Kennedy Center Honors

Last updated

Kennedy Center Honors
Kennedy center honors logo.svg
Logotype symbolizing "a spectrum of many skills within the performing arts"
Awarded forLifetime contributions to American culture through the performing arts.
CountryU.S
Presented by Board of Trustees of the Kennedy Center
First awarded1978
Website Kennedy Center Honors
The 2006 honorees at the Kennedy Center on December 6, 2006, with President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush; from left, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Steven Spielberg, Dolly Parton, Zubin Mehta, Smokey Robinson, Vice President Dick Cheney, and Second lady Lynne Cheney Kennedy center honors 2006.jpg
The 2006 honorees at the Kennedy Center on December 6, 2006, with President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush; from left, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Steven Spielberg, Dolly Parton, Zubin Mehta, Smokey Robinson, Vice President Dick Cheney, and Second lady Lynne Cheney

The Kennedy Center Honors is an annual honor given to those in the performing arts for their lifetime of contributions to American culture. The honors have been presented annually since 1978, culminating each December in a star-studded gala celebrating the honorees in the Kennedy Center Opera House. [1]

Performing arts art forms in which artists use their body or voice to convey artistic expression

Performing arts refers to forms of art in which artists use their voices, bodies or inanimate objects to convey artistic expression. It is different from visual arts, which is when artists use paint, canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects. Performing arts include a range of disciplines which are performed in front of a live audience.

Culture of the United States culture of an area

The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western culture (European) origin and form, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American people and their cultures. It also has its own social and cultural characteristics, such as dialect, music, arts, social habits, cuisine, and folklore. The United States of America is an ethnically and racially diverse country as a result of large-scale migration from many countries throughout its history. Many American cultural elements, especially from popular culture, have spread across the globe through modern mass media.

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts United States national cultural center in Washington, D.C.

The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts is the United States National Cultural Center, located on the Potomac River, adjacent to the Watergate complex in Washington, D.C., named in 1964 as a memorial to President John F. Kennedy. Opened on September 8, 1971, the performing arts center is a multi-dimensional facility: it produces a wide array of performances encompassing the genres of theater, dance, ballet, and orchestral, chamber, jazz, popular, and folk music; offers multi-media performances for adults and children; and is a nexus of performing arts education.

Contents

History

George Stevens Jr. created the Kennedy Center Honors with the late Nick Vanoff, and produced the first gala in 1978. He was the producer and co-writer through the 2014 awards, [2] after which he sold the production rights to the Kennedy Center.

George Stevens Jr. American film director

George Cooper Stevens Jr. is an American writer, author, playwright, director and producer. He is the founder of the American Film Institute, creator of the AFI Life Achievement Award and instigator/producer of the Kennedy Center Honors. Since 2009 he has served as Co-Chairman of the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities. Accolades to date for his professional career include seventeen Emmys, eight Writers Guild awards, two Peabody Awards, the Humanitas Prize and an Honorary Academy Award.

Nick Vanoff was a dancer, producer and philanthropist.

The Kennedy Center Honors started in 1977, after that year's 10th-anniversary White House reception and Kennedy Center program for the American Film Institute (AFI). Roger L. Stevens, the founding chairman of the Kennedy Center, asked George Stevens Jr., (no relation), the founding director of the AFI, to hold an event for the Center. George asked Isaac Stern to become involved, and then "pitched" the idea to the television network CBS, who "bought it." With the announcement of the first honors event and honorees, CBS vice president for specials Bernie Sofronski stated: [3] [4]

American Film Institute Nonprofit educational arts organization devoted to film

The American Film Institute (AFI) is an American film organization that educates filmmakers and honors the heritage of the motion picture arts in the United States. AFI is supported by private funding and public membership fees.

Roger L. Stevens American theatre manager

Roger Lacey Stevens was an American theatrical producer, arts administrator, and real estate executive. He was the founding Chairman of both the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (1961) and the National Endowment for the Arts (1965).

CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles.

George [Stevens] came to us with this. What turned us on is that this is the only show of its kind. In Europe and most countries, they have ways of honoring their actors and their athletes. England has its command performances for the queen. We see this as a national honoring of people who have contributed to society, not someone who happens to have a pop record hit at the moment ... Our intention is not to do just another award show. We're going to make an effort in terms of a real special.

The first host was Leonard Bernstein in 1978, followed by Eric Sevareid in 1979 and Beverly Sills in 1980. Walter Cronkite hosted from 1981 to 2002 and Caroline Kennedy hosted from 2003 until 2012. Glenn Close hosted in 2013 and Stephen Colbert hosted from 2014 to 2016. [5] [6] There was no formal host in 2017, though Caroline Kennedy delivered an introduction. In 2018, Gloria Estefan hosted.

Leonard Bernstein American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist

Leonard Bernstein was an American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist. He was among the first conductors born and educated in the U.S. to receive worldwide acclaim. According to music critic Donal Henahan, he was "one of the most prodigiously talented and successful musicians in American history."

Eric Sevareid American journalist

Arnold Eric Sevareid was an American author and CBS news journalist from 1939 to 1977. He was one of a group of elite war correspondents who were hired by CBS newsman Edward R. Murrow and nicknamed "Murrow's Boys". Sevareid was the first to report the Fall of Paris when the city was captured by the Germans during World War II.

Beverly Sills opera soprano

Beverly Sills was an American operatic soprano whose peak career was between the 1950s and 1970s.

Ricky Kirshner and Glenn Weiss of White Cherry Entertainment were selected as Executive Producers of the 38th annual Kennedy Center Honors (2015) after George Stevens Jr. stepped down. [7]

This is one of the few awards shows that does not air live (with the exception of closed-circuit venues), but a re-edited version lasting approximately two hours is normally televised on CBS after Christmas. [8] [9]

Selection process

Honoree recommendations are accepted from the general public, [10] and the Kennedy Center initiated a Special Honors Advisory Committee, which comprises two members of the Board of Trustees as well as past Honorees and distinguished artists. The Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees selects the Honoree recipients based on excellence in music, dance, theater, opera, motion pictures or television. [11] The selections are typically announced sometime between July and September.

The events

The invitation-only weekend-long ceremony includes the Chairman's Luncheon, State Department dinner, White House reception, and the Honors gala performances and supper.

Surrounded by the Honorees, the luncheon is held on Saturday at the Kennedy Center, with a welcoming speech by the Chairman of the Board of Trustees. At that evening's reception and dinner at the State Department, presided over by the Secretary of State, the Honorees are introduced and the Honors medallions are presented by the Chairman of the Board. [11] The wide rainbow-colored ribbon then hung around the necks of the recipients, and prominently noticeable when the events are televised, symbolizes "a spectrum of many skills within the performing arts" according to creator Ivan Chermayeff. [12]

On Sunday, there is an early-evening White House reception [13] hosted by the President of the United States and the First Lady, followed by the Honors gala performance at the Kennedy Center and supper.

For the 2015 gala performance, President Barack Obama did attend after addressing the nation in a live telecast. [14] There have been four occasions where the President did not attend the gala performances: President Jimmy Carter did not attend the December 1979 gala performance during the hostage crisis, [15] President George H.W. Bush did not attend in December 1989 and President Bill Clinton did not attend in 1994. [16] [17]

On August 19, 2017, the White House announced that President Donald Trump and the first lady, Melania Trump, had decided not to participate in events honoring recipients of the 2017 Kennedy Center Honors awards to "allow the honorees to celebrate without any political distraction." [18] President and Mrs. Trump did not attend the 2017 ceremony, held on December 3, 2017. Caroline Kennedy was the hostess and presented the honorees. The traditional dinner at the State Department on the Saturday evening before the ceremony was hosted by Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and the White House reception was canceled. [19]

Recipients

2005 Kennedy Center Honorees Julie Harris, Robert Redford, Tina Turner, Suzanne Farrell, and Tony Bennett, with Former President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush, in the Blue Room at the White House, December 4, 2005. 2005 Kennedy Center honorees.jpg
2005 Kennedy Center Honorees Julie Harris, Robert Redford, Tina Turner, Suzanne Farrell, and Tony Bennett, with Former President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush, in the Blue Room at the White House, December 4, 2005.
The surviving members of Led Zeppelin were honored in 2012 and are pictured here with Former President Barack Obama. Barack Obama speaks to Led Zeppelin.jpg
The surviving members of Led Zeppelin were honored in 2012 and are pictured here with Former President Barack Obama.

There have been 217 recipients to date of the Kennedy Center Honors Awards during the Honor's 40 years (as of 2018), although the one given to Bill Cosby in 1998 was rescinded in 2018, following his sexual assault conviction. [20] The vast majority have been bestowed on individuals. On ten occasions since 1985, awards have been presented to duos or groups, including three married couples who were actors: Hume Cronyn and Jessica Tandy, Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward, and Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee. The dancers Fayard Nicholas and Harold Nicholas of the Nicholas Brothers were honored, along with three musical theater songwriting duos: Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe, Betty Comden and Adolph Green, and John Kander and Fred Ebb. The musicians of three rock groups were also awarded: Pete Townshend and Roger Daltrey of The Who, John Paul Jones, Jimmy Page and Robert Plant of Led Zeppelin, and Don Henley, Timothy B. Schmit, Joe Walsh and (posthumously) Glenn Frey of the Eagles.

The 2018 award ceremony presented the honor, for the first time, to the creators of the musical Hamilton : Lin-Manuel Miranda, Thomas Kail, Andy Blankenbuehler and Alex Lacamoire for "trailblazing creators of a transformative work that defies category." [21]

The 2019 honorees include for the first time a television program; the co-founders of Sesame Street, Joan Ganz Cooney and Dr. Lloyd Morrisett, will accept the Kennedy Center Honors on behalf of all of the creators. [22]

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000s

Kennedy Center honorees 2009 Mel Brooks, Dave Brubeck, Grace Bumbry, Robert De Niro, and Bruce Springsteen, with Former President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama in the Blue Room, White House, December 6, 2009. Kennedy Center honorees 2009 WhiteHouse Photo.jpg
Kennedy Center honorees 2009 Mel Brooks, Dave Brubeck, Grace Bumbry, Robert De Niro, and Bruce Springsteen, with Former President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama in the Blue Room, White House, December 6, 2009.

2010s

Prospective honorees who declined, canceled, or postponed

Pianist Vladimir Horowitz was to be an honoree, but the selection committee withdrew the offer when Horowitz conditioned his acceptance on being honored alone and at 4 in the afternoon. [3]

Actress Katharine Hepburn declined the committee's first offer, though she relented in 1990. [3]

Doris Day repeatedly turned down the honors because her fear of flying prevented her from attending the ceremony. [32]

When considering Irving Berlin for the 1987 awards because of criticism for overlooking him, the Center was informed that Berlin wanted to be honored only if he surpassed his 100th birthday (which would not be until May 1988). Also, he was in failing health, used a wheelchair following a series of strokes, and could not attend a public event. The Center instead chose to pay special tribute to him at the 1987 Gala. He died in 1989. [33]

Paul McCartney was selected as an honoree in 2002, but was unable to attend because of an "inescapable personal obligation," his cousin's previously planned wedding. After initially saying that McCartney's award would be postponed until the following year, the Kennedy Center announced in August 2003 that "Paul McCartney will not be receiving a Kennedy Center Honor." [34] McCartney later became a 2010 honoree. [35]

Mel Brooks has stated that he refused the honor when George W. Bush was in office, due to his distaste for Bush's Iraq policy, but Brooks was an honoree in 2009, the first year Barack Obama was President. [36] [37]

In November 2015, one month before the actual ceremony, the Eagles postponed their honors until the following year because Glenn Frey had intestinal problems that required major surgery and a long recovery period. [30] Despite their absence, they were still honored in 2015 via a performance of "Desperado" by country singer Miranda Lambert. Glenn Frey died on January 18, 2016, though the Center made him and the three surviving members 2016 honorees. [38] [29]

In 2017, Norman Lear announced that he would accept the honors, but would boycott the White House ceremony because of his opposition to President Donald Trump, citing Trump's proposal to end the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Endowment for the Arts. [39] Lear did attend the 2017 events and ceremony, but Donald and Melania Trump were not present, becoming the first U.S. presidential couple to skip the event, in order "to allow the honorees to celebrate without any political distraction". [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

Presidential Medal of Freedom Joint-highest civilian award of the United States, bestowed by the President

The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the president of the United States. The Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal are the highest civilian awards of the United States. The presidential medal seeks to recognize those people who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors". The award is not limited to U.S. citizens and, while it is a civilian award, it can also be awarded to military personnel and worn on the uniform.

Mark Twain Prize for American Humor

The Mark Twain Prize for American Humor is an American award presented by the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts annually since 1998. Named after the 19th century humorist Mark Twain, it is presented to individuals who have "had an impact on American society in ways similar to" Twain. The JFK Center chose Twain due to his status as a controversial social commentator and his "uncompromising perspective of social injustice and personal folly." A copy of Karl Gerhardt's 1884 bust of Twain is presented in an autumn ceremony taped in the Kennedy Center Concert Hall in Washington, D.C., during which the honoree is celebrated by his or her peers. The event is a significant fundraiser to benefit the Kennedy Center, which sells tickets as well as access to dinners and after-parties featuring the celebrities.

Glenn Frey American musician and actor

Glenn Lewis Frey was an American singer, songwriter, actor and founding member of the rock band the Eagles. Frey was the lead singer and frontman for the Eagles, roles he came to share with fellow member Don Henley, with whom he wrote most of the Eagles' material. Frey played guitar and keyboards as well as singing lead vocals on songs such as "Take It Easy", "Peaceful Easy Feeling", "Tequila Sunrise", "Already Gone", "James Dean", "Lyin' Eyes", "New Kid in Town", and "Heartache Tonight".

Jacques dAmboise (dancer) American dancer and choreographer

Jacques d'Amboise is an American danseur and choreographer.

"Desperado" is a song by the American rock band Eagles. It was written by Glenn Frey and Don Henley and appeared on the 1973 album Desperado as well as numerous compilation albums. Although the song was never released as a single, it is one of the group's best known songs and ranked No. 494 on Rolling Stone's 2004 list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time".

Academy of Achievement organization

The Academy of Achievement, officially known as the American Academy of Achievement, was founded in 1961 by Sports Illustrated and LIFE magazine photographer Brian Reynolds to bring together accomplished people from diverse fields in order to network and to encourage the next generation of young leaders.

The Ellis Island Medal of Honor is an American award founded by the Ellis Island Honors Society (EIHS) which are presented annually to American citizens, both native-born and naturalized.

Gershwin Prize

The Library of Congress Gershwin Prize for Popular Song is an award given to a composer or performer for their lifetime contributions to popular music. Created in 2007 by the United States Library of Congress, the prize is named after brothers George and Ira Gershwin, whose contributions to popular music included songs such as "I Got Rhythm," "Embraceable You," and "Someone to Watch Over Me," the orchestral pieces Rhapsody in Blue and An American in Paris, and the opera Porgy and Bess.

Carmen de Lavallade American dancer

Carmen de Lavallade is an American actress, dancer and choreographer.

The Governors Awards presentation is an annual award ceremony hosted by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center, in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles, California. Three awards that signify lifetime achievement within the film industry – the Academy Honorary Award, the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award, and the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award – are presented at this ceremony. The first Governors Awards ceremony was held on November 14, 2009. Prior to this, these three awards were formally presented during the main Academy Awards ceremony, which now conducts a short mention and appearance of the awards recipients after displaying a montage of the Governors Awards presentation. In the years since, the awards have gained prominence as a major red-carpet destination and industry event.

The Britannia Awards are presented by BAFTA Los Angeles, a branch of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), as "a bridge between the Hollywood and British production and entertainment business communities." Established in 1989, it honours "individuals and companies who have dedicated their careers or corporate missions to advancing the art-forms of the moving image."

Dean Spanos American football executive

Dean Alexander Spanos is the owner and Chairman of the Board for the National Football League (NFL)'s Los Angeles Chargers franchise. He is the son of Alex Spanos, who purchased majority interest of the Chargers in 1984. Spanos took over daily operations for the team from his father in 1994, becoming President and CEO, until he passed operations to his sons in 2015.

Michael Stevens was an American producer, writer and director who won seven Emmy Awards.

Mary Millben is an American singer and actress. Millben is a 2010 Helen Hayes Award Nominee, has performed in theatre across the country and been a featured soloist at the White House, the John F. Kennedy Center for Performing Arts, Major League Baseball, Off-Broadway, and headlined solo concerts at popular New York venues including Joe's Pub at The Public Theater, The City Winery and The Cutting Room.

The City Summit is an annual speaker summit, award show, and fundraising event founded by Ryan Long often held on the evening of the Grammy Awards or the Academy Awards. The ceremony honors the most successful people in various industries, including science, entertainment, business, and philanthropy. The City Gala's purpose is to support and raise awareness about solving the world's global grand challenges. The Gala's purpose is to work with startup non-profit charitable organizations.

Lone Sailor Award

The United States Navy Memorial presents a Lone Sailor Award to Sea Service veterans who have excelled with distinction in their respective careers during or after their service. The award recipients will join a list of men and women who have distinguished themselves by drawing upon their military experience to become successful in their subsequent careers and lives, while exemplifying the core values of Honor, Courage and Commitment. The Lone Sailor Award has been given out each year since the Navy Memorial was dedicated in 1987.

Glenn Weiss is an American producer and director of television and live events. He has won 14 Emmy Awards and six Directors Guild of America awards as a director and producer for various awards shows and reality shows including the Tony Awards, Kennedy Center Honors, and Academy Awards.

References

  1. "About the Honors". John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
  2. Harris, Paul (December 7, 2014). "George Stevens Jr. to End 37-Year Run as Kennedy Center Honors Producer". Variety .
  3. 1 2 3 Crews, Chip (December 27, 2005). "The Honors, Take 2". The Washington Post .
  4. Shales, Tom (September 28, 1978). "Crowning America's Culture Superstars". The Washington Post . p. B1.
  5. McGlone, Peggy (November 19, 2014). "Stephen Colbert Will Host 37th Annual Kennedy Center Honors". The Washington Post.
  6. Park, Andrea (December 27, 2016). "Kennedy Center Honors 2016". CBS News.
  7. "Tony Awards Team Chosen". The Washington Post. May 5, 2015.
  8. "Kennedy Center Honors 2017: How to Watch Online and on TV, Start Time and Pre-Show". CBS News. December 26, 2017.
  9. "2017 Honors" (PDF) (Press release). John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. December 3, 2017.
  10. "Honors". John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.
  11. 1 2 "Eagles, Carole King, George Lucas, Rita Moreno, Seiji Ozawa, and Cicely Tyson to Receive 38th Annual Kennedy Center Honors" (PDF) (Press release). John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. July 15, 2015.
  12. Chermayeff, Ivan (December 7, 2008). "Q& A: Ivan Chermayeff, Designer of the Kennedy Center Honors Medal". The Washington Post (Interview). Interviewed by Jennifer Frey.
  13. "A Vision in Blue". Mrs. O. December 4, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
  14. McGlone, Peggy (December 6, 2015). "President Obama Will Be Late to Kennedy Center Honors Performance". The Washington Post.
  15. Gamarekian, Barbara (December 3, 1979). "Kennedy Center Honors Five for Life Achievements in Arts: Audience of Over 2,000 'She Led a Revolt' White House Reception". The New York Times . p. C14. Mrs. Carter: 'As you know President Carter has had to cancel his public appearances.'
  16. McGlone, Peggy (December 6, 2015). "President Obama to Skip Kennedy Center Honors Performance". The Washington Post.
  17. Pareles, John (December 25, 1994). "Performers Receive Kennedy Center Awards". Sun-Sentinel . Fort Lauderdale.
  18. "Trump to Skip Kennedy Center Arts Award". The Washington Post. August 19, 2017.
  19. 1 2 McGlone, Peggy (December 3, 2017). "At the Kennedy Center Honors, Plenty of Politics Make Up for Trump's Playing Hooky". The Washington Post.
  20. Holloway, Daniel (May 8, 2018). "Bill Cosby's Kennedy Center Honors, Mark Twain Prize Revoked". Variety. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  21. 1 2 Gans, Andrew (July 25, 2018). "Hamilton Creators Lin-Manuel Miranda, Thomas Kail, Andy Blankenbuehler, Alex Lacamoire Will Receive Special Kennedy Center Honors". Playbill .
  22. 1 2 Gans, Andrew (July 18, 2019). "Sally Field and Linda Ronstadt Among 2019 Kennedy Center Honorees". Playbill.
  23. "Kennedy Center rescinds Bill Cosby's Honors and Twain awards". The Washington Post. May 7, 2018.
  24. "Barbara Cook, Neil Diamond, Yo-Yo Ma, Sonny Rollins & Meryl Streep to Receive 34th Annual Kennedy Center Honors". John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
  25. Gans, Andrew (September 12, 2012). "Dustin Hoffman, David Letterman, Natalia Makarova, Buddy Guy, Led Zeppelin Are Kennedy Center Honorees". Playbill. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012.
  26. Gans, Andrew (September 12, 2013). "Martina Arroyo, Herbie Hancock, Billy Joel, Shirley MacLaine and Carlos Santana Are 2013 Kennedy Center Honorees". Playbill. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013.
  27. Harris, Paul (September 4, 2014). "Tom Hanks, Lily Tomlin, Sting to Receive Kennedy Center Honors". Variety. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
  28. Viagas, Robert (July 15, 2015). "Carole King, Cicely Tyson, Rita Moreno and More Named 2015 Kennedy Center Honorees". Playbill.
  29. 1 2 "Martha Argerich, Eagles, Al Pacino, Mavis Staples, James Taylor To Receive 39th Annual Kennedy Center Honors" (PDF) (Press release). John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. June 23, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
  30. 1 2 Clark, Cindy (November 4, 2015). "Kennedy Center Postpones Honors to Eagles". USA Today .
  31. Hipes, Patrick (June 23, 2016). "Kennedy Center Honors: Al Pacino, Eagles, James Taylor & More". Deadline Hollywood .
  32. Pollock, Allen. "About Doris". DorisDay.com.
  33. Molotsky, Irvin (December 7, 1987). "Five Receive Kennedy Center Honors for Artistic Contributions". The New York Times.
  34. "The Kennedy Center Honors: This Year's Bid for Glamour". The New York Times. August 6, 2003.
  35. Trescott, Jacqueline (September 7, 2010). "Oprah Winfrey Among Five Recipients of 2010 Kennedy Center Honors". The Washington Post.
  36. "Mel Brooks on His New Box Set and the 1 Million Great Stories that Come with It". Vulture. November 13, 2012.
  37. "Mel Brooks: 'I'm An EGOT; I Don't Need Any More'". Fresh Air. May 20, 2013.
  38. Morton, Victor (January 18, 2016). "Glenn Frey, Eagles guitarist, dies at 67". The Washington Times . Retrieved January 18, 2016.
  39. Held, Amy (August 5, 2017). "Norman Lear, Kennedy Center Honoree, To Skip White House Reception In Protest". The Two-way. NPR. Retrieved July 18, 2019.