In multilinear algebra and tensor analysis, **covariance** and **contravariance** describe how the quantitative description of certain geometric or physical entities changes with a change of basis.

- Introduction
- Definition
- Contravariant transformation
- Covariant transformation
- Coordinates
- Covariant and contravariant components of a vector with a metric
- Euclidean plane
- Three-dimensional Euclidean space
- General Euclidean spaces
- Informal usage
- Use in tensor analysis
- Algebra and geometry
- See also
- Notes
- Citations
- References
- External links

In physics, a basis is sometimes thought of as a set of reference axes. A change of scale on the reference axes corresponds to a change of units in the problem. For instance, by changing scale from meters to centimeters (that is, *dividing* the scale of the reference axes by 100), the components of a measured velocity vector are *multiplied* by 100. Vectors exhibit this behavior of changing scale *inversely* to changes in scale to the reference axes and consequently are called *contravariant*. As a result, vectors often have units of distance or distance with other units (as, for example, velocity has units of distance divided by time).

In contrast, covectors (also called *dual vectors*) typically have units of the inverse of distance or the inverse of distance with other units. An example of a covector is the gradient, which has units of a spatial derivative, or distance^{−1}. The components of covectors change in the *same way* as changes to scale of the reference axes and consequently are called *covariant*.

A third concept related to covariance and contravariance is invariance. An example of a physical observable that does not change with a change of scale on the reference axes is the mass of a particle, which has units of mass (that is, no units of distance). The single, scalar value of mass is independent of changes to the scale of the reference axes and consequently is called *invariant*.

Under more general changes in basis:

- A contravariant vector or tangent vector (often abbreviated simply as
*vector*, such as a direction vector or velocity vector) has components that*contra-vary*with a change of basis to compensate. That is, the matrix that transforms the vector components must be the inverse of the matrix that transforms the basis vectors. The components of vectors (as opposed to those of covectors) are said to be**contravariant**. Examples of vectors with*contravariant components*include the position of an object relative to an observer, or any derivative of position with respect to time, including velocity, acceleration, and jerk. In Einstein notation, contravariant components are denoted with*upper indices*as in- (note: implicit summation over index "i")

- A covariant vector or cotangent vector (often abbreviated as
*covector*) has components that*co-vary*with a change of basis. That is, the components must be transformed by the same matrix as the change of basis matrix. The components of covectors (as opposed to those of vectors) are said to be**covariant**. Examples of covariant vectors generally appear when taking a gradient of a function. In Einstein notation, covariant components are denoted with*lower indices*as in

Curvilinear coordinate systems, such as cylindrical or spherical coordinates, are often used in physical and geometric problems. Associated with any coordinate system is a natural choice of coordinate basis for vectors based at each point of the space, and covariance and contravariance are particularly important for understanding how the coordinate description of a vector changes by passing from one coordinate system to another.

The terms *covariant* and *contravariant* were introduced by James Joseph Sylvester in 1851^{ [2] }^{ [3] } in the context of associated algebraic forms theory. Tensors are objects in multilinear algebra that can have aspects of both covariance and contravariance.

In the lexicon of category theory, covariance and contravariance are properties of functors; unfortunately, it is the lower-index objects (covectors) that generically have pullbacks, which are contravariant, while the upper-index objects (vectors) instead have pushforwards, which are covariant. This terminological conflict may be avoided by calling contravariant functors "cofunctors"—in accord with the "covector" terminology, and continuing the tradition of treating vectors as the concept and covectors as the coconcept.

In physics, a vector typically arises as the outcome of a measurement or series of measurements, and is represented as a list (or tuple) of numbers such as

The numbers in the list depend on the choice of coordinate system. For instance, if the vector represents position with respect to an observer (position vector), then the coordinate system may be obtained from a system of rigid rods, or reference axes, along which the components *v*_{1}, *v*_{2}, and *v*_{3} are measured. For a vector to represent a geometric object, it must be possible to describe how it looks in any other coordinate system. That is to say, the components of the vectors will *transform* in a certain way in passing from one coordinate system to another.

A *contravariant vector* has components that "transform as the coordinates do" under changes of coordinates (and so inversely to the transformation of the reference axes), including rotation and dilation. The vector itself does not change under these operations; instead, the components of the vector change in a way that cancels the change in the spatial axes, in the same way that coordinates change. In other words, if the reference axes were rotated in one direction, the component representation of the vector would rotate in exactly the opposite way. Similarly, if the reference axes were stretched in one direction, the components of the vector, like the coordinates, would reduce in an exactly compensating way. Mathematically, if the coordinate system undergoes a transformation described by an invertible matrix *M*, so that a coordinate vector **x** is transformed to , then a contravariant vector **v** must be similarly transformed via . This important requirement is what distinguishes a contravariant vector from any other triple of physically meaningful quantities. For example, if *v* consists of the *x*-, *y*-, and *z*-components of velocity, then *v* is a contravariant vector: if the coordinates of space are stretched, rotated, or twisted, then the components of the velocity transform in the same way. Examples of contravariant vectors include position, displacement, velocity, acceleration, momentum, and force.

By contrast, a *covariant vector* has components that change oppositely to the coordinates or, equivalently, transform like the reference axes. For instance, the components of the gradient vector of a function

transform like the reference axes themselves.

The general formulation of covariance and contravariance refer to how the components of a coordinate vector transform under a change of basis (passive transformation). Thus let *V* be a vector space of dimension *n* over the field of scalars *S*, and let each of **f** = (*X*_{1}, ..., *X*_{n}) and **f**′ = (*Y*_{1}, ..., *Y*_{n}) be a basis of *V*.^{ [note 1] } Also, let the change of basis from **f** to **f**′ be given by

**(1)**

for some invertible *n*×*n* matrix *A* with entries . Here, each vector *Y*_{j} of the **f**′ basis is a linear combination of the vectors *X*_{i} of the **f** basis, so that

A vector in *V* is expressed uniquely as a linear combination of the elements of the **f** basis as

**(2)**

where *v*^{i}[**f**] are elements in an (algebraic) field *S* known as the **components** of *v* in the **f** basis. Denote the column vector of components of *v* by **v**[**f**]:

so that (** 2 **) can be rewritten as a matrix product

The vector *v* may also be expressed in terms of the **f**′ basis, so that

However, since the vector *v* itself is invariant under the choice of basis,

The invariance of *v* combined with the relationship (** 1 **) between **f** and **f**′ implies that

giving the transformation rule

In terms of components,

where the coefficients are the entries of the inverse matrix of *A*.

Because the components of the vector *v* transform with the *inverse* of the matrix *A*, these components are said to **transform contravariantly** under a change of basis.

The way *A* relates the two pairs is depicted in the following informal diagram using an arrow. The reversal of the arrow indicates a contravariant change:

A linear functional *α* on *V* is expressed uniquely in terms of its **components** (elements in *S*) in the **f** basis as

These components are the action of *α* on the basis vectors *X*_{i} of the **f** basis.

Under the change of basis from **f** to **f**′ (** 1 **), the components transform so that

**(3)**

Denote the row vector of components of *α* by *α*[**f**]:

so that (** 3 **) can be rewritten as the matrix product

Because the components of the linear functional α transform with the matrix *A*, these components are said to **transform covariantly** under a change of basis.

The way *A* relates the two pairs is depicted in the following informal diagram using an arrow. A covariant relationship is indicated since the arrows travel in the same direction:

Had a column vector representation been used instead, the transformation law would be the transpose

The choice of basis **f** on the vector space *V* defines uniquely a set of coordinate functions on *V*, by means of

The coordinates on *V* are therefore contravariant in the sense that

Conversely, a system of *n* quantities *v*^{i} that transform like the coordinates *x*^{i} on *V* defines a contravariant vector. A system of *n* quantities that transform oppositely to the coordinates is then a covariant vector.

This formulation of contravariance and covariance is often more natural in applications in which there is a coordinate space (a manifold) on which vectors live as tangent vectors or cotangent vectors. Given a local coordinate system *x*^{i} on the manifold, the reference axes for the coordinate system are the vector fields

This gives rise to the frame **f** = (*X*_{1}, ..., *X*_{n}) at every point of the coordinate patch.

If *y*^{i} is a different coordinate system and

then the frame **f'** is related to the frame **f** by the inverse of the Jacobian matrix of the coordinate transition:

Or, in indices,

A tangent vector is by definition a vector that is a linear combination of the coordinate partials . Thus a tangent vector is defined by

Such a vector is contravariant with respect to change of frame. Under changes in the coordinate system, one has

Therefore, the components of a tangent vector transform via

Accordingly, a system of *n* quantities *v*^{i} depending on the coordinates that transform in this way on passing from one coordinate system to another is called a contravariant vector.

In a finite-dimensional vector space *V* over a field *K* with a symmetric bilinear form *g* : *V* × *V* → *K* (which may be referred to as the metric tensor), there is little distinction between covariant and contravariant vectors, because the bilinear form allows covectors to be identified with vectors. That is, a vector *v* uniquely determines a covector *α* via

for all vectors *w*. Conversely, each covector *α* determines a unique vector *v* by this equation. Because of this identification of vectors with covectors, one may speak of the **covariant components** or **contravariant components** of a vector, that is, they are just representations of the same vector using the reciprocal basis.

Given a basis **f** = (*X*_{1}, ..., *X*_{n}) of *V*, there is a unique reciprocal basis **f**^{#} = (*Y*^{1}, ..., *Y*^{n}) of *V* determined by requiring that

the Kronecker delta. In terms of these bases, any vector *v* can be written in two ways:

The components *v*^{i}[**f**] are the **contravariant components** of the vector *v* in the basis **f**, and the components *v*_{i}[**f**] are the **covariant components** of *v* in the basis **f**. The terminology is justified because under a change of basis,

In the Euclidean plane, the dot product allows for vectors to be identified with covectors. If is a basis, then the dual basis satisfies

Thus, **e**^{1} and **e**_{2} are perpendicular to each other, as are **e**^{2} and **e**_{1}, and the lengths of **e**^{1} and **e**^{2} normalized against **e**_{1} and **e**_{2}, respectively.

For example,^{ [4] } suppose that we are given a basis **e**_{1}, **e**_{2} consisting of a pair of vectors making a 45° angle with one another, such that **e**_{1} has length 2 and **e**_{2} has length 1. Then the dual basis vectors are given as follows:

**e**^{2}is the result of rotating**e**_{1}through an angle of 90° (where the sense is measured by assuming the pair**e**_{1},**e**_{2}to be positively oriented), and then rescaling so that**e**^{2}⋅**e**_{2}= 1 holds.**e**^{1}is the result of rotating**e**_{2}through an angle of 90°, and then rescaling so that**e**^{1}⋅**e**_{1}= 1 holds.

Applying these rules, we find

and

Thus the change of basis matrix in going from the original basis to the reciprocal basis is

since

For instance, the vector

is a vector with contravariant components

The covariant components are obtained by equating the two expressions for the vector *v*:

so

In the three-dimensional Euclidean space, one can also determine explicitly the dual basis to a given set of basis vectors **e**_{1}, **e**_{2}, **e**_{3} of *E*_{3} that are not necessarily assumed to be orthogonal nor of unit norm. The dual basis vectors are:

Even when the **e**_{i} and **e**^{i} are not orthonormal, they are still mutually reciprocal:

Then the contravariant components of any vector **v** can be obtained by the dot product of **v** with the dual basis vectors:

Likewise, the covariant components of **v** can be obtained from the dot product of **v** with basis vectors, viz.

Then **v** can be expressed in two (reciprocal) ways, viz.

or

Combining the above relations, we have

and we can convert between the basis and dual basis with

and

If the basis vectors are orthonormal, then they are the same as the dual basis vectors.

More generally, in an *n*-dimensional Euclidean space *V*, if a basis is

the reciprocal basis is given by (double indices are summed over),

where the coefficients *g*^{ij} are the entries of the inverse matrix of

Indeed, we then have

The covariant and contravariant components of any vector

are related as above by

and

In the field of physics, the adjective **covariant** is often used informally as a synonym for invariant. For example, the Schrödinger equation does not keep its written form under the coordinate transformations of special relativity. Thus, a physicist might say that the Schrödinger equation is *not covariant*. In contrast, the Klein–Gordon equation and the Dirac equation do keep their written form under these coordinate transformations. Thus, a physicist might say that these equations are *covariant*.

Despite this usage of "covariant", it is more accurate to say that the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations are invariant, and that the Schrödinger equation is not invariant. Additionally, to remove ambiguity, the transformation by which the invariance is evaluated should be indicated.

Because the components of vectors are contravariant and those of covectors are covariant, the vectors themselves are often referred to as being contravariant and the covectors as covariant.

The distinction between covariance and contravariance is particularly important for computations with tensors, which often have **mixed variance**. This means that they have both covariant and contravariant components, or both vector and covector components. The valence of a tensor is the number of variant and covariant terms, and in Einstein notation, covariant components have lower indices, while contravariant components have upper indices. The duality between covariance and contravariance intervenes whenever a vector or tensor quantity is represented by its components, although modern differential geometry uses more sophisticated index-free methods to represent tensors.

In tensor analysis, a **covariant** vector varies more or less reciprocally to a corresponding contravariant vector. Expressions for lengths, areas and volumes of objects in the vector space can then be given in terms of tensors with covariant and contravariant indices. Under simple expansions and contractions of the coordinates, the reciprocity is exact; under affine transformations the components of a vector intermingle on going between covariant and contravariant expression.

On a manifold, a tensor field will typically have multiple, upper and lower indices, where Einstein notation is widely used. When the manifold is equipped with a metric, covariant and contravariant indices become very closely related to one another. Contravariant indices can be turned into covariant indices by contracting with the metric tensor. The reverse is possible by contracting with the (matrix) inverse of the metric tensor. Note that in general, no such relation exists in spaces not endowed with a metric tensor. Furthermore, from a more abstract standpoint, a tensor is simply "there" and its components of either kind are only calculational artifacts whose values depend on the chosen coordinates.

The explanation in geometric terms is that a general tensor will have contravariant indices as well as covariant indices, because it has parts that live in the tangent bundle as well as the cotangent bundle.

A contravariant vector is one which transforms like , where are the coordinates of a particle at its proper time . A covariant vector is one which transforms like , where is a scalar field.

In category theory, there are covariant functors and contravariant functors. The assignment of the dual space to a vector space is a standard example of a contravariant functor. Some constructions of multilinear algebra are of "mixed" variance, which prevents them from being functors.

In differential geometry, the components of a vector relative to a basis of the tangent bundle are covariant if they change with the same linear transformation as a change of basis. They are contravariant if they change by the inverse transformation. This is sometimes a source of confusion for two distinct but related reasons. The first is that vectors whose components are covariant (called covectors or 1-forms) actually pull back under smooth functions, meaning that the operation assigning the space of covectors to a smooth manifold is actually a *contravariant* functor. Likewise, vectors whose components are contravariant push forward under smooth mappings, so the operation assigning the space of (contravariant) vectors to a smooth manifold is a *covariant* functor. Secondly, in the classical approach to differential geometry, it is not bases of the tangent bundle that are the most primitive object, but rather changes in the coordinate system. Vectors with contravariant components transform in the same way as changes in the coordinates (because these actually change oppositely to the induced change of basis). Likewise, vectors with covariant components transform in the opposite way as changes in the coordinates.

- Active and passive transformation
- Mixed tensor
- Two-point tensor, a generalization allowing indices to reference multiple vector bases

- ↑ A basis
**f**may here profitably be viewed as a linear isomorphism from**R**^{n}to*V*. Regarding**f**as a row vector whose entries are the elements of the basis, the associated linear isomorphism is then

- ↑ C. Misner; K.S. Thorne; J.A. Wheeler (1973).
*Gravitation*. W.H. Freeman & Co. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0. - ↑ Sylvester, James Joseph. "On the general theory of associated algebraical forms."
*Cambridge and Dublin Math. Journal, VI*(1851): 289-293. - ↑ 1814-1897., Sylvester, James Joseph (2012).
*The collected mathematical papers of James Joseph Sylvester. Volume 3, 1870-1883*. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1107661431. OCLC 758983870.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) - ↑ Bowen, Ray (2008). "Introduction to Vectors and Tensors" (PDF). Dover. pp. 78, 79, 81.
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In vector calculus, **divergence** is a vector operator that operates on a vector field, producing a scalar field giving the quantity of the vector field's source at each point. More technically, the divergence represents the volume density of the outward flux of a vector field from an infinitesimal volume around a given point.

In vector calculus, the **gradient** of a scalar-valued differentiable function *f* of several variables is the vector field whose value at a point is the vector whose components are the partial derivatives of at . That is, for , its gradient is defined at the point in *n-*dimensional space as the vector:

In mathematics, a **tensor** is an algebraic object that describes a (multilinear) relationship between sets of algebraic objects related to a vector space. Objects that tensors may map between include vectors and scalars, and even other tensors. There are many types of tensors, including scalars and vectors, dual vectors, multilinear maps between vector spaces, and even some operations such as the dot product. Tensors are defined independent of any basis, although they are often referred to by their components in a basis related to a particular coordinate system.

In mathematics, physics and engineering, a **Euclidean vector** or simply a **vector** is a geometric object that has magnitude and direction. Vectors can be added to other vectors according to vector algebra. A Euclidean vector is frequently represented by a *ray*, or graphically as an arrow connecting an *initial point**A* with a *terminal point**B*, and denoted by .

In mathematics, especially in applications of linear algebra to physics, the **Einstein notation** or **Einstein summation convention** is a notational convention that implies summation over a set of indexed terms in a formula, thus achieving notational brevity. As part of mathematics it is a notational subset of Ricci calculus; however, it is often used in applications in physics that do not distinguish between tangent and cotangent spaces. It was introduced to physics by Albert Einstein in 1916.

In the mathematical field of differential geometry, one definition of a **metric tensor** is a type of function which takes as input a pair of tangent vectors v and w at a point of a surface and produces a real number scalar *g*(*v*, *w*) in a way that generalizes many of the familiar properties of the dot product of vectors in Euclidean space. In the same way as a dot product, metric tensors are used to define the length of and angle between tangent vectors. Through integration, the metric tensor allows one to define and compute the length of curves on the manifold.

In multilinear algebra, a **tensor contraction** is an operation on a tensor that arises from the natural pairing of a finite-dimensional vector space and its dual. In components, it is expressed as a sum of products of scalar components of the tensor(s) caused by applying the summation convention to a pair of dummy indices that are bound to each other in an expression. The contraction of a single mixed tensor occurs when a pair of literal indices of the tensor are set equal to each other and summed over. In the Einstein notation this summation is built into the notation. The result is another tensor with order reduced by 2.

In special relativity, a **four-vector** is an object with four components, which transform in a specific way under Lorentz transformation. Specifically, a four-vector is an element of a four-dimensional vector space considered as a representation space of the standard representation of the Lorentz group, the representation. It differs from a Euclidean vector in how its magnitude is determined. The transformations that preserve this magnitude are the Lorentz transformations, which include spatial rotations and boosts.

In mathematics, the **covariant derivative** is a way of specifying a derivative along tangent vectors of a manifold. Alternatively, the covariant derivative is a way of introducing and working with a connection on a manifold by means of a differential operator, to be contrasted with the approach given by a principal connection on the frame bundle – see affine connection. In the special case of a manifold isometrically embedded into a higher-dimensional Euclidean space, the covariant derivative can be viewed as the orthogonal projection of the Euclidean directional derivative onto the manifold's tangent space. In this case the Euclidean derivative is broken into two parts, the extrinsic normal component and the intrinsic covariant derivative component.

In physics, a **covariant transformation** is a rule that specifies how certain entities, such as vectors or tensors, change under a change of basis. The transformation that describes the new basis vectors as a linear combination of the old basis vectors is *defined* as a **covariant transformation**. Conventionally, indices identifying the basis vectors are placed as **lower indices** and so are all entities that transform in the same way. The inverse of a covariant transformation is a **contravariant transformation**. Whenever a vector should be *invariant* under a change of basis, that is to say it should represent the same geometrical or physical object having the same magnitude and direction as before, its *components* must transform according to the contravariant rule. Conventionally, indices identifying the components of a vector are placed as **upper indices** and so are all indices of entities that transform in the same way. The sum over pairwise matching indices of a product with the same lower and upper indices are invariant under a transformation.

In mathematics, **tensor calculus**, **tensor analysis**, or **Ricci calculus** is an extension of vector calculus to tensor fields.

In geometry, **curvilinear coordinates** are a coordinate system for Euclidean space in which the coordinate lines may be curved. These coordinates may be derived from a set of Cartesian coordinates by using a transformation that is locally invertible at each point. This means that one can convert a point given in a Cartesian coordinate system to its curvilinear coordinates and back. The name *curvilinear coordinates*, coined by the French mathematician Lamé, derives from the fact that the coordinate surfaces of the curvilinear systems are curved.

In mathematics and physics, the **Christoffel symbols** are an array of numbers describing a metric connection. The metric connection is a specialization of the affine connection to surfaces or other manifolds endowed with a metric, allowing distances to be measured on that surface. In differential geometry, an affine connection can be defined without reference to a metric, and many additional concepts follow: parallel transport, covariant derivatives, geodesics, etc. also do not require the concept of a metric. However, when a metric is available, these concepts can be directly tied to the "shape" of the manifold itself; that shape is determined by how the tangent space is attached to the cotangent space by the metric tensor. Abstractly, one would say that the manifold has an associated (orthonormal) frame bundle, with each "frame" being a possible choice of a coordinate frame. An invariant metric implies that the structure group of the frame bundle is the orthogonal group O(*p*, *q*). As a result, such a manifold is necessarily a (pseudo-)Riemannian manifold. The Christoffel symbols provide a concrete representation of the connection of (pseudo-)Riemannian geometry in terms of coordinates on the manifold. Additional concepts, such as parallel transport, geodesics, etc. can then be expressed in terms of Christoffel symbols.

In differential geometry, the **four-gradient** is the four-vector analogue of the gradient from vector calculus.

In differential geometry, a **tensor density** or **relative tensor** is a generalization of the tensor field concept. A tensor density transforms as a tensor field when passing from one coordinate system to another, except that it is additionally multiplied or *weighted* by a power *W* of the Jacobian determinant of the coordinate transition function or its absolute value. A distinction is made among (authentic) tensor densities, pseudotensor densities, even tensor densities and odd tensor densities. Sometimes tensor densities with a negative weight *W* are called **tensor capacity.** A tensor density can also be regarded as a section of the tensor product of a tensor bundle with a density bundle.

In electromagnetism, the **electromagnetic tensor** or **electromagnetic field tensor** is a mathematical object that describes the electromagnetic field in spacetime. The field tensor was first used after the four-dimensional tensor formulation of special relativity was introduced by Hermann Minkowski. The tensor allows related physical laws to be written very concisely.

In mathematics, **orthogonal coordinates** are defined as a set of *d* coordinates **q** = in which the coordinate surfaces all meet at right angles. A coordinate surface for a particular coordinate *q*^{k} is the curve, surface, or hypersurface on which *q*^{k} is a constant. For example, the three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates is an orthogonal coordinate system, since its coordinate surfaces *x* = constant, *y* = constant, and *z* = constant are planes that meet at right angles to one another, i.e., are perpendicular. Orthogonal coordinates are a special but extremely common case of curvilinear coordinates.

A system of **skew coordinates** is a curvilinear coordinate system where the coordinate surfaces are not orthogonal, in contrast to orthogonal coordinates.

In mathematics, **Ricci calculus** constitutes the rules of index notation and manipulation for tensors and tensor fields on a differentiable manifold, with or without a metric tensor or connection. It is also the modern name for what used to be called the **absolute differential calculus**, developed by Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro in 1887–1896, and subsequently popularized in a paper written with his pupil Tullio Levi-Civita in 1900. Jan Arnoldus Schouten developed the modern notation and formalism for this mathematical framework, and made contributions to the theory, during its applications to general relativity and differential geometry in the early twentieth century.

**Curvilinear coordinates** can be formulated in tensor calculus, with important applications in physics and engineering, particularly for describing transportation of physical quantities and deformation of matter in fluid mechanics and continuum mechanics.

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*Mathematical Methods for Physicists*(6th ed.), San Diego: Harcourt, ISBN 0-12-059876-0 . - Dodson, C. T. J.; Poston, T. (1991),
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