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|Esophageal motility disorder|
|Other names||Esophageal dysmotility (ED)|
|Treatment||treatment depends on cause|
An esophageal motility disorder (EMD) is any medical disorder causing difficulty in swallowing, regurgitation of food and a spasm-type pain which can be brought on by an allergic reaction to certain foods. The most prominent one is dysphagia.
Esophageal motility disorder may be a result of CREST syndrome, referring to the five main features: calcinosis, Raynaud syndrome, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia.
There are contractions along the lower esophagus when this condition happens. These contractions prevent the passage of food.
Dysphagia could be for solid only or for solid and liquid.
If there is a food alergy causing an EMD, then physicians recommend an elimination diet. If this fails, then physicians will prescribe special types of to help resolve this problem.
Systemic scleroderma, or systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune rheumatic disease characterised by excessive production and accumulation of collagen, called fibrosis, in the skin and internal organs and by injuries to small arteries. There are two major subgroups of systemic sclerosis based on the extent of skin involvement: limited and diffuse. The limited form affects areas below, but not above, the elbows and knees with or without involvement of the face. The diffuse form affects also the skin above the elbows and knees and can spread also to the torso. Visceral organs, including the kidneys, heart, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also be affected by the fibrotic process. Prognosis is determined by the form of the disease and the extent of visceral involvement. Patients with limited systemic sclerosis have a 10-year survival rate of 75%; less than 10% develop pulmonary arterial hypertension after 10 to 20 years. Patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis have a 10-year survival rate of 55%. Death is most often caused by lung, heart, and kidney involvement. There is also a slight increase in the risk of cancer.
The esophagus or oesophagus, commonly known as the food pipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophagus is a fibromuscular tube, about 25 centimeters long in adults, which travels behind the trachea and heart, passes through the diaphragm and empties into the uppermost region of the stomach. During swallowing, the epiglottis tilts backwards to prevent food from going down the larynx and lungs. The word oesophagus is the Greek word οἰσοφάγος oisophagos, meaning "gullet".
Esophageal achalasia, often referred to simply as achalasia, is a failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax, which can cause the lower esophageal sphincter to remain closed. Without a modifier, "achalasia" usually refers to achalasia of the esophagus. Achalasia can happen at various points along the gastrointestinal tract; achalasia of the rectum, for instance, may occur in Hirschsprung's disease.
Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing. Although classified under "symptoms and signs" in ICD-10, in some contexts it is classified as a condition in its own right.
An esophageal motility study (EMS) or esophageal manometry is a test to assess motor function of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body and lower esophageal sphincter (LES).
Esophageal webs are thin membranes occurring anywhere along the esophagus.
Megaesophagus, also known as esophageal dilatation, is a disorder of the esophagus in humans and other mammals, whereby the esophagus becomes abnormally enlarged. Megaesophagus may be caused by any disease which causes the muscles of the esophagus to fail to properly propel food and liquid from the mouth into the stomach. Food can become lodged in the flaccid esophagus, where it may decay, be regurgitated, or may be inhaled into the lungs.
Telangiectasias, also known as spider veins, are small dilated blood vessels that can occur near the surface of the skin or mucous membranes, measuring between 0.5 and 1 millimeter in diameter. These dilated blood vessels can develop anywhere on the body but are commonly seen on the face around the nose, cheeks and chin. Dilated blood vessels can also develop on the legs, although when they occur on the legs, they often have underlying venous reflux or "hidden varicose veins". When found on the legs, they are found specifically on the upper thigh, below the knee joint and around the ankles.
CREST syndrome, also known as the limited cutaneous form of systemic sclerosis (lcSSc), is a multisystem connective tissue disorder. The acronym "CREST" refers to the five main features: calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia.
Sclerodactyly is a localized thickening and tightness of the skin of the fingers or toes. Sclerodactyly often leads to ulceration of the skin of the distal digits and is commonly accompanied by atrophy of the underlying soft tissues.
Esophageal dysphagia is a form of dysphagia where the underlying cause arises from the body of the esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, or cardia of the stomach, usually due to mechanical causes or motility problems.
Reynolds syndrome is a rare secondary laminopathy, consisting of the combination of primary biliary cirrhosis and progressive systemic sclerosis. In some patients this syndrome has also been associated with Sjögren's syndrome and hemolytic anemia. Typical clinical features include jaundice, elevated blood levels of alkaline phosphatase, calcinosis cutis, telangiectasias, and pruritus. This disease may cause white or yellow-ish spots on the arms or legs. The syndrome, a special case of scleroderma, is named after the American physician, Telfer B. Reynolds, MD (1921–2004), who first described it. He is also known for creating one of the world's first hepatology programs at the University of Southern California.
A Schatzki ring or Schatzki–Gary ring is a narrowing of the lower esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). The narrowing is caused by a ring of mucosal tissue or muscular tissue. A Schatzki ring is a specific type of "esophageal ring", and Schatzki rings are further subdivided into those above the esophagus/stomach junction, and those found at the squamocolumnar junction in the lower esophagus.
Esophageal spasm is a disorder of motility of the esophagus.
Nutcracker esophagus, or hypertensive peristalsis, is a disorder of the movement of the esophagus characterized by contractions in the smooth muscle of the esophagus in a normal sequence but at an excessive amplitude or duration. Nutcracker esophagus is one of several motility disorders of the esophagus, including achalasia and diffuse esophageal spasm. It causes difficulty swallowing, or dysphagia, to both solid and liquid foods, and can cause significant chest pain; it may also be asymptomatic. Nutcracker esophagus can affect people of any age, but is more common in the sixth and seventh decades of life.
Diffuse esophageal spasm (DES), also known as distal esophageal spasm, is a condition characterized by uncoordinated contractions of the esophagus, which may cause difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) or regurgitation. In some cases, it may cause symptoms such as chest pain, similar to heart disease. In many cases, the cause of DES remains unknown.
Aphagia is the inability or refusal to swallow. The word is derived from the Ancient Greek prefix α, meaning "not" or "without," and the suffix φαγία, derived from the verb φαγεῖν, meaning "to eat." It is related to dysphagia which is difficulty swallowing, and odynophagia, painful swallowing. Aphagia may be temporary or long term, depending on the affected organ. It is an extreme, life-threatening case of dysphagia. Depending on the cause, untreated dysphagia may develop into aphagia.
An esophageal food bolus obstruction is a medical emergency caused by the obstruction of the esophagus by an ingested foreign body.
Esophageal diseases can derive from congenital conditions, or they can be acquired later in life.
Esophageal intramucosal pseudodiverticulosis is a rare condition wherein the wall of the esophagus develops numerous small outpouchings (pseudodiverticulae). Individuals with the condition typically develop difficulty swallowing. The outpouchings represent the ducts of submucosal glands of the esophagus. It typically affects individuals in their sixth and seventh decades of life. While it is associated with certain chronic conditions, particularly alcoholism, diabetes and gastroesophageal reflux disease, the cause of the condition is unknown. Treatment involves medications to treat concomitant conditions such as reflux and esophageal spasm, and dilation of strictures in the esophagus.
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