction is an unincorporated community in Allamakee County, Iowa, in the United States.

Mississippi River largest river system in North America

The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows generally south for 2,320 miles (3,730 km) to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is entirely within the United States; the total drainage basin is 1,151,000 sq mi (2,980,000 km2), of which only about one percent is in Canada. The Mississippi ranks as the fourth-longest and fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

The Mississippi Valley Iron Co. ore processing plant in 1918. MississipiValleyIronWaukon.jpg
The Mississippi Valley Iron Co. ore processing plant in 1918.

There is a deposit of limonite (Iron Ore) about 3 miles northeast of Waukon called Iron Hill, holding an estimated 10 million tons of ore. This is the highest point in northeastern Iowa. the Waukon Iron Company began developing an open-pit mine and ore-washing plant on this site in 1899, with a capacity of 300 tons per 10-hour shift. Production was seriously limited by the need to haul the ore 3 miles to the railroad, and the mine was, ultimately, a failure. [13]

Limonite Oxide mineral

Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition. The generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH2O, although this is not entirely accurate as the ratio of oxide to hydroxide can vary quite widely. Limonite is one of the three principal iron ores, the others being hematite and magnetite, and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE.

A second and better capitalised attempt to mine this deposit was begun in 1907 by the Missouri Iron Company, with a railroad connection built in 1910 and a new ore processing plant completed in 1913 with a capacity of 350 to 400 tons per day. [14] [15] The total investment was estimated at $225,000, [16] and two patents were issued for the machinery in the ore processing plant. [17] [18] This mine became the principal mine of the new Mississippi Valley Iron Company of St. Louis, Missouri in 1916. [19]

That year, the mine produced 10,151 tons of concentrated ore, and in 1917, it produced 22,612 tons. [20] In 1918 the mine produced over 7000 tons before it was shut down because of World War I. [21]

The mine never recovered from this shutdown, and the equipment was sold for scrap in 1937. [22] Iron Mine Drive and Allamakee Street cross north of the sites of both old mines ( 43°17′53.62″N91°27′35.85″W / 43.2982278°N 91.4599583°W / 43.2982278; -91.4599583 ). [23]

Geography

Waukon is located at 43°16′8″N91°28′45″W / 43.26889°N 91.47917°W / 43.26889; -91.47917 (43.268889, -91.479212). [24] The headwaters of the north branch of Paint Creek are in town, and the town is just south of the headwaters of Village Creek. [25] This is on the west edge of the deeply eroded Driftless Area of northwest Iowa. [10] The town sits on a plain underlain by the Galena Limestone formation. There are many sinkholes in this plain south of Waukon. To the north, a tongue of Galena Limestone underlies Iron Hill. [26]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.82 square miles (7.30 km2), all of it land. [1]

Demographics

Waukon historical population
YearPop.±%
1880 1,350    
1890 1,610+19.3%
1900 2,153+33.7%
1910 2,025−5.9%
1920 2,359+16.5%
1930 2,526+7.1%
1940 2,972+17.7%
1950 3,158+6.3%
1960 3,639+15.2%
1970 3,883+6.7%
1980 3,983+2.6%
1990 4,019+0.9%
2000 4,131+2.8%
2010 3,897−5.7%
20163,733−4.2%
Source: "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau.
Source:
U.S. Decennial Census [27]

2010 census

As of the census [2] of 2010, there were 3,897 people, 1,781 households, and 1,008 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,381.9 inhabitants per square mile (533.6/km2). There were 1,946 housing units at an average density of 690.1 per square mile (266.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 98.4% White, 0.4% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population.

There were 1,781 households of which 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.4% were non-families. 37.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 18% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.77.

The median age in the city was 45.8 years. 20.4% of residents were under the age of 18; 7.9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 20.7% were from 25 to 44; 27% were from 45 to 64; and 24% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 46.6% male and 53.4% female.

2000 census

As of the census [28] of 2000, there were 4,131 people, 1,790 households, and 1,068 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,404.3 people per square mile (542.5/km²). There were 1,909 housing units at an average density of 649.0 per square mile (250.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 98.74% White, 0.10% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, and 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.73% of the population.

There were 1,790 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.5% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.3% were non-families. 36.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.89.

Age spread: 22.8% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 24.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $30,325, and the median income for a family was $41,068. Males had a median income of $27,532 versus $18,833 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,047. About 8.3% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.7% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.

Parks and recreation

Waukon Family Aquatic Area: The aquatic pool is the main attraction in Waukon's park. Also in the park is a small area with a lake, as well as some playgrounds. The park also includes some softball/athletic fields.

Education

Children in Waukon attend the schools of the Allamakee Community School District, which is headquartered in the city. The Waukon High School, previously known as the Waukon Senior High, has its name changed in a back room deal made without the public's approval. [29]

School sports

The name for the sports teams of Waukon High School is Indians". Waukon Indians sports broadcasts can be heard on 99.1 The River & 1160 AM. [29]

Media

Newspaper

Waukon Standard

Radio

Notable people

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References

  1. 1 2 "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-07-02. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
  2. 1 2 "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2012-05-11.
  3. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  4. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  5. Virgil J. Vogel, Indian names on Wisconsin's map (University of Wisconsin Press, 1991), 61.
  6. Val Swinton (August 16, 1994). "Winnebago tribe leaves Iowa legacy: Chief's descendant researches history". The Gazette (Cedar Rapids-Iowa City). Retrieved December 24, 2010.
  7. Waukon Post Office, in the USGS Geographic Names Information System
  8. 1 2 W. E. Alexander, Chapter XII- Chronology, History of Allamakee County, History of Winneshiek and Allamakee Counties, Iowa, Western, Sioux City, 1882; pp. 463-464.
  9. Tom Savage, A Dictionary of Iowa Place Names, University of Iowa Press, 2007; p. 231.
  10. 1 2 Samuel Calvin, What Glaciers have done for Iowa, Annual Report of the Iowa Weather and Crop Service, 1899 Conway, Des Moines, 1900; p. 62.
  11. W. E. Alexander, Railroad History, Chapter VI, History of Winneshiek County, History of Winneshiek and Allamakee Counties, Iowa, Western, Sioux City, 1882; p. 219.
  12. Rehder and Cook (December 1972). Grass Between The Rails. Waukon & Mississippi Press. Retrieved June 19, 2011.
  13. S.W. Beyer, Iowa's Iron Mine, The Iowa Engineer, Vol. 1, No. 4 (March 1902); p. 142–150. The article includes photos.
  14. Ellison Orr, Iron Hill, Chapter VIII -- Geology of Allamakee County, Past and Present of Allamakee County, Iowa, Vol. 1, Ellery M. Hancock, ed., S.J. Clarke, Chicago, 1913; pp. 99–102.
  15. Jesse V. Howell, Treatment of the Ore, The Iron Ore Deposits Near Waukon Iowa, Annual Report, 1914, with Accompanying Papers, Iowa Geological Survey, Des Moines, 1916; pp. 84–92. The photo of the plant on page 85 is noteworthy.
  16. Ernest Wander, The Goltra Process of Concentrating Iron Ores as Developed at Waukon, Iowa, Thesis, School of Mines and Metallurgy, University of Missouri, Rolla, 1917; p. 49. The author of this thesis appears to have worked for both the Waukon Iron Company and the Missouri Iron Company.
  17. Robert W. Erwin, Apparatus for Treating Ores Preparatory to Magnetic Separation, U.S. Patent 1,295,719, Feb. 25, 1919.
  18. Edward F. Goltra, Thomas S. Maffitt, Jesse E. Dana, and Robert W. Erwin, Apparatus for Cleaning Clayey Ores, U.S. Patent 1,288,404, Dec. 17, 1918. The drawings in this patent closely match the actual layout of the mill buildings and therefore serve as an explanation of what was inside those buildings.
  19. Furnace Revival in St. Louis, The Iron Age, Vol. 97, No. 4 (January 27, 1916); p. 281
  20. Ernest F. Burchard, Iron Ore, Pig Iron and Steel,Mineral Resources of the United States 1917, Part I Metals, H. D. McCaskey, ed., Government Printing Office, 1921; p. 584.
  21. James H. Lees, Mineral Production in Iowa for 1917 and 1918, Annual Report, 1918, with Accompanying Papers, Iowa Geological Survey, Des Moines, 1922?; p. 48.
  22. Writers' Program of the Works Progress Administration, Iowa -- A Guide to the Hawkeye State, Iowa State Historical Society, 1938; p. 435.
  23. the former strip mines are visible in the USGS 1m resolution LIDAR image from Iowa Geographic Map Server
  24. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  25. Samuel Calvin, Drainage, Geology of Allamakee County, Third Annual Report, 1894, Iowa Geological Survey, 1895; pp. 50–51.
  26. Jesse V. Howell, The Galena Formation, The Iron Ores of Iron Hill Near Waukon Iowa, Annual Report with Accompanying Papers, 1914, Iowa Geological Survey, Des Moines, 1916; pp. 50–51.
  27. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  28. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  29. 1 2 "Allamakee Community School District". Adv. Web Design. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
  30. 'Annals of Iowa,' Vol X, No. 1, 3rd Series, Notable Deaths, pg. 75