Cleveland Clinic

Last updated

Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland Clinic logo.svg
Cleveland Clinic Miller Family Pavilion.jpg
Geography
Location9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Coordinates 41°30′09″N81°37′16″W / 41.502595°N 81.621066°W / 41.502595; -81.621066 Coordinates: 41°30′09″N81°37′16″W / 41.502595°N 81.621066°W / 41.502595; -81.621066
Organization
Care system Private
Funding Non-profit hospital
Hospital type Academic
Affiliated university
Services
Beds1440
Helipads
Helipad FAA LID: 6OI8 [1]
NumberLengthSurface
ftm
H15517Concrete
History
Founded1921
Links
Website www.clevelandclinic.org
Lists Hospitals in Ohio

The Cleveland Clinic is an American academic medical center based in Cleveland, Ohio. Owned and operated by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, an Ohio nonprofit corporation established in 1921, it runs a 170-acre campus in Cleveland, as well as 10 regional hospitals and 19 family health centers in north-east Ohio, and hospitals in Florida and Nevada. [2] Tomislav Mihaljevic is the president and CEO. [3]

A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view. In economic terms, it is an organization that uses its surplus of the revenues to further achieve its ultimate objective, rather than distributing its income to the organization's shareholders, leaders, or members. Nonprofits are tax exempt or charitable, meaning they do not pay income tax on the money that they receive for their organization. They can operate in religious, scientific, research, or educational settings.

Northeast Ohio Place in Ohio, United States

Northeast Ohio refers to the northeastern region of the U.S. state of Ohio. In its greatest definition, the region contains six metropolitan areas, including Cleveland–Elyria, Akron, Canton–Massillon, Youngstown–Warren, Mansfield, and Weirton–Steubenville, along with eight micropolitan statistical areas. Most of the region is considered either part of the Cleveland–Akron–Canton, OH Combined Statistical Area and media market or the Youngstown–Warren, OH-PA Combined Statistical Area and media market. In total the region is home to 4,529,596 residents. Northeast Ohio also includes most of the area known historically as the Connecticut Western Reserve. In 2011, the Intelligent Community Forum ranked Northeast Ohio as a global Smart 21 Communities list. It has the highest concentration of Hungarian Americans in the United States.

Florida State of the United States of America

Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital.

Contents

Outside the United States, Cleveland Clinic also operates the Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi hospital and a sports medicine clinic in Toronto. [2] A Cleveland Clinic hospital campus in London is scheduled to open in 2021. [4]

The Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi is a multi specialty hospital located in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The 364 bed luxury hospital, part of Cleveland Clinic Foundation, USA, has been open to the public since May 2015.

Sports medicine medical branch concerned with the effects of sport and exercise

Sports medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise. Although most sports teams have employed team physicians for many years, it is only since the late 20th century that sports medicine has emerged as a distinct field of health care.

Toronto Provincial capital city in Ontario, Canada

Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area (CMA), of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance, arts, and culture, and is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world.

Cleveland Clinic is consistently ranked as one of the best hospitals in the United States. In 2018-2019, the U.S. News & World Report ranked Cleveland Clinic as the number 2 hospital in the Best Hospitals Honor Roll, as it was nationally ranked in 14 adult and 10 pediatric specialties. [5] Cleveland Clinic’s cardiology program has ranked No. 1 in the nation since 1995. [6]

U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis. Founded as a newsweekly magazine in 1933, U.S. News transitioned to primarily web-based publishing in 2010. U.S. News is best known today for its influential Best Colleges and Best Hospitals rankings, but it has expanded its content and product offerings in education, health, money, careers, travel, and cars. The rankings are popular in North America but have drawn widespread criticism from colleges, administrations, and students for their dubious, disparate, and arbitrary nature. The ranking system by U.S. News is usually contrasted with the Washington Monthly and Forbes rankings.

Cleveland Clinic's operating revenue in 2017 was $8.4 billion and its operating income $330 million. [7] That year it recorded 7.6 million patient visits and 229,132 admissions. As of 2018, it has over 52,000 employees, a figure that includes over 11,800 nurses and over 3,600 physicians and scientists. [2] It is affiliated with the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, with which it started a physician-investigator medical school training program: the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine. [8] The Cleveland Clinic also publishes the peer-reviewed journal Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine . [9] In 2008, Cleveland Clinic became the first healthcare provider in the United States to become a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact and the second in the world. [10]

Revenue income that a business has from its normal business activities

In accounting, revenue is the income that a business have from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers. Revenue is also referred to as sales or turnover. Some companies receive revenue from interest, royalties, or other fees. Revenue may refer to business income in general, or it may refer to the amount, in a monetary unit, earned during a period of time, as in "Last year, Company X had revenue of $42 million". Profits or net income generally imply total revenue minus total expenses in a given period. In accounting, in the balance statement it is a subsection of the Equity section and revenue increases equity, it is often referred to as the "top line" due to its position on the income statement at the very top. This is to be contrasted with the "bottom line" which denotes net income.

Case Western Reserve School of Medicine is one of the graduate schools of Case Western Reserve University, and is located in the University Circle neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio. The School of Medicine is among the top 25 medical schools in the United States and is the top-ranked medical school of Ohio in research per U.S. News & World Report. Additionally, Case School of Medicine is the largest biomedical research center in Ohio. In 2015, the average MCAT score for the entering class was 36.

The Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Cleveland Clinic. It covers internal medicine, endocrinology, and diabetes. The editor-in-chief is Brian Mandell.

History

Beginnings

The organization grew out of the surgical practice of Frank J. Weed (died 1891) at 16 Church Street on the near-west side of Cleveland. [11] [12] The practice was purchased by his two assistants, Frank E. Bunts and George Washington Crile. [13] [14] In 1892 they were joined by Crile's cousin, William E. Lower, [15] and in 1897 the practice moved to the Osborn Building on Prospect Avenue, downtown Cleveland. [11] [16]

George Washington Crile American surgeon and co-founder of Cleveland Clinic

George Washington Crile was an American surgeon. Crile is now formally recognized as the first surgeon to have succeeded in a direct blood transfusion. He contributed to other procedures, such as neck dissection. Crile designed a small hemostatic forceps which bears his name; the Crile mosquito clamp. He also described a technique for using opioids, regional anesthesia and general anesthesia which is a concept known as balanced anesthesia. He is also known for co-founding the Cleveland Clinic in 1921.

A four-story outpatient building was constructed, and Cleveland Clinic was dedicated at a private ceremony on February 26, 1921. [17] [18] It opened its doors two days later to the public and registered 42 patients. [19] By April 1921, it had 60 employees, including 14 physicians and four nurses. [20] In 1922 the founders purchased four private homes nearby for hospitalization, radiation treatment, and administration. [20] A fifth house was acquired as a residence for patients with diabetes receiving insulin treatments. [20] [21] To meet rising patient volume, a 184-bed hospital was built in 1924, located at East 90th Street and Carnegie Avenue. [22] A power plant, laundry, and ice plant were also built. [20] [23] A research laboratory was constructed in 1928. [20] [24]

Cleveland Clinic fire

Cleveland Clinic's original building, built in 1921 Cleveland Clinic Original Building.jpg
Cleveland Clinic's original building, built in 1921

On May 15, 1929, nitrocellulose x-ray films stored in the basement of the outpatient building ignited. [25] [26] [27] An explosion sent a cloud of toxic oxides of nitrogen and carbon though the building. One hundred and twenty-three people lost their lives, including John Phillips, one of the founders. [28] [29] A dozen investigating agencies were not able to determine what had caused the fire. Cleveland Clinic's own inquiry narrowed the possible causes down to spontaneous combustion caused by heat; a discarded cigarette or match; and contact with an extension cord light hung over a stack of films. [26]

Philanthropist Samuel Mather formed a committee of 36 community leaders to help Cleveland Clinic reestablish itself in temporary quarters across the street. [26] [30] [31] Patient care services resumed five days later. [30] The 1921 building was completely renovated, and a new three-story clinic building, with a new main entrance, was added in 1931. [26] All debts were repaid by 1941. [32]

Growth of specialization

George Washington Crile, one of the founders George Washington Crile 1926.jpg
George Washington Crile, one of the founders

Cleveland Clinic built new operating rooms in the early 1970s to accommodate the growth of cardiac surgery. [23] The Martha Holden Jennings Education Building opened in 1964, with an auditorium named for Dr. Bunts. A new hospital building (currently home to Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital) opened in 1966, and a research building opened in 1974 (demolished in 2007). [23] A pathology and laboratory medicine building was constructed on Carnegie Avenue in 1980. [33]

Willian S. Kiser, chairman of the board 1977–1989, [34] led the development of a strategic plan to accommodate growing patient volumes in the late 1970s. This resulted in a group of buildings known as the Century Project. Completed in 1985, the Century Project includes a 14-story outpatient building (now known as the Crile Building) designed by architect Cesar Pelli. [35]

Research and education

The Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute conducts biomedical research in a 480,000-square-foot building that opened in 1999. [36] The Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine (CCLCM) of Case Western Reserve University opened in 2004. It is a 5-year medical school in the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine with 32 students per class, each receiving a scholarship for full tuition and fees. [37] [38] While most MD-granting medical schools in the U.S. are four-year programs, the fifth year of CCLCM is dedicated to a year of research. [22]

Cleveland Clinic publishes the peer-reviewed Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine monthly, focusing on internal medicine, endocrinology, and diabetes. [39] The Top 10 Medical Innovations is an annual list (since 2007) selected in October each year by a panel of Cleveland Clinic physicians and scientists. For consideration on the list, the development must be considered likely to be available to the public in the upcoming year and to be expected to have a significant impact on a large part of the population. [40]

Reputation

Cleveland Clinic is consistently regarded as one of the top hospital systems in the United States and in the world, and it is well regarded particularly in technological management systems. [41]

Rankings

In 2018-2019, Cleveland Clinic was ranked as the #2 overall hospital in the United States by the U.S. News & World Report, behind the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. A total of 4,656 hospitals were considered in 12 main data-driven medical and surgical specialty areas and 4 additional specialty areas, collating data on patient safety, performance measures, and complication rates. [42] Cleveland Clinic was found to be nationally ranked in 14 adult specialties and 10 children's specialties and was recognized as the #1 hospital in Ohio and in the Cleveland Metropolitan Area. It also achieved the highest rating possible in 9 specified procedures or conditions: abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, aortic valve surgery, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, colon cancer surgery, heart bypass surgery, heart failure, hip replacement, knee replacement, and lung cancer surgery. [43] In addition, for the 14th year in a row, Cleveland Clinic was ranked as the #1 hospital in the United States for cardiology and heart surgery as a specialty. Similarly, in March 2019, Newsweek named Cleveland Clinic the number 2 hospital in the world, behind Mayo Clinic and in front of Singapore General Hospital. [44]

Safety

Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center Taussig Cancer Center.png
Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center

In a Kaiser Family Foundation review of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) data for hospital acquired conditions in 2014, Cleveland Clinic received an 8.7 score (1–10 possible, with 10 being the worst), in the bottom 7% of hospitals. [45]

Between 2010 and 2013, CMS undertook an extensive series of investigations into the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, with at least a dozen inspections and follow-up visits triggered by patient complaints. [46] [47] An analysis of Medicare inspection data between 2011 and 2014 found that the Cleveland Clinic Foundation was one of at least 230 instances in which validated serious incidents—dubbed "immediate jeopardy" complaints—led CMS to threaten loss of ability to serve Medicare patients unless the problems were fixed immediately. Due to numerous serious ongoing safety violations, the Cleveland Clinic Foundation was on payment termination track for 19 months, placing at stake $1B in annual Medicare/Medicaid reimbursement. [46] The citations were reported and analyzed in detail by Modern Healthcare, which posted some of the safety documents. [46] [47]

In its February 2019 Overall Hospital Quality Star Ratings, CMS gave a five-star rating to the Cleveland Clinic, as well as several community hospitals in the Cleveland Clinic system, including Hillcrest Hospital, Lutheran Hospital, and Marymount Hospital. [48] In these ratings, Cleveland Clinic Weston received a one-star rating. [49]

Locations

Gehry Las Vegas.jpg
Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, Nevada

Cleveland Clinic's main campus consists of 41 buildings on 160 acres (65 ha) near University Circle, in Fairfax, Cleveland. [50] Cleveland Clinic operates 18 [51] [52] family health and ambulatory surgery centers in surrounding communities, a multispecialty hospital and family health center in Weston, Florida, and an outpatient clinic specializing in sports medicine in Toronto, Canada. [53]

In May 2010 Cleveland Clinic's Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health opened in a unique structure designed by architect Frank Gehry in Las Vegas, Nevada. [54] An overseas location, the Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, opened in 2015. [55] In August 2015 the Akron General Health System in Akron, Ohio, joined the Cleveland Clinic system. Akron General includes Akron General Hospital, Visiting Nurse Service and Affiliates, Hospice of VNS, Lodi Community Hospital, Edwin Shaw Rehabilitation Institute, and three health and wellness centers. [56] In May 2017 Cleveland Clinic reached an agreement to acquire 150-bed Union Hospital in Dover, Ohio. [57]

The organization began work renovating an historic building at 33 Grosvenor Place in central London, England, in 2018. Demolition of the interior of the six-story, 198,000-square-foot building has begun, with a construction completion date of late 2020. [58]

Finances

In 2011 Cleveland Clinic was second on the Becker's Hospital Review list of top-grossing hospitals in the United States, with total patient revenue of $9.14 billion. [59] The hospital posted $243 million operating income on $8 billion revenue in 2016. Operating income fell about 50% from 2015, which it said was due to shrinking reimbursements and rising drug costs. [60] [61] In 2017 its operating income was $330M on $8.4B in revenue. [7]

In 2015, the Clinic's endowment stood at more than $12 billion. [62]

See also

Notes

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    Further reading